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促进企业和机构的社会责任|代写英国termpaper(2)

时间:2017-04-12 17:53来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
Due to the importance of education on training future managers and specialists in areas such as social responsibility, business ethics or societal marketing, academic organizations are an essential co
Due to the importance of education on training future managers and specialists in areas such as social responsibility, business ethics or societal marketing, academic organizations are an essential component of the Global Compact platform. Furthermore, academia has brought some constructive criticism on the operations carried out by GC and through available resources and infrastructure, this sector contributes to the knowledge and understanding of corporate citizenship and social responsibility, but also to the promotion of GC activities at local and global level.
 
As social responsibility is not the exclusive prerogative of the companies since 2007, Global Compact has promoted the Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), which creates the framework to promote social responsibility by incorporating universal values of RS in research and teaching plans of universities.
 
Although the notions of corporate responsibility and sustainability are promoted in academic field [6] , they have become the priority in the education of economists, therefore, promoting PRME, universities and business schools will gradually improve curricula and research methodologies teaching and institutional strategies.
 
In late 2010, these principles are shared by more than 340 academic institutions that form the managers, of whom one third are located in Western Europe and North America. In addition, educational institutions specializing in this field have been set up. For example, Responsible Investment Academy is an Australian government-funded institution that works with the Secretariat of PRI (Principles for Responsible Investment) to support institutional investors who have signed the Principles for Responsible Investment to provide educational resources for training specialists in the field of responsible investment. This institution offers courses on the implementation of Principles for Responsible Investment, the integration of ESG (environmental, social and corporate governance) in securities analysis and portfolio construction, engagement of investors as shareholders, voting policies, sustainable development, climate change and the transition to low carbon economy, human rights, labor, water and energy security.
 
Cities and the UN Global Compact
Because cities can make a significant contribution to creating a sustainable society, which requires integrating economic, social, political and environmental aspects, the principles developed by GC for corporations can be translated for these administrative entities in terms of governance and urban management.
 
GC program for cities was launched in 2003 and it supposes the adoption of the 10 principles originally developed for companies. To accommodate the 10 principles for the towns, GC program aimed at close cooperation between companies, public authorities, universities and civil society so that cities overcome very complex problems they face; in this way, they have a positive contribution to the sustainable development of national economies. This program was designed on three levels of commitment so as to achieve a progressive involvement of cities in terms of commitment, recognition and used tools.
 
The program for cities is a component of the Global Compact initiative that focuses on urban and is based on Melbourne methodology. This methodology involves the inter-relationships between companies, public authorities and civil society. First steps taken towards the creation of this program belongs to Melbourne city, whose authorities have sent a letter to the originator of the UN Global Compact - Kofi Annan, in 2001, expressing their support for the ten principles developed and promoted, and even asked to join this platform. Given the purpose of creating the UN Global Compact Platform, Melbourne city has been refused, but Kofi Annan has agreed to initiate a pilot project (Utility Debt Spiral Project) to demonstrate the usefulness of involving cities to promote social responsibility.
 
Successful implementation of this project led Kofi Annan to ask the checking and testing of the applicability of Melbourne model to five other cities in the world: Tshwane (South Africa), Porto Alegre (Brazil), Jinan (China), Jamshedpur (India) Bath (United Kingdom). The projects were conducted over three years and have different themes: improving poverty, rehabilitation of peripheral areas, water management, improved urban comfort, improve safety in urban traffic.
 
In April 2002, a meeting sponsored by the United Nations Environment Programme and International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives was organized, and many specialists in urban governance, planning, sustainable development and community involvement have attended. The result was the development of Melbourne model. Melbourne Model involves collaboration between governments, companies and civil society to tackle seemingly intractable urban problems.
 
The mayor of this city launched Melbourne Principles in September 2002 at UN World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. The importance of these principles is demonstrated by the interest of the participants in this event, which included the ten principles in Local Agenda 21, an international framework for sustainable development of specific local government (originally developed at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 - 'Rio Earth Summit ').
 
Regardless of size or geographical location, any city can become a member of Global Compact, but its involvement may be different since there are three levels of commitment for signatory cities, reporting cities and innovative cities. Every town has some kind of tasks.
 
Commitment. City commits to implement the ten Global Compact principles and to publicly promote these principles, including the private sector and civil society that are in its sphere of action.
 
Leadership. The city recognizes its ability to set an example in spreading the principles of Global Compact. The city can ensure the involvement of its citizens and institutions subordinate to the formal or informal methods to implement the latest innovations for the benefit of the entire community.
 
Communication. The city must demonstrate its commitment to the principles of Global Compact by publicizing its activities. Notice positive or less positive results achieved will lead to better knowledge of urban governance. The city is available for dialogue with other cities.
 
Sustainability. The city has the capacity to carry out a major project in a sustainable manner for a period of at least three years contributing to social and environmental welfare of the city.
 
Response. The city has the capacity to respond adequately to the problems associated with political change, economic, social and environmental situation and to learn from previous experiences.
 
Diversity. The city is aware and respects the need to work in different sectors, taking account of economic, political, and cultural and religious differences, ethnic, ideological, gender or age.
 
Adaptation. The city is opening and flexible to work in certain areas from different backgrounds and experiences of other cities use to overcome such complex and seemingly intractable urban issues.
 
Depending on their commitments, there are three types of cities.
 
Signatory city: the city adopts, promotes the principles of GC and encourages companies to join the UN Global Compact.
 
Reporting city: in addition to the commitments made by signatory city, the city is committed to report annually its efforts to implement the principles of GC in urban management and to promote these principles in local business environment.
 
Innovative city: local authorities take the specific commitments of signatory and reporting cities and carry out a multi annual project to solve a complex or seemingly irresolvable problem that is correlated with the ten principles of UN Global Compact. Projects initiated by cities may involve private companies, universities and civil society and aimed problems such as urban infrastructure, environment, climate change, culture, politics, globalization, human security, sustainability and local economic development
 
In conclusion, the cities are responsible to entities that operating in their range of action and can have a significant contribution to the promotion of social responsibility and sustainable development. In general, the GC principles for cities are similar to those promoted by companies, the guidelines being: employment standards, human rights, the environment and fighting against corruption.
 
UN Global Compact and institutional investors
Social responsibility should guide not only the activity of large transnational corporations, but also the portfolio investors. Socially responsible investments made in the capital market have their origins in religious movements. Thus, the Methodist Church began to invest over one hundred years ago, in stock market, having as criteria for selection of securities not only economic indicators, but also ethical criteria, eliminating financial securities issued by companies in certain areas such as the production of alcohol, weapons, tobacco, pornography and gambling.
 
Over time, certain events have encouraged the development of socially responsible investment market. Thus, in the U.S.A. in 1971 was created an investment fund - Pax World Fund - in order to avoid investments associated with the Vietnam War and apartheid of South Africa and to accelerate the promotion of ethical investment in the 80s of last century.


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