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英格兰essay代写:The relationship between design and politics

时间:2019-07-04 10:33来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
导读:这篇英格兰essay是MAglobalmediamgnt专业的作业,主要从符号学的角度研究设计与政治的关系。当代设计的核心任务是创造符号,符号由两个层次组成:符号和设计图。当符号的设计指政治生
导读:这篇英格兰essay是MA global media mgnt专业的作业,主要从符号学的角度研究设计与政治的关系。当代设计的核心任务是创造符号,符号由两个层次组成:“符号”和“设计图”。当符号的“设计”指政治生活或政治思想,或带有政治信息时,它就成为政治符号。政治符号不仅是传递政治信息的媒介,也是表达政治情感、思想和信仰的工具,也是抽象政治存在的具体表现形式,如政治制度、政治人物、政治思想、行为或音调。
1.0 Introduction1.0引言
设计是一个通过精心规划的计划传达想象力的过程(Pellegrino,2006年)。设计是设计师进行的系统性和创造性活动(Dong等人,2015)。设计任务不仅是为生活和商业服务,还包括社会发展、政治、艺术和其他方面(Mayvan、Rasoolzadegan和Yazdi,2017年)。设计作为一个行业已经存在了50多年,在设计行业的发展过程中,设计对经济发展的重要作用越来越受到重视(Selin,2015)。大多数国家更注重设计带来的经济效益。在20世纪50年代和60年代,几乎所有西方国家都制定了适合本国的设计政策,设计开始形成一个被社会和国家认可的职业(Batu,2012年)。二战后,美国提出了“马歇尔计划”,向欧洲国家提供数亿美元和技术援助,以帮助战后欧洲复兴(Haldrup,2015年)。在这些恢复经济的计划中,设计是关键战略之一,具体实施是通过政府机构影响公共和工业设计,从而促进贸易,增加生产和出口。1944年,在政府贸易局的资助下,英国成立了英国工业设计协会(British Industrial Design Association)的官方机构,该机构结合亚洲两大经济强国日本和南方,明确提出了以设计促进经济振兴的经济战略。韩国政府的设计推广在工业发展的政治决策中发挥了重要作用(Sorokina,2012年)。设计作为文化产业的重要组成部分,在国内生产总值中所占的比重越来越突出,促进经济增长和增强综合国力以获得国际竞争力的战略地位受到了政府的高度重视。S,设计产业已成为国民经济发展的重要支撑(Danesi,2006年)。
值得注意的是,设计对政治也有巨大影响,但这种影响往往被忽视(Pellegrino,2006年)。设计的发展伴随着人类文明和文化的进步,设计可以反映时代、民族和地区的文化印记,反映政治制度和政治问题、信仰、情感和价值观的社会整体趋势(Dong等人,2015设计与政治似乎是两个非常不同的学科,但两者之间有着密切的内在联系,特别是当代政治形象的设计与一个国家的形象有着密切的联系。设计是增强国家认同和树立国家形象的必要手段(Sorokia,2012年)。设计促进了一个国家的工业和经济发展,更重要的是,设计塑造了人文精神。设计作为现代社会的一种文化交流和信息交流方式,对提高民族素质、塑造民族形象、创造政党政治平台、创造国际政治交流空间具有重要意义。
总体而言,设计对经济的重要性已经得到政府和学术界的认可和重视,而设计对政治的重要性却相对被忽视。本研究旨在探讨设计与政治的关系,分析设计对政治的重要性(Haldrup,2015)。本文首先回顾了设计、政治、符号学和传播学的相关文献,然后讨论了设计的政治象征和政治象征的传播。最后,对未来设计与政治关系的发展提出了一些建议。
Design is a process that conveys imaginations through well-planned plans (Pellegrino, 2006). Design is a systematic and creative activity carried out by designers (Dong et al., 2015). Design task is not just for life and business services, but also for social development, politics, art and other aspects (Mayvan, Rasoolzadegan and Yazdi, 2017). Design as an industry has already existed for more than 50 years, in the process of development of design industry, the important role of design for economic development has been paid more attention (Selin, 2015). Most countries pay more attention to the economic benefits brought by design. In the 1950s and 1960s, almost all Western countries have developed design policies that were suitable for their own countries, and the design began to form a profession that was recognized by a society and a state (Batu, 2012). After World War II, the United States proposed the "Marshall Plan" to provide European countries with hundreds of millions of dollars and technical assistance to help post-war European revival (Haldrup, 2015). In these plans to restore the economy, design was one of the key strategies, the specific implementation was through government agencies to influence the public and industrial design, so as to promote trade, increase production and exports. Funded by the Government Trade Bureau, Britain in 1944 established an official institution of the British Industrial Design Association, which clearly put forward the economic strategy of promoting the economic revitalization by design, considering Asia's two major economic powers: Japan and South Korea, the governments’ promotion of design played an important role in the political decision-making of industrial development (Sorokina, 2012). Design as an important part of cultural industry accounts for an increasingly prominent proportion of GDP, the strategic position for the promotion of economic growth and enhancing the comprehensive national strength to obtain international competitiveness has been paid high attention by governments, design industry has become an important support for national economic development (Danesi, 2006).
It is noteworthy that design also has a huge effect on politics, but this effect is often overlooked (Pellegrino, 2006). Development of design has been accompanied by the progress of human civilization and culture, design can reflect the cultural imprint of era, a nation and a region, and it reflects a social overall tendency about political system and political issues, beliefs, emotions and values (Dong et al., 2015. Design and politics seem to be two very different disciplines, but there is a close internal relationship between the two, especially the design of contemporary political image and the image of a country are closely related. Design is a necessary means to enhance national identity and establish a national image (Sorokina, 2012). Design promotes a country's industrial and economic development, more importantly, design shapes humanistic spirit. As a kind of cultural communication and information exchange mode in modern society, design has great significance in enhancing the quality of a nation, shaping a national image, creating the political platform of political parties and creating the international political exchange space.
In general, the importance of design for economy has been recognized and valued by governments and academics, and the importance of design for politics is relatively neglected. The purpose of this study is to discuss the relationship between design and politics and analyze the importance of design for politics (Haldrup, 2015). This study first reviews the relevant literatures on design, politics, semiotics and communication, and then it discusses the political symbolization of design and the spread of political symbols. Finally, it puts forward some recommendations on the future development of relationship between design and politics.
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Design and semiotics
Contemporary world has entered the era taking visual images as the center (Selin, 2015). And in activities of people’s conscious transformation of the world, a variety of ideologies and spiritual content form and participate in, symbols is the carrier of the ideological and spiritual connotation. People's social life and production is a symbolic process, these processes and symbolized activities can be interpreted through relevant symbol systems. A symbol can be a thing, a kind of idea, or a kind of emotion. From the perspective of design, the form of a design product itself represents a symbolic meaning, and the thought and culture of design works can be seen as a mark of another symbol (Dong et al., 2015). In addition to the function of use, design works also has a certain spiritual function, design not only meets the physiological needs of people, but also meet people's psychological and spiritual needs. Philosophy and cultural traditions throughout the daily thinking and behavior can be disseminated through design and metaphor relying on visual symbols.
2.2 Semiotics and politics
It is an important duty of a government to disseminate political knowledge, political values, political values and political rules and policies through appropriate channels to members of a society, making them have corresponding political awareness, political affection, political attitudes and political tendencies (Sorokina, 2012). And political symbols play an important role in the spread of political culture, a government can make use of appropriate design to improve the influence of political symbols and social acceptance of political symbols.
The core task of contemporary design is the creation of symbols, symbols consist of two levels: signans and designatum, signans is the material appearance or body of a symbol; designatum is the value connotation or contents of a symbol (Blaim, 1994). When designatum of a symbol involves political life or political ideas, or carries a political message, it becomes a political symbol (Chvatík, 1986). Political symbols are not only a medium for the transmission of political information, but also a tool for expressing political emotions, thoughts and beliefs, and a concrete manifestation of abstract political existence such as political system, political figures, political ideas, acts or attitudes (Batu, 2012). Such as the important representative of the pre-Qin bronze: tripod, it was originally a kind of feeder, in the slave society, it evolved into a symbol of power.


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