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代写英国essay:企业家精神

时间:2020-09-15 15:05来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:Hpan317 点击:
创业精神在企业的创建和发展以及地区和国家的经济增长和繁荣中发挥着重要作用。随着经济的发展,企业家精神创造了颠覆性创新,并带来了特别广泛的社会效益本文阐述了企业家精神及其对
1.1 Introduction介绍

企业家精神在企业的创建和发展以及地区和国家的经济增长和繁荣中发挥着重要作用。随着经济的发展,企业家精神创造了颠覆性创新,并带来了特别广泛的社会效益。这表明创业精神是创新和生产力增长的关键。本文主要阐述了企业家精神的具体定义,企业家精神在经济增长和发展中重要作用的具体体现,以及促进和阻碍企业家精神在我国发展的因素

Entrepreneurship plays an important role in the creation and development of enterprises and in the economic growth and prosperity of regions and countries (Hisrich, Peters & Shepherd 2017). With economic development, entrepreneurship has created disruptive innovation and brought about a particularly broad range of social benefits (Litan 2016). This shows that entrepreneurship is the key to innovation and productivity growth (Litan 2016). This article mainly describes the specific definition of entrepreneurship, the concrete manifestation of the important role of entrepreneurship in economic growth and development, and the factors that promote and hinder the development of entrepreneurship in China.


图:企业家精神
 
2.1 Entrepreneurship企业家精神

19世纪初,法国经济学家让·巴蒂斯特(Jean Baptiste)提出了创业的广义定义。企业家精神是将经济资源从低生产率地区转移到生产率较高、产量较高的地区。“创业”是企业家创业和经营企业的特殊技能的表现。它是一种重要而特殊的无形生产要素。企业家精神包括行动和创造性想象力,企业家精神是由企业家实现的。在行动之前,企业家需要了解他人的需求,并有效识别潜在需求。沃尔特·迪斯尼最伟大的创造不是迪士尼乐园,但沃尔特·迪斯尼公司满足了让顾客满意的需要。“想象力”通过帮助企业家预测通过新产品或服务将新知识引入价格体系的效果,促进产品创新。想象力通过帮助企业家考虑引入新生产结构的可行性和可取性来促进管理。当企业家决定开发潜在机会时,他们还必须通过行动教育或说服客户。
In the early 19th century, the French economist Jean-Baptiste proposed a broad definition of entrepreneurship (Giannantonio 2016). Entrepreneurship is the transfer of economic resources from lower-productivity areas to areas of higher productivity and higher yields (Giannantonio 2016). “Entrepreneurship” is the expression of the special skills of entrepreneurs to establish and manage enterprises. It is an important and special intangible production factor (Aubry 2017). Entrepreneurship encompasses action and creative imagination, and entrepreneurship is achieved by entrepreneurs. Before acting, entrepreneurs need to understand the needs of others and effectively identify potential needs (Hisrich, Peters & Shepherd 2017). Walt Disney's greatest creation is not Disneyland, but Walt Disney Company has met the need to make customers happy (Giannantonio 2016). “Imagination” promotes product innovation by helping entrepreneurs predict the effects of introducing new knowledge into the price system through new products or services (Giannantonio 2016). Imagination promotes management by helping entrepreneurs consider the feasibility and desirability of introducing new production structures (Kier & McMullen 2018). When entrepreneurs decide to develop potential opportunities, they must also educate or persuade customers through action (Hisrich, Peters & Shepherd 2017).


图:沃尔特·迪斯尼创造的迪士尼乐园
 
3.1 The importance of entrepreneurship to the economy and development企业家精神对经济和发展的重要性

自20世纪30年代以来,企业家精神已成为经济发展研究的焦点,被认为是企业增长和区域及国家经济增长的关键驱动力。  企业家精神可以激发企业家的“想象力”。想象力基于意象和精神分析的概念,用于预测未来。心理建模依赖于社会环境中的认知能力。基于这种认知灵活性,Kier&McMullen认为,当企业家进行想象时,他们可以产生多种竞争假设,并寻找创新的市场机会。当想象力的认知能力与管理和其他相关场景所需的知识相结合时,它就成为新的创业机会的来源。Kier&McMullen强调了创新的重要性。在创新中,创业被视为通过创造性地打破经济平衡来重组资源、创新、开发新产品或产生创意。从一个结构中思考新的市场机会通常需要一个创造性的精神飞跃。这些创造性的心理跳跃源于已经灭绝的物种。就创业机会而言,创新性飞跃可以是从当前市场中存在的知识到可能带来市场的新技术,或者是从技术的新知识到可以受益于新技术引进的新市场。因此,企业家将更加关注产品或服务的创新,以满足或创造新的需求,以获得市场份额。同时,创业能力的不断增强也为创造就业机会和社会发展做出了重大贡献。例如电话、飞机、计算机和互联网,它们共同具有高度的创新性,但也成功地商业化地成立了一家新公司。利坦说,这些创新不仅改变了过去150年人们的生活方式,而且为社会积累了财富。此外,2005年,硅谷有150万个工作岗位和2.2万家公司,这意味着创业间接带来了巨大的就业机会。可持续发展是我们这个时代面临的一个重要问题,企业家精神可以对这个问题产生积极影响。具体而言,企业家精神通过可持续发展的概念改变旧的生产模式和旧的生产模式,并创造新的产品或服务。同时,企业家将更加注重为个人、经济和社会创造非经济利益。这不仅有助于企业获得市场份额,也有助于社会发展。            
Since the 1930s, entrepreneurship has become the focus of research on economic development and is considered to be a key driver of business growth and regional and national economic growth (Cheng, Hu, Xu, Zhang & Fan 2017).
Entrepreneurship can stimulate entrepreneurs' "imagination." Imagination is based on the concept of imagery and psychoanalysis, used to predict the future (Kier & McMullen 2018). Psychological modeling relies on cognitive abilities in the social environment. Based on this cognitive flexibility, Kier & McMullen (2018) thinks that when entrepreneurs imagine, they can generate multiple competition assumptions and look for innovative market opportunities. When the cognitive power of imagination is combined with the knowledge required for management and other related scenarios, it becomes a source of novel entrepreneurial opportunities.
Kier & McMullen (2018) stressed the importance of innovation. In innovation, entrepreneurship is seen as the reorganization of resources, innovating, developing new products, or generating ideas by creatively disrupting the balance of the economy (Kier & McMullen 2018). Thinking about new market opportunities from a structure often requires a creative spiritual leap. These creative psychological jumps are initiated from what is extinct (Kier & McMullen 2018). In terms of entrepreneurial opportunities, the creative leap can be from the knowledge that exists in the current market to new technologies that may lead to the market, or from new knowledge about technology to new markets that can benefit from the introduction of new technologies (Hisrich, Peters & Shepherd 2017). Therefore, entrepreneurs will pay more attention to the innovation of products or services to meet or create new demands to gain market share (Cheng et al.2017).
At the same time, the growing viability of entrepreneurship has made a significant contribution to job creation and social development (Law & Breznik 2017). Such as telephones, airplanes, computers and the Internet, they have in common a high degree of innovation, but also successfully commercialized the establishment of a new company (Litan 2016). Litan (2016) said that these innovations not only changed the way people have lived in the past 150 years, but also accumulated wealth for society. Also, in 2005, Silicon Valley had 1.5 million jobs and 22,000 companies, which meant that entrepreneurship indirectly brought huge employment opportunities (Aslan, Duman, Sen, Duran & Atarbay 2016).
Sustainable development is an important issue facing our era, and entrepreneurship can have a positive impact on this issue. Specifically, entrepreneurship transforms old production models and old ones through the concept of sustainability and creates new products or services (Hisrich, Peters & Shepherd 2017). At the same time, entrepreneurs will pay more attention to creating non-economic benefits to individuals, the economy and society. This will not only help companies gain market share, but also contribute to social development (Hisrich, Peters & Shepherd 2017).

4.1 Factors that promote and hinder entrepreneurial progress in China

Education is important for the development of entrepreneurs. Its importance is not only reflected in the level of education acquired, but also as it continues to play an important role in helping entrepreneurs cope with the problems they face (Warnecke 2018). China has gradually popularized higher education, and has implemented the ability of the university to strictly plan and develop entrepreneurial capabilities (Warnecke 2018). Although some people may think that entrepreneurs are less educated than the general population, such as Steve Jobs and Ma Yun (Hisrich, Peters & Shepherd 2017). But this is only a special case, and the actual situation is obviously not the case. However, although Chinese university graduates have a high entrepreneurial intention, the actual entrepreneurial survival rate is not high (You, Zhu & Ding 2017). This is because the university failed to put the scientific research carried out into practice and cultivate graduates with theoretical knowledge but no practical experience and creative ability. According to Aslan et al. (2016), Turkey has established an entrepreneurial university that educates students who can build their own businesses and have an entrepreneurial culture. The specific approach is to set up a technology park at the university to provide entrepreneurship training for students. As college students become the main force of entrepreneurship, China began to pay attention to the cultivation of college students' entrepreneurial spirit. As a financial incentive, the government has established university-based technology parks and university towns in China to provide industrial cooperation (Aslan et al. 2016). The government has played a leading role in improving the attention of university students to the innovation system. For example, the Chinese central government put forward the ‘Public Entrepreneurship and Innovation’ policy in 2015, pushing China's entrepreneurial activities to a climax (You, Zhu & Ding 2017). The Chinese government expects high-quality college students to become a powerful reserve force for entrepreneurial activities, and has carried out the practice of college students' entrepreneurship education in Chinese universities, as well as providing training in venture capital, and established entrepreneurship centers and incubation bases to support the self-employment activities of college students (You, Zhu & Ding 2017). For institutional practices that promote college graduates, universities in urban areas provide support for relatively broader and deeper financial resources (You, Zhu & Ding 2017). However, vocational colleges in western China are at a disadvantage in these areas.


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