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妇女与环境有着特殊的关系Women have a special relationship with the envir

时间:2019-08-15 10:51来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
1.0 Introduction介绍 随着人们对环境污染和气候变化危险的认识日益加深,以及人们越来越重视人类社会的环境保护,人们在各种关系中重新审视了环境与人类社会的关系。在人类社会与环境之间
1.0 Introduction介绍
随着人们对环境污染和气候变化危险的认识日益加深,以及人们越来越重视人类社会的环境保护,人们在各种关系中重新审视了环境与人类社会的关系。在人类社会与环境之间,妇女与环境的关系受到关注和研究(Shah和Shah,1995:75;Roucheleau,Thomas Slayter,Wangari,1996:103)。原因是女性与环境有着特殊的关系。这种特殊关系不仅反映了妇女对环境保护的重视,还涉及到妇女对自身权利、自身责任和社会分工、妇女的性别优势等诸多方面的重新认识(Paddock,2017:102;AgrawaL,1992:119;Roucheleau,Thomas Slayter,Wangari,1996:103),了解妇女与环境的特殊关系对更好地发挥妇女在环境保护中的作用具有非常重要的作用。本研究旨在分析女性与环境的具体关系,在此基础上探讨如何更好地发挥女性在环境保护中的重要作用。本文首先从六个方面介绍了妇女与环境的特殊关系,然后分析了当前条件下妇女与环境的特殊关系存在的不足,最后提出了如何发挥其重要作用的建议。妇女在环境保护中的作用。
With the increasing recognition of environmental pollution and the dangers of climate change, as well as the increasing emphasis placed on environmental protection by human society, the relationship between the environment and human society has been re-examined by people, in various relationships between human society and the environment, the relationship between women and the environment has received attention and research (Shah and Shah, 1995: 75; Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter, Wangari, 1996: 103). The reason is that women have a special relationship with the environment. This special relationship not only reflects women’s attention to environmental protection, but also involves women’s re-understanding of their rights, their own responsibilities and social division of labor, the gender advantage of women, as well as many other aspects (Paddock, 2017:102; Agarwal, 1992:119; Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter, Wangari, 1996: 103), understanding the special relationship between women and the environment plays a very important role in the better play of women's role in environmental protection. This study aims to analyze the specific relationship between women and the environment, based on these analyses to explore how to better play an important role of women in environmental protection. This article first introduces the special relationship between women and the environment from six aspects, then analyzes some deficiencies in the special relationship between women and the environment under the current conditions, and finally, it puts forward suggestions on how to play an important role of women in environmental protection.
 
2.0 A Special relationship between women and the environment妇女与环境的特殊关系
2.1 Ecological feminism and environmental protection生态女性主义与环境保护
沃伦在《生态女权主义的权力和承诺》中提到,环境的退化和资源的开发是女权主义的主题,因为了解它们有助于了解妇女的受压迫状态(Roucheleau,Thomas Slayter,Wangari,1996:110)。例如,在印度,通过引入单一树种进行森林开发和重新造林是商业生产的所有女权主义主题,因为土著森林和多种树种的消失完全影响了印度农村妇女的生存。为了维持家庭的生存。原生森林提供各种树木作为食物、燃料、饲料、家用器具、染料和草药以及创收用途。但是,单一树种不能满足这些要求(Agarwal,1992:15;Shah和Shah,1995:82)。
Warren mentioned in the power and commitment of eco-feminism that the degradation of the environment and the exploitation of resources are topics of feminism, because understanding them helps to understand the oppressed status of women (Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter, Wangari, 1996:110). For example, in India, forest exploitation and reforestation through the introduction of single tree species are for commercial production all feminist topics because the disappearance of indigenous forests and multi-tree species has completely affected the survival of Indian rural women’s ability to maintain the survival of their families. Native forests provide a variety of trees for use as food, fuel, feed, household utensils, dyes, and herbs, as well as income-generating uses. However, single tree species cannot meet these requirements (Agarwal, 1992:15; Shah and Shah, 1995:82).
2.2 Women's social division of labor and environmental protection妇女社会分工与环境保护
生态女权主义、社会化和社会分工理论都认为,女性先天或后天的环境意识使她们更容易支持解决环境问题,参与解决环境问题(Griffin,1978:33;鲁切洛,托马斯·斯莱特,旺加里,1996:103)。生态女权主义认为,人类对自然的统治和压迫等同于男性对女性的支配和压迫,自然成为女性的话题(P_rez ter_n,2017:487)。在西方文明史上,自然被认为是一个没有发言权、被征服和统治的人,它被迫成为人类发展的目标,为人民服务。然而,人类的需求往往与自然自身的需求背道而驰(Roucheleau、ThomasSlayter和Wangari,1996:103)。与自然在人类社会中的地位相似,在父权统治下,妇女代表着人类社会中的其他人。他们被迫在公共事务中保持沉默,成为二等公民。现代西方工业文明的建立,不仅加深了对自然的压迫,而且加深了对妇女的压迫(Shah和Shah,1995:75;Agarwal,1997:1)。因此,当妇女反抗对生态的破坏和尴尬时,自然会认识到男性权力统治在对妇女和自然的压迫中所起的类似作用。妇女争取解放,必须把拯救地球的斗争作为自己的责任。女性的出路和自然的出路是常见的(P_rez ter_n,2017:500;Roucheleau、Thomas Slayter和Wangari,1996:110)。
The theory of ecological feminism, socialization and social division of labor both believe that women’s congenital or acquired environmental awareness makes it easier for them to support the solution of environmental problems and participate in the solution of environmental problems  (Griffin, 1978:33; Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter, Wangari, 1996: 103). Eco-feminism believes that human beings’ rule and oppression over nature is tantamount to men's domination and oppression of women, making it naturally a topic of women (Pérez-Terán, 2017: 487). In the history of Western civilization, nature is regarded as a person who has no right to speak and is conquered and ruled, it is forced to become a target of human development and serve people. However, human needs often run counter to nature's own needs (Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter and Wangari, 1996: 103). Similar to the status of nature in human society, women represent other people in the human society under patriarchal rule. They are forced to silence in public affairs and become second-class citizens. The establishment of modern western industrial civilization has not only deepened the oppression towards nature, but has also deepened the oppression to women (Shah and Shah, 1995:75; Agarwal, 1997:1). So when women act against the devastation and embarrassment to ecology, it is natural to realize the similar role that the rule of male power plays in oppression to both women and nature. When women fight for their emancipation, they must regard the struggle for saving the earth as their own responsibility. The way out for women and the way out for nature are common (Pérez-Terán, 2017: 500; Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayter and Wangari, 1996: 110).
2.3 Benefits of women's participation in environmental protection
2.3.1 Psychological benefits
In the process of environmental protection, women's body and mind have been developed. First, women's physical health is maintained. Environmental pollution has a greater harm to women and it even affects women's gestation of the next generation. Women participate in environmental protection from the micro level of their families and communities, as well as they protect their environment, which have significant benefits for the health of women themselves and their families (Paddock, 2017:110). Second, women can obtain psychological satisfaction. A beautiful environment makes women's spirits cleansed; women do an excellent job of environmental protection through hard work, and allow people to enjoy the clean air and beautiful environment, making them have a higher sense of accomplishment (Macgregor, 2004:56; Banerjee, 2003:143).
2.3.2 Opportunities to play the roles of women’s talents
Women's social network is expanded in the process of environmental protection. In the process of environmental protection, women can make many like-minded friends and share their experiences in environmental protection to have mutual spiritual support and encouragement (Paddock, 2017:110). The sisterhood friendship between these environmentally-conscious women is beneficial to women's adherence to their beliefs, ensuring that they continue to follow trivial environmental protection work and can further influence other people (Macgregor, 2004:56). At the same time, a considerable number of women usually handle household chores in their own homes. They rarely have the opportunity to participate in public affairs, make spiritual friends, and have partners in their careers, as a useful public service, environmental protection can provide such opportunities for women (Macgregor, 2004:84).
2.3.3 Improvement of women’s abilities
In the process of participating in environmental protection, women's cultural level and ability can be improved. In the process of environmental protection, women have increased their awareness of environmental protection by being promoted and promoting. At the same time, their own awareness of environmental protection has been improved, and their own cultural levels have also risen unconsciously. In addition, the ability of women to handle things will also be increased (Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayte and Wangari, 1996: 103). For example, activities as launching and organizing general public participation in environmental protection, contacting manufacturers, and organizing specific aspects of environmental protection all require certain capabilities such as lobbying, speeches and the ability to judge information. Through the participation in environmental protection, these capabilities of women can be developed, the social value of family roles of women will be highlighted (Roucheleau, Thomas-Slayte and Wangari, 1996: 110).


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