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英格兰essay指导:The relationship between design and politics

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-07-04 10:33:31 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
导读:这篇英格兰essay是MA global media mgnt专业的作业,主要从符号学的角度研究设计与政治的关系。当代设计的核心任务是创造符号,符号由两个层次组成:“符号”和“设计图”。当符号的“设计”指政治生活或政治思想,或带有政治信息时,它就成为政治符号。政治符号不仅是传递政治信息的媒介,也是表达政治情感、思想和信仰的工具,也是抽象政治存在的具体表现形式,如政治制度、政治人物、政治思想、行为或音调。
1.0 Introduction1.0引言
设计是一个通过精心规划的计划传达想象力的过程(Pellegrino,2006年)。设计是设计师进行的系统性和创造性活动(Dong等人,2015)。设计任务不仅是为生活和商业服务,还包括社会发展、政治、艺术和其他方面(Mayvan、Rasoolzadegan和Yazdi,2017年)。设计作为一个行业已经存在了50多年,在设计行业的发展过程中,设计对经济发展的重要作用越来越受到重视(Selin,2015)。大多数国家更注重设计带来的经济效益。在20世纪50年代和60年代,几乎所有西方国家都制定了适合本国的设计政策,设计开始形成一个被社会和国家认可的职业(Batu,2012年)。二战后,美国提出了“马歇尔计划”,向欧洲国家提供数亿美元和技术援助,以帮助战后欧洲复兴(Haldrup,2015年)。在这些恢复经济的计划中,设计是关键战略之一,具体实施是通过政府机构影响公共和工业设计,从而促进贸易,增加生产和出口。1944年,在政府贸易局的资助下,英国成立了英国工业设计协会(British Industrial Design Association)的官方机构,该机构结合亚洲两大经济强国日本和南方,明确提出了以设计促进经济振兴的经济战略。韩国政府的设计推广在工业发展的政治决策中发挥了重要作用(Sorokina,2012年)。设计作为文化产业的重要组成部分,在国内生产总值中所占的比重越来越突出,促进经济增长和增强综合国力以获得国际竞争力的战略地位受到了政府的高度重视。S,设计产业已成为国民经济发展的重要支撑(Danesi,2006年)。
值得注意的是,设计对政治也有巨大影响,但这种影响往往被忽视(Pellegrino,2006年)。设计的发展伴随着人类文明和文化的进步,设计可以反映时代、民族和地区的文化印记,反映政治制度和政治问题、信仰、情感和价值观的社会整体趋势(Dong等人,2015设计与政治似乎是两个非常不同的学科,但两者之间有着密切的内在联系,特别是当代政治形象的设计与一个国家的形象有着密切的联系。设计是增强国家认同和树立国家形象的必要手段(Sorokia,2012年)。设计促进了一个国家的工业和经济发展,更重要的是,设计塑造了人文精神。设计作为现代社会的一种文化交流和信息交流方式,对提高民族素质、塑造民族形象、创造政党政治平台、创造国际政治交流空间具有重要意义。
总体而言,设计对经济的重要性已经得到政府和学术界的认可和重视,而设计对政治的重要性却相对被忽视。本研究旨在探讨设计与政治的关系,分析设计对政治的重要性(Haldrup,2015)。本文首先回顾了设计、政治、符号学和传播学的相关文献,然后讨论了设计的政治象征和政治象征的传播。最后,对未来设计与政治关系的发展提出了一些建议。
Design is a process that conveys imaginations through well-planned plans (Pellegrino, 2006). Design is a systematic and creative activity carried out by designers (Dong et al., 2015). Design task is not just for life and business services, but also for social development, politics, art and other aspects (Mayvan, Rasoolzadegan and Yazdi, 2017). Design as an industry has already existed for more than 50 years, in the process of development of design industry, the important role of design for economic development has been paid more attention (Selin, 2015). Most countries pay more attention to the economic benefits brought by design. In the 1950s and 1960s, almost all Western countries have developed design policies that were suitable for their own countries, and the design began to form a profession that was recognized by a society and a state (Batu, 2012). After World War II, the United States proposed the "Marshall Plan" to provide European countries with hundreds of millions of dollars and technical assistance to help post-war European revival (Haldrup, 2015). In these plans to restore the economy, design was one of the key strategies, the specific implementation was through government agencies to influence the public and industrial design, so as to promote trade, increase production and exports. Funded by the Government Trade Bureau, Britain in 1944 established an official institution of the British Industrial Design Association, which clearly put forward the economic strategy of promoting the economic revitalization by design, considering Asia's two major economic powers: Japan and South Korea, the governments’ promotion of design played an important role in the political decision-making of industrial development (Sorokina, 2012). Design as an important part of cultural industry accounts for an increasingly prominent proportion of GDP, the strategic position for the promotion of economic growth and enhancing the comprehensive national strength to obtain international competitiveness has been paid high attention by governments, design industry has become an important support for national economic development (Danesi, 2006).
It is noteworthy that design also has a huge effect on politics, but this effect is often overlooked (Pellegrino, 2006). Development of design has been accompanied by the progress of human civilization and culture, design can reflect the cultural imprint of era, a nation and a region, and it reflects a social overall tendency about political system and political issues, beliefs, emotions and values (Dong et al., 2015. Design and politics seem to be two very different disciplines, but there is a close internal relationship between the two, especially the design of contemporary political image and the image of a country are closely related. Design is a necessary means to enhance national identity and establish a national image (Sorokina, 2012). Design promotes a country's industrial and economic development, more importantly, design shapes humanistic spirit. As a kind of cultural communication and information exchange mode in modern society, design has great significance in enhancing the quality of a nation, shaping a national image, creating the political platform of political parties and creating the international political exchange space.
In general, the importance of design for economy has been recognized and valued by governments and academics, and the importance of design for politics is relatively neglected. The purpose of this study is to discuss the relationship between design and politics and analyze the importance of design for politics (Haldrup, 2015). This study first reviews the relevant literatures on design, politics, semiotics and communication, and then it discusses the political symbolization of design and the spread of political symbols. Finally, it puts forward some recommendations on the future development of relationship between design and politics.
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Design and semiotics
Contemporary world has entered the era taking visual images as the center (Selin, 2015). And in activities of people’s conscious transformation of the world, a variety of ideologies and spiritual content form and participate in, symbols is the carrier of the ideological and spiritual connotation. People's social life and production is a symbolic process, these processes and symbolized activities can be interpreted through relevant symbol systems. A symbol can be a thing, a kind of idea, or a kind of emotion. From the perspective of design, the form of a design product itself represents a symbolic meaning, and the thought and culture of design works can be seen as a mark of another symbol (Dong et al., 2015). In addition to the function of use, design works also has a certain spiritual function, design not only meets the physiological needs of people, but also meet people's psychological and spiritual needs. Philosophy and cultural traditions throughout the daily thinking and behavior can be disseminated through design and metaphor relying on visual symbols.
2.2 Semiotics and politics
It is an important duty of a government to disseminate political knowledge, political values, political values and political rules and policies through appropriate channels to members of a society, making them have corresponding political awareness, political affection, political attitudes and political tendencies (Sorokina, 2012). And political symbols play an important role in the spread of political culture, a government can make use of appropriate design to improve the influence of political symbols and social acceptance of political symbols.
The core task of contemporary design is the creation of symbols, symbols consist of two levels: signans and designatum, signans is the material appearance or body of a symbol; designatum is the value connotation or contents of a symbol (Blaim, 1994). When designatum of a symbol involves political life or political ideas, or carries a political message, it becomes a political symbol (Chvatík, 1986). Political symbols are not only a medium for the transmission of political information, but also a tool for expressing political emotions, thoughts and beliefs, and a concrete manifestation of abstract political existence such as political system, political figures, political ideas, acts or attitudes (Batu, 2012). Such as the important representative of the pre-Qin bronze: tripod, it was originally a kind of feeder, in the slave society, it evolved into a symbol of power.#p#分页标题#e#
Political symbols are widely used to achieve political identification, communication, expression of authority and decision-making legalization, as well as other political strategies, through the meaning and emotion of the symbolic behavior to purposefully instill political awareness, political values and political habits to stimulate individual enthusiasm and loyalty for political groups (Haldrup, 2015).
2.3 Design and political symbols
The political symbols and communication of design art under the background of globalization have the important role of strengthening national political and cultural concept, as well as building a national image (Sorokina, 2012). Culture is a national state of mind and cohesion. Political culture is the cohesion of national core values, political culture dissemination is an important means of political socialization (Danesi, 2006). A society spreads universal political knowledge, political values, political values, and political rules through a proper way and the people of a society to a new generation of members of society, making them have political awareness, political affection, political attitudes and political tendencies. Political symbols have important political symbolic significance in social life and play an important role in the direction of political culture dissemination. In a political society, the influence of design on politics comes from the acceptance of the meaning of symbolic products. Under the rapid development of contemporary media and information technology, the rich and varied dissemination medium, intercultural, cross-linguistic, cross-racial design language symbols make communication more smooth, the spread function of political symbols has become increasingly powerful.
3.0 Discussion
3.1 Design of political symbols
Batu (2012) point out that design can create symbols and give symbols connotation to convey some kind of information to people and a society. In political field, there are many cases of conveying political information through design, but it is worth noting that the political symbols of design works is not only reflected in the transmission of political ideals, values, national identity and other information, but also reflected in some social movements and trends with political meaning, such as: feminization movement and so on (Sorokina, 2012).
3.2 Design and political values
In the American War of Independence, it established an independent country of American nation  (Danesi, 2006).This new nation was not based on the language, the cultural traditions, the historical territory and the common ancestry, but was based on the highly recognized beliefs of its own political system, namely, the values of political principles such as freedom, equality, human rights, and the rule of law (Batu, 2012). Before the War of Independence, the architectural style of the United States was deeply influenced by that of the United Kingdom. After the War of Independence, the architectural design of the United States was clearly integrated into the ancient Roman art style and gradually formed the design features of American architecture. For example, the Virginia State Capitol and the University of Virginia were built by referring to the shape of the ancient Roman temple design and the features of the ancient Roman temples; in the mid-19th century, the reconstruction of the Capitol was modeled on the design of the Pantheon in Paris (Mayvan, Rasoolzadegan and Yazdi, 2017). This architectural design has become an obvious political symbol that implies the US government's recognition and reverence for the democracy and glory of the Roman Republic (Haldrup, 2015). The architectural design expresses to the American people and the people of the world the political ideal of pursuit of freedom and democracy in the United States.
 
Figure 1: American Capitol
 
3.3 Design and political ideal
After China's Revolution in 1911, then the president of Sun Yat-sen believed that Western-style clothes could not be a good representative of the revolutionary spirit of the Chinese people, Sun Yat-sen personally designed the suits integrating the characteristics of Western-style clothes with Western uniforms clothing, as well as his own political ideal, it was known as "Zhongshan national dress" (referred to as Chinese tunic suit) (Haldrup, 2015). The clothing style and components are rich in profound political connotation: the stand collar is the symbol of the rise of the nation; the four pockets are on behalf of ritual, honor and disgrace; the front five buttons symbolize separation of five powers: administration, legislation, justice, examination, supervision; the three buttons of each sleeve are on behalf of the nation, civil rights, people's livelihood, showing distinctive national characteristics. The design of the tunic shows a clear political symbol, which embodies the political system, national traits and political ideals of the Chinese government at that time. The tunic is not only one of the most successful fashion designs in Chinese history, and its political implications have been recognized and accepted by the majority of the Chinese nation, until today, the tunic is one of the clothing worn most by Chinese leaders and people in formal occasions (Danesi, 2006).
 
Figure 2: Chinese tunic suit
3.4 Design and national identity
After the Second World War, in the early establishment of a nation-state, the establishment of national identity was very difficult and urgent, and most of the governments at that time chose to restore and strengthen the people’s cognition of national spirit and tradition through design (Mayvan, Rasoolzadegan and Yazdi, 2017). For example, Iraq is rich in oil, becoming the most prominent country in the Middle East. Iraqi nationalist sentiment also increased to put forward the needs for the revival of regional culture in term of architectural design, so a series of excellent architectural design works reflecting "modern Arab" appeared(Selin, 2015). For example, the architectural design of the headquarters of the Iraqi tobacco monopoly was clearly affected by the traditional temples of Iraq, the building also had a significant impact on the buildings of the same period in the other Arab countries; Egyptian architect Fathy, the Thai architect Jumsai, the Sri Lanka architect Bawa were the famous architects of this period, they used their own design works to build a political symbol, strengthening the people’s national identity (Batu, 2012).
 
Figure 3: Headquarters of the Iraqi Tobacco Monopoly 
3.5 Design and feminism
Feminism is a political theory that challenges patriarchy to demand equality between men and women. Feminism view holds that women's status is the best scale to measure the degree of a national civilization. In the patriarchal era, women’s passive characteristics in the face of violence were molded into the virtues of women in the works of art. In 1952, the largest coffee brand in the United States used the content that a man was beating his wife as the ads, which was published in the magazine with the largest circulation. This design became a symbol of patriarchalism, indicating that beating wives was a normal act, revealing the attitude of the American society towards women in the 1950s.
With the development and progress of a society, the status of women has been improved, the awareness of women's rights has begun to be improved, and the design works appeared in the society provided the motive force for the further improvement and development of feminine consciousness (Haldrup, 2015). Taking the clothing designer named Chanel as an example, she designed simple and neat Chanel clothing, which led to women's rethinking for fashion demand  (Selin, 2015). Her clothing reflects the pursuit of free and comfortable features, and it is easy for women’s riding, traveling and sports and participating in other social activities, it give women action and spiritual freedom; she also subversively introduced male fashion elements into women's fashion design, giving women strong and independent temperament; her design changed the aesthetic norms that feminine dress should be based on male point of view, Chanel became a symbol of feminism to convey to the community that it requires the pursuit of women's equality and other strong information.
 
Figure 4: Chanel’s feminism Clothing 
3.5 Summary 
Considering from the above cases and the semiotic point of view, purposeful and exquisite design allows works to be able to carry some kind of political information and become political symbols (Blaim, 1994), the political symbols represent the pursuit of the United States for democracy, freedom, equality and other political values, the Chinese government and people’s political ideals for democracy and a rich country, pride and identity of the people of all nationalities for national culture and national sovereignty. Chanel's costume design shows women's desire for pursuing equality, showing social respect for women, as well as social and political civilized progress.
4.0 Spread of political symbols of design 
4.1 Transmission of images of leaders
When "designatum" of a symbol involves political life or political ideas, or it carries certain political message, it becomes a political symbol. Political symbols are not only a medium for the transmission of political information, but also a tool for expressing political emotions, thoughts and beliefs, and a concrete manifestation of abstract political existence such as political system, political figures, political ideas, acts or attitudes. The political semantics in design do not naturally formed, but are obtained by linking symbols with cultural experience or other symbols. The interpretation of political symbols conveys political values and political ideas. American graphic political advertising often appears in the form of posters and logo design, which is an effective visualization of political symbols, the most influential and the most typical political advertising should be the American presidential election advertising. The media war of the presidential election has existed for a long history, including Clinton, Bush and other US presidents have successfully shaped an ideal image of the president through the design of advertising. In 2004, the US presidential nominees spent $ 1 billion for information dissemination; in 2008, Obama campaigned for president, and he became the country's third largest "advertiser", just during four months, he spent $ 250 million; AlGA (American Graphic Design Association) designed the ballot for the US Democratic Party in the election for Assistance Committee, "design for democracy" has become an important part of American politics. In 2008, a Chicago graphic designer designed the Obama campaign logo and ultimately determined the "O" image, which was easy to be used and derivative, and it was known as the most recognizable politics logo to help Obama to win in the election. Logo design contained Obama's political beliefs and a variety of ideological meanings, and it took the American symbols: red and blue to interpret the political beliefs of the Obama regime for hope and change, which has exciting visual effects on the United States in the difficult times and it finally became a symbol of "new" social movement, which fully embodied the political function of design symbols.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Figure 5: Obama Logo for the presidential election in 2008 
4.2 Communicating political information
Bacon (1974) believed that national flag, national emblem, important buildings, etc., are symbols of political symbols used to convey national political philosophy, they contain the "national impression" and "national image" of a country's history, culture, politics and other factors, they are visual design of a country. Papanck (1985) argued that the image of a country is a combination of a country's own cognition for itself and the cognition of other actors in the international system for itself. Considering information transmission, "national image" is paid a high degree of attention in the field of design, and it is affected by the two inside and outside factors: the national sectors’ cognition for their own and international changes (Kevin, 2001). The image design of a country is the interpretation and dissemination of the values embodied in the government's political image"(Wartenberg, 2002). Square of the Three Powers " is one of the landmark buildings in Brazil, it is located in the center of Brasilia and it consists of three independent standing buildings - legislative, administrative and judicial buildings, which are on behalf of the three powers of the country: congress, the presidential palace, the supreme court, showing a strong symbolic and political metaphor. The chamber of the House of Representatives uses a bowl-shaped body to symbolize listing to what the public requires. The shape of the senate conference hall likes an inverted bowl, which is a symbol of comprehensive "public" requirements to make them "focus". The "H" building after the conference hall is taken from the first letter of "human" in Portuguese, symbolizing the concept of the "people-oriented", spreading the idea that "Congress is the people's own congress", The visual construction and expression of the political system of separation of powers and political characteristics are achieved in the form of architectural symbols (Lavin, 2001). Political symbolic design work uses abstract, symbolic and other means to express political emotions and concepts, and ultimately with a political symbol of identity to exceed beyond the meaning of a design work itself (Margolin, 1989). 
 
Figure 6: Square of the Three Powers in Brasilia 
4.3 Transmission of erroneous information by improper design
In the World Expo in China in 2010, design of the Chinese pavilion was criticized in the choice of political symbols, it was considered that the design not only failed to reflect the characteristics of making intimate association with people, but a great symbol of national authority (Dong et al., 2015). Compared with other national pavilions, the volume of the Chinese pavilion is too large, which completely goes beyond the principle of humanism that it should take human body as the standard, at the same time, the changed building structure expresses great oppression, creating a sense of tension, it forms visual threat for visitors. The red color rooted in the Forbidden City of Beijing is also a symbol of emperor power, in the Chinese folk, red, of course, has auspicious meaning and meaning of closing to people, but when this tone and exaggerated building are integrated together, it is far away from the people and the equal rights. The pavilion is more like the continuation of the imperial culture in China, it has majestic momentum, but it can not express the real theme of the Expo, nor does it represent the modern social ideology of transition to a pluralistic political culture (Dong et al., 2015).
 
Figure 7: China Pavilion of Expo in 2010 
4.4 Summary
Judging from the transmission of political symbols of design, one of the purposes of design is to make the political information expressed by political symbols be more easily understood by the public and make it have political awareness, political sentiments, political attitudes and political tendencies. In the US presidential election, the use of the design of reasonable political symbols allowed the public to better understand and accept the image of the leaders, so as to allow the public to vote more for the leaders. The Brazilian parliamentary architectural design expresses their political ideology of separation of powers, so that Brazilian and the people of the world have a better understanding of their country's political system, and unreasonable design allows China’s pavilion to express erroneous political information during the Expo, causing public resentment and criticism.
5.0 Future politics and design
5.1 Link with each other more closely
With the advent of the information age, especially the emergence of the Internet, governments, business groups and terrorist organizations, without exception, make the use of global information systems to promote their political goals, so as to win the support of international public opinion Barnard, 2005). The former US Defense Secretary divided international political power into hard forces that represent military, material forces and soft power representing the ideology, culture, moral demands (Haldrup, 2015). Soft power relies on cultural attraction, thought and morality, and specific value standards, so that certain codes of conduct, values and political systems gain greater social influence and support from people (Aulich, 1999). With the recognition of the importance of soft power, there will be more and more behavior and the case of creating political symbols through design to achieve political purposes, compared with in the past, the future relationship between design and politics will become more and more close (Carpenter, 1964; Mead, 1967), because design can produce more politically accepted political symbols, political symbols as a soft force can better attract and persuade the target crowd, in order to achieve political goals (Barnard, 2005; Lewer, 2006).
5.2 Link with each other more subtly 
In the future society, the influence of design on politics comes from the acceptance of the meaning contained in symbolic products (Sorokina, 2012). With the rapid development of contemporary media and information technology, information communication between the public will become increasingly convenient, the concept of public equality, democracy and rights is more and more rooted in-depth, and people’s resistance towards authority in the post-modern society makes political symbols with too strong political meaning unable to be accepted by the public (Haldrup, 2015). The interaction between design and politics will become more covert and complicated (Dong, et al., 2015). Design is no longer taken as a simple political propaganda, design with clear political intentions may not have a very good publicity effect (Bonnell, 1999; Rogers, 2001;), future political symbol design may seem to have no political color on the surface, but in a subtle way, it transmits values, national image, leadership qualities and other political factors to the public.
5.3 Please the public
With the end of the Cold War and the development of the world economy, the threat of war and political struggles faced by all countries are declining (Batu, 2012). Most countries have entered the commercialized society taking economic development as the main task (Haldrup, 2015). In a commercial society, companies need to take into consumer preferences and needs to develop promotional strategies, political propaganda should follow the same way (Danesi, 2006). Thus future design and politics must also combine with the public hobby, fashion, and other factors, in order to play the role of propagating political ideas.
6.0 Conclusion
This study mainly studies the relationship between design and politics from the perspective of semiotics. The core task of contemporary design is to create symbols, a symbol constituted by two levels: "signans" and "designatum". When "designatum" of a symbol refers to political life or political ideas, or it carries a political message, it becomes a political symbol. Political symbols are not only a medium for the transmission of political information, but also a tool for expressing political emotions, thoughts and beliefs, as well as a concrete manifestation of abstract political existence such as political system, political figures, political ideas, acts or attitudes.
From the perspective of the political symbols of design, purposeful and exquisite design allows work to convey some kind of political information and become a political symbol, political symbols can represent political values, political ideals, pride and identity for national culture and national sovereignty, even feminism and so on.
Considering from the transmission of political symbols of design, one of the purposes of design is to make the political information expressed by political symbols be more easily understood by the public, giving them political cognition, political emotion, political attitude and political tendencies. Reasonable political symbol design can make the public better understand and accept the image of leaders to have a better understanding of a country's political system, and unreasonable design makes political symbols convey wrong political information to cause public resentment and criticism.
Development of the relationship between design and politics in the future is reflected in three aspects. First, the relationship between design and politics will become more and more close, and politics will rely more on design to create more influential political symbols. Second, the interaction between design and politics will become more subtle and complex. Finally, the combination of design and politics must be combined with public hobbies, fashion, and other factors in order to better play the role of propaganda of political concepts.#p#分页标题#e#
 
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