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英国酒店管理学essay:What factors influence customer’s percepti(2)

时间:2019-09-02 10:45来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
Qualitative research is a set of cross-disciplinary, cross-major, cross-domain, and cross-topic research methods, consisting of a complex set of interrelated terms, concepts, assumptions, etc.( Denzin
 
Qualitative research is a set of cross-disciplinary, cross-major, cross-domain, and cross-topic research methods, consisting of a complex set of interrelated terms, concepts, assumptions, etc.( Denzin andLincoln, 1994). By displaying the specific methods of qualitative research and the applicable research fields, we can better understand what qualitative research is.
 
In short, qualitative research is made up of interviews, observations, case studies, etc., with raw materials including site notes, interview notes, conversations, photographs, audio recordings, memos and so on. The aim is to describe, explain things, events, phenomena, and figures, as well as to better understand the research methods of the problems studied. Qualitative research usually means specific techniques that do not involve numbers, such as access method (Gabrielian, 1999)
 
The biggest difference between qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis is that the former does not need statistical model or regression analysis. Qualitative analysis is regarded as a study based on differences in type or quality rather than in degree. Qualitative research can also be empirical research. Firstly, the theoretical hypothesis is put forward, and the rationality of the hypothesis is verified by analyzing the collected data. For example, in case studies, a case study may disprove a dominant theory, (King et a l,1994). For the case study, it is more targeted (Ga brielian, 1999). If the internal and external validity can be tested, it may also generalize the conclusion of the case as a general conclusion.
 
The qualitative research applies a variety of data collection and analysis techniques: Punch ( 1994: 84) thought that the main three techniques are: observation, visit and file analysis . Mar shall and Rossman (1995) listed 15 methods and techniques. Morse(1994: 224) proposed four main research strategies in qualitative research: phenomenology, ethnography, grounded theory, action research, and compared their research problems, main methods and sources of data. In the process of data collection and processing, data management of great importance. Huberman and Miles defined data management as: "the operations required for systematic, consistent data collection, storage and retrieval" (Huberman and Miles: 1994: 428). Today, the application of computer software will greatly improve the efficiency of data collection, storage, retrieval and analysis in qualitative research. 
 
A major breakthrough in qualitative research is the establishment and development of “Grounded Theory”. Although there have been plenty of articles on this theory, the authoritative one is the original inventor's four books: "The Discovery of Grounded Theory"( Glaser & Strauss, 1967) ; "Theoretical Sensitivity" ( Glaser,1978) ; "Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists " ( Strauss, 1987); Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques( Strauss and Corbin; 1990, 1998).Generally speaking, scholars usually put forward theoretical hypotheses based on their experience, wisdom, knowledge and existing materials, and then collect data to verify their theoretical hypotheses with statistical models or other methods. But the procedure of grounded theory is quite the opposite, that is, scholars do not have a theoretical hypothesis for a problem in advance, but build theoretical models by collecting and analyzing data.
 
There are various methods for data analysis, and content analysis is one of the important techniques. Data analysis can be divided into three sub-steps: (1) data recovery: selection of conceptual models, research questions, case studies, and further compression of data by coding, summarizing, classifying and writing;(2) Information presentation: reorganization of compressed information for action and conclusion; (3) conclusion/confirmation: interpretation of information(Misles and Huberman, 1984, 1994)   
 
There is lack of common consensus in academic circles on the quality and reliability testing of qualitative research. However, most studies follow four criteria: internal validity; external validity; reliability; and objectivity. Huberman and Miles (1994) proposed the following criteria to determine the advantages and disadvantages of qualitative research procedures: (1) sampling decisions within or between cases; (2) data collection operations; (3) size and summary of the database, methods of generating data; (4) the application of software; (5) the overall analysis strategy; (6) the presentation of key data to support the main conclusions.
 
Strauss and Corbin put forward four criteria for judging qualitative research: first, the validity, reliability and credibility of the data; second, the judgment of the theory itself; third, whether the research process of producing, explaining and testing the theory is perfect; fourth, whether the conclusion is grounded in empirical data( Strauss and Corbin, 1998). Marshall and Rossman(1995) set out 20 questions to determine the quality of qualitative research, for the limited space, here do not list all in detail.
 
As far as we concerned, qualitative research and quantitative research, although each has its own methods, research steps and so on, they are not contradictory, but are mutually related and complementary. Some research projects will combine both qualitative and quantitative methods. Some qualitative methods are also supported by data. Moreover, in most quantitative researches, the rational thinking of qualitative research is indispensable in the process of putting forward theoretical hypotheses, explaining the causality between things and revealing the regularity of phenomena.
 
This paper mainly adopts the method of combining quantitative research and qualitative research, the advantages include: firstly, deep research on topic. For example, in view of online brand image of hotel, questionnaire can be adopted to know the recognition of customers on online brand image of hotel, and deep interview can be conducted to know the impact and influence of online brand building on traditional brand image building of hotel; secondly, data source channel is diversified to realize high reliability and creditability of research conclusion. In summary, the research method is flexible, new ideas and problems will also appear with the implementation of survey.   
 
 
5. Data Collection Methods
Questionnaire to collect primary data and literature to collect second hand data. Specifically, literature review is aimed to obtain a deep understanding of the current situation of hotel online image. Academic researches and papers of relevant scholars help my better understanding of hotel online image, as well as its possible impacts to customers’ perception in the context of Internet era. Reading as many as academic materials is also beneficial to a clear understanding of the influencing factors of hotel development. 
 
Based on literature review, the interview outline is designed. In-depth interviews are made attempting to discuss whether hotel online brand image affects customers’ perception when choosing hotels, and their specific effects, if there is any. Compared with the traditional image, the hotel’s online image has its own characteristics and means a lot for hotel brand management. As for how the hotel online image works, and whether it can thoroughly shake the status of the traditional hotel brand management, a quantitative test is done via the questionnaire. 
 
6. Questionnaire Design
300 questionnaires will be give out for two to three weeks both online and offline. There are two questionnaire versions (English and Chinese). For online channel, questionnaires will be given out via social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, Wechat and Weibo.
 
Normally, questionnaires can be divided into three types. The first is structured questionnaires, which can also be called closed questionnaires. It means to set limits on the answers beforehand, and testees are only allowed to make choices within the limits. The second is unstructured questionnaires, which are also called open questionnaires. The questionnaires are composed of open questions without fixed answers. This kind of questionnaires list questions without possible answers, and testees are required to answer freely. In terms of question types, there are blank filling and essay questions. The third is integrated questionnaires. This kind of questionnaire is composed mainly of closed questions and several open questions added when necessary. That is to say, the researcher list what he/she is clear about as closed questions, and what he/she is not clear about yet as open questions. 
 
This study employs integrated questionnaire to conduct the quantitative study. According to the research purpose and assumed range, this study designs questions. This procedure includes the following steps: First, make clear the research purpose, collect materials needed according to the research purpose and assumed range, and choose research objects. Second, list the framework of the problem to be studied, and make clear the information to be searched and choose the questionnaire type. Third, draw up the questions according to the subject, and list the title and specific items in different parts.
 
At the same time, although questionnaires are required to be concise, convenient and economic, they also have demand on testees and are subjective. Therefore, in the researching process, this study combined interviews with questionnaires. Interviews can be divided into individual interviews and group interviews, general interviews and depth interviews, interviews as the major means of collecting materials and interviews as supplementary means of collecting materials. Bailey (1986), an American scholar, argues that interviews are not only flexible, but also have a high response rate, with all questions brought up answered.


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