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代写英国经济学essay:国际经济专业——经济政策分析

时间:2019-03-25 10:04:57 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:未知 点击:10
导读:英国留学生经济学essay怎么写?本文是一篇国际经济专业的课程essay,在写作或者准备写作的小伙伴可以看下此篇范文,来更好的理解下次专业的作业写作规范和整个论文结构是怎么样的。内容主要讲述了目前各国正在根据市场情况调整政策。然而,穷人的经济利润最容易被忽视。
 
1.0引言
第二次世界大战以来,世界经济在半个世纪内取得了重大发展。与此同时,世界各地的富人和穷人之间也出现了巨大的差距。富人变得极其富有,而穷人几乎无法谋生。这是经济全球化进程中最突出的问题之一。
1.0 Introduction
The world economy has gained major development during the half century since the second world war. And at the same time, a huge gap occurs between the rich and the poor worldwide. Rich people becomes extremely wealthy, while the poor can hardly earn a living. This is one of the most outstanding problems in the process of economic globalization.
2.0The popular trends of the rising global inequality lie on the following points: 2.0全球不平等加剧的普遍趋势在于以下几点:
1. Less people gathers more world health. 2. There is an increase of the poverty population and a deterioration of the living condition. 3. A rising gap of average income occurs between the developing countries and developed countries. 4. The inequality of average income in developing countries has become worse. 5. Economic transformation countries face a rising income inequality.1.更少的人聚集更多的世界卫生。2。贫困人口增加,生活条件恶化。三。发展中国家和发达国家之间的平均收入差距越来越大。4。发展中国家的平均收入不平等状况越来越严重。5。经济转型国家面临着越来越严重的收入不平等。
2.1Less people gathers more world health.2.1弱势群体聚集了更多的世界卫生。
全球收入差距已经扩大到这样的程度:1996年,358名世界最富有的人拥有的财富相当于世界上一半人口年收入的总和;1998年,225名世界最富有的人(其中60人是美国)拥有的财产超过1万亿美元,相当于25亿世界最贫穷的人的工资总额。人。24万亿美元用于购买商品和服务,其中1/5的富人消费了86%的钱,而1/5的穷人只消费了1%的钱。
The global income gap has already widened to such a degree: In 1996, 358 world richest people own a wealth that is equal to the sum of world’s half populations’ annual income; In 1998, 225 world richest people (among them 60 people were America) has a property over 1 trillion $, which equals to the gross wages of the 2.5 billion world poorest people. 24 trillion $ is used to buy goods and services, 1/5 of the richest consume 86% of the money, while 1/5 of the poorest only consume 1% of the money. 
2.2There is an increase of the poverty population and a deterioration of the living condition.2.2贫困人口的增加和生活条件的恶化。
根据对最贫穷国家贫穷程度的衡量,1993年生活费用低于1美元的人口约为13亿。现在,它达到了15亿。5年内增加2亿人。90年代初,世界上有三分之一的城市居民因为缺乏就业机会而生活贫困。(Marianne Kjellen和Gordon McGranahan,2006年)。城市贫困人口的最高集中在亚洲。在所有发展中国家中,非洲城市占贫困人口的比例最高,达到41%。
According to the measurement of poverty of the poorest countries, the population of people who only had a living expenses less than 1$ is about 1.3 billion in 1993. Now, it reaches 1.5 billion. An increase of 200million happened within 5years. In the early 90’s, 1/3 of the world urban residents lived in poverty because of the lacking of job opportunities. (Marianne Kjellen and Gordon McGranahan 2006). The highest concentration of the urban poor population is in Asia. Among all the developing countries, African cities account for the highest proportion of poverty population, reaching a 41%.
2.3A rising gap of average income occurs between the industrialized countries and developing countries.
The annual report on “manpower development” of UNPD in 1996 showed that the difference of annual per-capita income between industrialized and developing  countries. From 1960 to 1993, the difference had expanded twice. In 1999, the world bank released a world development report, ranking the top 10 economic giant. America was the first. There were 48 least developed countries listed by UN, 33 among them were in the Africa, 13 were in the Asian-pacific region, the last two were in Latin America. 1/5 of the world population live in the high income countries. They occupy 86% of the GNP in the world, 82% of the EMS, 68% of the FDI, 74% of the telephone line. However, 1/5 of the world population live in the most poorest countries, they just hold 1% of the above-mentioned indicators. (Milanovic, B, 2012) 
2.4The inequality of average income in developing countries has become worse.
The expansion of the salary gap between the rich and the poor is the most serious in Latin America. In “the next 10 years development of Latin America and the national agenda” issued by the world bank in 1998, we can figure out that the minimum wage of Latin America had decreased 30%. The population below the poverty line had increased from 41% to 50%. According to official statistics, more than one half of the Mexican farmers and Indians live in grinding poverty. In Guatemala, Panama and Brazil, the income of the riches is 30 times that of the poor. To the developing countries, the 90s is an era of both poverty and growth. 
2.5Economic transformation countries face a rising income inequality.
It is a common phenomenon that economic transformation countries face a rising income inequality. The UNDP calculated that over 1 trillion world population experienced falling incomes, most of them are from eastern european countries and former Soviet Union.(Raynolds, Laura T, Murray, Douglas and Wilkinson, John, 2007) As a result of war, poverty and illness, there are 100 million more children are in danger in these two regions. 
0n February 26, 1999, the Rossiyskaya Gazeta revealed that the actual cash income of Russian residents had reduced 18% of 1997 to 1998. After the outbreak of the economic crisis, the monthly income of residents was $60, and now, the number is 40-50$. In 1998, the unpaid wages were 77 billion roubles, 1.45 times of that of 1997. In 1997, the salary gap between rich and poor had reached 9.8 times; In 1998, the number had increased to 14.5 times. The average life span of Russians decreased from 69 in 1991to 64 in 1994, even shorter than the average life expectancy for low-income countries (Brown, David, 2006).
3.0The main reasons leading to global inequality we are going to discuss are:1. The economic globalization. 2. The inequality of currency emergy. 3. The inequality of global communication relationships. 4.There is a positive connection between education and global inequality. 5. The internet revolution.
3.1 The rising global inequality is an universal phenomenon, and it is related to the economic globalization.
Economic globalization is a double blade sword, brings positive also negative effects. There are both opportunities and challenges for the developing countries. Since the 90s, the development of economic-globalization tendency not only enhances the dependence of every country development but also reduces the blocks between economic exchanges. The main forces promoting economic globalization in the world are :a. multinational corporations, which dominate the world investment, production and trade. b. International bank, controlling the world finance. Motivated by interest, they animated across ethnic and national boundaries. Recent years, capitals mainly flow to developed countries, and then to those few developing countries with rapid economic development and great market potential. However, the African countries only attract 5% of the foreign capital of the developing countries (Chris Edwards ,1985). Due to the financial crisis, some newly industrializing economies face enormous outflow of funds.  
In the process of economy integration, the cross-border flows of capital has become more frequent. It can flow to countries with a large pool of cheap labor without national support, thus, to a certain degree, asking for a national favorable tax policy and bargaining with foreign countries. No matter in domestic or foreign, only the interest of labors are sacrificed. As a consequence, the rich become richer, the poor become poorer. 
The fundamental starting point of every country has always been to consider the national interest. There exists differences between the status and situation of developing and developed countries. Developed countries still hold a dominant and initiative position, while the developing countries are just on the contrary. On the international market, developing countries are being squeezed by developed countries. Developed countries try vigorously to promote agreements that is beneficial to them in the international multilateral meetings. Although multinational corporations showed some borderless characteristics, but most multinational countries are controlled by developed countries. (Shafik, Nemat, 1994) It can be fundamentally described the interest of multinational corporations is exact the interest of developed countries. Only two countries were from developing countries in the world top 100 big companies. 
3.2The inequality of currency emergy.
A nation’s goods export and import, labor export and international travel can all help to calculate the nation’s yearly emergy wealth. If most of a country’s export are natural resources and primary products, the country will lose a large sum of emergy wealth. This is mainly because the real value of natural resources are much higher than the trading value. As the market value, currency is only used to measure the value of human labor while regardless of the use of the natural environment. (James, Paul and Gills, Barry, 2007) Different countries have different currencies, agricultural countries have higher currency rate, so a dollar is more valuable in agricultural countries than in industrialized countries. #p#分页标题#e#
In international large-scale commodity trading, the emergy of nations exporting original products is much higher than trading under the principal of equal-value exchange. On the contrary, the prices of deep processing and military products are much higher, so the exporting value of such kinds of products is equal to the value of their own. So the fact is most of the developed countries import natural resources and primary products from developing countries, and export high value-added products to accumulate wealth. Developing countries actually gain much less wealth by exporting  natural resources and primary products than their actual value. During the course of the wealth outflow, the economy is getting worse, this is why rich countries get richer and poor countries get poorer. 
3.3The inequality of global communication relationships.
The common ideal of international trade is to establish a good relationship hand in hand and create “win-win” in the corporation. International communication based on an equal and reasonable currency emergy contributes to build a peaceful coexistence international relationships. If people just want to get the most interest from trading, it is impossible to maintain an equal emergy exchange. Free trade based on market value always lead to unequal value exchange, such trade benefits the developed countries only. (Evans, G. and Newnham, J.) The fairness of trade needs to formulate a generally accepted treaty, which can adjust import and export value. Nevertheless, the unfair factors in world economic trade and international economic order form the inequality in the distribution of wealth, eventually leading to deformation of world economy--the rising global inequality.( Innis, H, 1972) 
On one side, the developed countries not only make use of the non-tarrif barrier to restrict the export of developing countries, but also take a few measures to stop developing countries to get rid of its status as a raw material exporters. (Frieden, J. and Lake, D.) Developed countries gain high profits by monopolizing high and new technology. On the other hand, the unequal exchange relations make the economic activities of developing countries under the control of developed countries. Because of the unfair financial relations, many developing countries have not been able to break away from the economic crisis and financial control transferred by developed countries. The unreasonable financial order compels developed countries buy large amount of products from developing countries with comparatively less money. Lastly, the long-developed old non-equivalent international economic relation results in the debts and poverty of developing countries. The developed countries carried vast fortune away from the developing countries, making the economic situation of developing countries worse. 
3.4There is a positive connection between education and global inequality.
Knowledge and education can make thousands of people out of poverty, also can enlarge the gap between rich and poor. The contemporary global inequality reflects the disparity of knowledge, education and technology of every country. In this technological information age, even a phone can decide the gap between the rich and poor.(McDaniel, M.A , 2008) In Latin America, phones are mainly used in big cities. Information related to nutrition, birth control and engineering construction may help millions of people get rid of poverty. Without access to these information, they would stuck in poverty and hopeless life. Generally, Millions of children are died because their parents are not informed with health common senses, so it proved that education is essential.(Ernest C. Madu) Costa Rica with only 1/10 of America’s average income undergoes a low child mortality rate which is the same level of industrialized countries. Without doubt, the reason is good education. Costa Rica continues to promote health care and disease prevention.(Thussu, D.K., 2006) 
Knowledge gap exists between developing countries and developed countries. The key point to narrow knowledge gap and improve living condition is to solve information problem. It is impossible to eliminate information problems quickly but it is possible to alleviate the contraction. Alleviating the contraction is necessary to keep a  reasonable and sustainable development.(Semati, Mehdi, 2004).It is a huge challenge for the developing countries to control the rapid development of global knowledge. Many countries attract importance to the education distribution control. Labors’ level of education determines the quality of labors. Actually, education is the most effective measure to promote equal income distribution. In terms of income distribution, strengthening education,establishing and improving education aid system will help to enhance employment competitive power. (Gittins, Ross, 2006).
3.5The internet revolution.
Recent years, the internet revolution aggravates the gap between the rich and poor. The fact that high profit internet industry provides few employment opportunity makes the wealth more concentrated. Facebook values about $100billion after its listing, while it only hire less than 3000 people. GM, as the representative of traditional manufacturing industry, with a market value of $35 billion, hiring more than 200,000 people all over the world. 
The problem of poverty has gain widespread attention. With the rising global inequality, anti-poverty has become an inevitable problem especially for developing countries. Countries have put forward various anti-poverty solutions. Before the 70s, the growth before distribution mode was adopted by many developing countries. Those countries generally believed they can get rid of poverty as long as they accelerated economic growth and become an industrialized country. (Kerbo, Harold. 2006) They put production and growth in the first place and distribution and employment the second. As a result, social diode differentiation is becoming more and more serious. For example, from 1972-1977, the poor population had increased 13.5 million. Mexico gained a 6.5% average economic growth, PGDP grew from $181 in 1950 to $661 in 1970. However, the situation of poverty turned worse. In 1970, 64% of Mexican working people can only earn a subsistence wage. Almost 2/3 of the residents have no access to medical treatment, over 1/3 of the residents lived in slums. 
Some countries represented by Sri Lankan adopted the “distribution more important than growth” mode. Before the 70s, Sri Lankan goverment spent large amount of money on grain, education and sanitation welfare allowances. Due to the huge welfare subsidies, the growth of investment was seriously affected. The long-term low growth destroyed the base of high welfare policy. The development of national economy eventually stuck into a halt. The poor population increased. Singapore, Korea and Taiwan practiced the growth and distribution pattern. This mode not only kept a long-term high growth of the economy, but also made a significant effect on eliminating poverty. The high speed development of Korea reduced the poverty incidence of this country from 40.9% in 1965 to 7.7% in 1986 and eliminated absolute poverty in rural areas. In the 80s, many developing countries trapped in a serious economy situation. Areas, especially African and Latin American countries faced a long time stagnation and decline. 
4.0Conclusion
At present, countries are adjusting policies based on market. (Grusky, David B) However, the profits of the poor are the most likely to be neglected. The main reasons are: 1. restrictive fiscal policy will damage economic growth and increase unemployment. 2. The action that government reduce the cost on social service, price subsidies and social security would be a bigger shock to the poor. 3. If government release prices under the condition of huge fiscal deficits and shrinking production, and at the same time import less, the price of goods will out of control. The poor still is the biggest victim. 
References:
1. Marianne Kjellen and Gordon McGranahan (2006). Informal Water Vendors and the Urban Poor. Human settlements discussion paper series. London:IIED. 
2. Milanovic, B. (2012). "Global Income Inequality by the Numbers: In History and Now -An Overview-". Policy Research Working Papers.
3. Raynolds, Laura T., Murray, Douglas and Wilkinson, John (2007). Fair Trade: The Challenges of Transforming Globalization. Routledge, P89-95.
4. Brown, David (2006). "Saving millions for just a few dollars". Washington: The Washington Post. 
5. Chris Edwards (1985). The fragmented world: competing perspectives on trade, money, and crisis, London and New York, P48–51.
6. Shafik, Nemat (1994). Economic development and environmental quality: an econometric analysis. Oxford Economic Papers 46 (October), P757–773.
7. James, Paul and Gills, Barry (2007). Globalization and Economy, Vol. 1: Global Markets and Capitalism. London: Sage Publications, P32.
8. Evans, G. and Newnham, J. (1998), Dictionary of International Relations; Penguin Books, P58.
9. Innis, H. (1972). Empire and communications. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, P9.
10. Frieden, J. and Lake, D.(1995) International political economy: perspectives on global power and wealth, London: Routledge, P7-9.
11. McDaniel, M.A. (2008). Book Review of: IQ and Global Inequality. Intelligence, 36, P731-732.
12. Ernest C. Madu. (1996). "Investment and Development Will Secure the Rights of the Child". London, P98.
13. Thussu, D.K. (2006). International Communication: Continuity and Change. Hodder Education. P. 224.
14. Semati, Mehdi (2004). New Frontiers in International Communication Theory. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. P. 2–3.#p#分页标题#e#
15. Gittins, Ross (2006). "How the invention of a box changed our world ". The Sydney Morning Herald. Sydney, P12.
16. Kerbo, Harold (2006). Social Stratification and Inequality: Class Conflict in Historical, Comparative, and Global Perspective, 6th edition. New York, P49.
17. Brown, David (2006). "Saving millions for just a few dollars". Washington: The Washington Post, P104. 


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