代写英国Media Research Practices essay:新数字媒体的性质及其目标受众The nature

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The nature of new digital media and its targeting audiences新数字媒体的性质及其目标受众
New digital media is a relative concept. It is a new form of media, newspapers, radio, television and other traditional media, developed later, including online media, mobile media, digital television. The new media is also a broad concept, the use of digital technology, network technology, the Internet, broadband local area networks, wireless communication networks, satellite and other channels, as well as computers, mobile phones, digital television and other terminals to provide users with information and entertainment services for propagation form. Strictly speaking, the new media should be referred to the new digital media. Digital technology as the basis of new digital media, the network as the carrier of information dissemination media, endow the authentic and mass information of new digital media. As the development of Internet, PC and mobile technology, the content and audience of have spread vastly since its appearance. As time moves to the 21st century, with the popularity of PC and mobile phone, new digital media has been achieving unprecedented popularity. It has become the major competitor of traditional TV. 
首先,它是新数字媒体的发展历史。60年代,兰德、麻省理工学院和加州大学洛杉矶分校为了研究分散性、不朽性、分组交换网络的思想,1967年国家物理实验室开发了第一个测试网络。纵观70年代阿帕网的迅速发展,由于它的分布式结构,很容易成为各种不同计算机的接入方式。1977其他网络链接到ARPANET新标准“传输控制协议(TCP)和互联网协议”。1984,美国进入国家科学基金会现场,在1986, 1988, 1990建立了快速发展的技术,通过更厚、更快的链接(万维网)更新链接、更快、更闪亮超级计算机。
Firstly, it is the development history of new digital media. In the 60 s, rand, Massachusetts institute of technology and the University of California, Los Angeles, to study the dispersion, immortality, the idea of packet switching network, and in 1967 the national physical laboratory developed the first test network. Throughout the 70 s to the rapid growth of the ARPANET easily because of its distributed structure and it became access to a variety of different computers. 1977 other web link to ARPANET new standard "transmission control protocol (TCP) and Internet protocol." In 1984, the United States entered the scene with the national science foundation, set up technology developing rapidly in 1986, 1988, 1990, update links, faster, more shining super computer through the thick, faster links(world wide web).(在1986,1988和1990年,通过繁复但更快的链接(万维网)的发展,让超级计算机和链接都有了更快的发展) Six basic network domain, abbreviations to represent their address: government (the government), military (mil), education (edu), commercial (com), organization (institution) and net, as a gateway between the networks. Vanderbilt University, said Dana Hoffman, a researcher in 2000 project, the founder of the check Internet statistics, today an estimated 33 million Americans over the age of 16 accesses to the Internet, and use it for the last three months of 22 million. On average, participants spend about six hours a week online. About 85 Internet users are in terms of gender, 90% of men and 15-10% of women. At present, the statistics show that democracy is limited, but the premise is that the computer is becoming more accessible, intellectually and financially we create a global village.
The difference between traditional TV and new digital media 
McLuhan said, the medium is the message, media technology advances in social development plays an important role in promoting. Therefore, the development of digital media communicators will be centric to the audience as the center; digital media will become a public communication, information, services, culture and entertainment, interaction in one of the multimedia information terminals. According to Laswell’s "Five W" mode, the main characteristics of digital media is as follows: 
1. Communicator diversification: Since the digital mode, unlike analog need to occupy a large space of the electromagnetic spectrum, the traditional analog channel due to monopoly "scarce" led will be broken.
2. The dissemination of the contents Quantification
3. The communication channels of interaction
4. Those who pass personalize
5. The more precise personal information tracking and analysis by more and more convenient online purchase and payment enables technology capable of viewing and predicting users behaviors.  (技术的发展让其可以更便捷和准确地跟踪和分析人们线上购买和支付情况,以至于可以让其窥探和预测用户行为。)
From the communication point of view to examine digital media, you can not treat it as a purely technical concept, and digital media should be seen as a new means of communication, digital media has changed the traditional media belonging to this sheer mass media a property not only capable of mass communication, but also for precise spread on the basis of mass communication.
The current condition of new digital media and the targeting audiences of new digital media
Completed many surveys of various organizations in the past decade or so time to prove and effect appears more and more digital media in the life of the ordinary people, especially teenagers and adults emerging. When the pew Internet and American life project survey the preferences about the technology in 2002, most people claim to give up would be their most difficult equipment fixed phone (63%), followed by television (47%), Internet (38%), and mobile phones (38%). Tracking 2007 study showed that, in contrast, more and more prominent new digital media in people's lives when most participants said they will find it most difficult to surrender mobile phones (51%), followed by the Internet (45%), television (43%) and their landline phones (40%). In the later in the query, 62% of people aged between 18 and 29 think this is the most difficult to give up a mobile phone. The Kaiser family foundation, a recent study claims that notebook computers, mobile phones and ipod by 8 to 18 years old between 2005 and 2010, "bang". Finally, madden, Ryan hart, Duggan, Cortesi, talks a lot of people found that the number of teenagers online is still fairly consistent around 95% since 2006, but now the teenagers more and surf the Internet using mobile technology. Emerging and adolescents and adults have and use a variety of new digital media equipment, their computers and mobile phones to play the most important role in the digital applications and access to a variety of cultivating social communication between peers. Although emerging more and more teenagers and adults have various types of mobile technology, desktop or notebook computer is mainly their new digital media. However, the current trend shows that more and more people in the population of the social network access to the Internet and by mobile technology including mobile phones and tablets. In fact, a report released in 2013 by the pew Internet and American life project, showed that 74% of teenagers think that they are "mobile Internet users" at least once in a while. The flow causes 42% of teenagers visit various social media sites at least several times a day girl and older teenagers were the most prolific these sites. Due to the popularity of this technology, many teenagers and emerging adults experience of strong attraction to the Internet as a "always, always available and ready to play a game, watching video or a user to connect to a network of friends and the community". In addition, teenagers and emerging adults think mobile phone is a very valuable tool to manage their communication with everyone in their life and successfully promote their social relationships. In many ways, teenagers cultivate a kind of "relationship", their mobile phones, because it provides the opportunity for them to participate in major social interactions occur in peers did not care about when and where these interactions occur. In fact, 80% of teens never turn off the phone and 84% of them has already proved that need sleep at some point in time through the new digital media constantly interaction with others. Teenagers and adults emerging use camera phones because of various reasons include (83%), listen to music play games (60%), (46%) and exchange instant messaging (31%). However, SMS has become by far the most frequent and important function of mobile phone use teenagers. Texting is dominant, in fact, is the youth to manage their social interaction. In two studies by the pew Internet and American life project complete solve texting habits of teenagers, the researchers found that 72% of teenagers send and receive SMS, 63% of people said that the U.S. army use SMS every day with other people. In this investigation, they found that moderate number of teenagers from 50 to 60 SMS sending text messages from 2009 to 2011 every day. Sending text messages a day on average the number 14 to 17 years between teenagers actually increased from 60 to 100 over the same period. So almost in the same way their computer or laptop with a constant accessibility information and social networking, mobile phone contact with their peers to them anywhere, at any time. In addition, it could be determined from these data, a new digital media's ubiquitous life of adolescents and adults. In the prevalence of these technologies in their lives is to further illustrate that they feel "lost" or "naked" cell phone. Although teens or twenties, outside of the individual may pay more attention to the speed of technological change and the potential consequences, most teenagers and emerging adults don't make much sense, because the constant contacts and information of the world is their age. Therefore, it is imperative that those of us who are "digital immigrants" and "digital natives" enter a dialogue, to reflect on the integration of new digital media is how to shape its users in both positive and negative.#p#分页标题#e#

People created a new technology is usually are eager to solve a practical problem in the world, and the invention of the hope that they could improve people's activity or experience. Despite the lack of understanding, if there is any technology, which can create some idea of the prompt the user value, activity, or as a result, should be some hypothesis and convey them to the world, since it will greatly change the way of people’s life. This is what that new digital media has been doing in the past decades. It completely changed the way people make and receive media information. (除开偏见,如果有任何技术能改变人们的价值观、行为,都可以被认为是可以改变世界的。所以,这便是new digital media 在过去的几十年里完成的所做的事情,它完全改变了人们生产和接受媒体的方式。) 
Neil Postman to prove the existence of these values and assumptions, in these values or assumptions may not always obvious innovators and early adopters, they become more evident with the development of the social customs in the way people use the specific technology. As people increasingly use for some time, its inherent values and assumptions become more entrenched in one of the world and their own understanding, until they become part of their lives beyond doubt. As with any technology, a number of important values and assumptions are with the new digital media into our life, including efficiency, immediacy and constant connectivity. New digital media is not the first technical efficiency of value, but may be most effective. In the 17th and 18th century industrial revolution initially generated a desire for efficiency in modern culture. Inventions make people more efficient in that time, their work much easier.  Postman asserts that Taylor system hypothesis "Lord, if it is not the only, goal is efficiency of labor and human thought". Although Taylor's original intention to hire his system is mainly to improve productivity in the factory, different people his methodology is applied to every aspect of human life. Individuals affected by the desire to develop a more effective method to obtain information, communicate with others, and eventually developed the many elements of the new digital media. As a result, "efficiency become the main standards of success; in other words, doing more with less money, less time and less money, fewer people, or less of the other resources".
In summary, as time moves to the 21st century, with the popularity of PC and mobile phone, new digital media has been achieving unprecedented popularity. It has become the major competitor of traditional TV, on the aspects of the development of new digital media, the differences between traditional TV and new digital media, the current condition of new digital media and the current condition of new digital media.  


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