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英国教育专业termpaper:A Multi-Trait Multi-Method Validation of Thr(2)

时间:2019-05-20 16:07来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
2.3.2 Bias due to difference on working experience Chen, Tang, Wan and Chens (2017) research on the promotion of employees in Chinese enterprises points out that Chinese corporate management usually t
2.3.2 Bias due to difference on working experience
Chen, Tang, Wan and Chen’s (2017) research on the promotion of employees in Chinese enterprises points out that Chinese corporate management usually thinks that more working experience represents that an employee has more knowledge, higher skills, and more personal connections, so employees with more working experience usually get more promotion opportunities.
Wang, Huang, Zhang and Rozelle’s (2011) research also indicates that in Chinese enterprises, especially in manufacturing, young staff has more difficulty to be promoted, he believes that the deep-seated causes of the discrimination are related to the traditional Chinese culture and ideas.
Jaiswal, and Dhar’s (2015) research figures that discrimination in different industries related to working experience is reflected differently in staff promotion. In the field of high-tech, marketing and other related areas, there is less experience-related discrimination, and in medical, legal and other fields, there is a greater amount of discrimination associated with work experience.
3.0 Research Methodology 
Multi-trait, multi-method (MTMM) was proposed by Campbell and Fenke, they used two or more methods to evaluate two or more traits, the results obtained can be composed of a multi-trait multi-method matrix (Guinea, Titah and Léger, 2013).
By analyzing MTMM matrix, they determined the convergent validity of different measure methods and the discriminate validity of different traits. Convergent validity refers to the degree of correlation between the results obtained by measuring the same trait in different ways. Discriminate validity refers to the degree to which the observed values are irrelevant when different methods are used to measure different traits (Bowler and Woehr, 2009).
The advantages of MTMM are mainly embodied in the following aspects: first, MTMM can avoid or reduce information deviation or missing caused by a single evaluation method or similar evaluators (Chui, Lee and Tsang, 2016). Second, conclusion acquired through using MTMM is more accurate and scientific than the research conclusion obtained by a single method or the same kind of evaluators (Bowler and Woehr, 2009). Third, it is possible to examine the convergent validity and discriminate validity of multi-method and multi-trait to have a more accurate and effective understanding of the relationship between different measurement indicators, as well as the effectiveness of different evaluation methods (Bowler and Woehr, 2009).
There are two issues that need to be addressed in the research related to promotion. First, it is necessary to examine that what traits determine whether a staff can be promoted and whether the traits are independent rather than interrelated. Second, what methods can be used in order to correctly examine these traits to come to convincing conclusions (Araki, Kawaguchi and Onozuka, 2016). There are many studies on the influencing factors and evaluation methods of employee promotion in the past. However, many of the studies have used a single research method from a single point of view. There are lots of differences in the conclusions given by different researchers, which bring great difficulties to the practical application of results of these studies. One of the reasons for these problems is that each of the individual methods has its own limitations, for example, although self report and leader opinion. are simple and rapid methods, the biggest problem is that it is susceptible to its own subjective factors and random errors, thus the reliability is also low (Bowler and Woehr, 2009). Leaderless group interview is relatively more rigorous, but if employees have the possibility of camouflage, it will make results distorted (Barge, 1989). Therefore, making use of a variety of methods at the same time to explore staff traits, if the same results are acquired, the results will be credible.
Considering from the characteristics of MTMM, it can be a good solution to these problems. First, if the analysis results of MTMM have high convergent validity, it shows that the results have high reliability. Second, if the analysis results of MTMM have high discriminate validity, it shows that the three traits selected: professional knowledge, work performance and cooperation awareness are independent of each other, and they can be used as the determinants of employee promotion, and the selected three methods: self-report (CV), leader opinion and interview (leaderless group interview ) can be very good for statistics and distinction on the three traits, and they are reliable  evaluation method for staff promotion process. Finally, according to factor loading, it can be analyzed which method of evaluation is more suitable for the analysis on a specific trait, so as to provide theoretical support for the application of the evaluation method in the process of staff promotion.
Based on the above reasons, this study will use MTMM to analyze the effectiveness of the three determinants: professional knowledge, work performance and cooperation awareness in staff promotion. The evaluation method adopted includes self-report (CV), leader opinion and interview (leaderless group interview). After data collection, the author will uses professional data entry software EpiData for inputting. Using SPSS 21.0 to test the reliability and validity of the questionnaire; with the software LISREL 8.7 to deal with MTMM structural equation analysis, the missing values of the data in the study will be filled with the mean replacement method.
 
References
Araki, S., Kawaguchi, D. & Onozuka, Y. (2016). University prestige, performance evaluation, and promotion: estimating the employer learning model using personnel datasets. Labour Economics, 41(8), 135-148.
Barge, J. K. (1989). Leadership as medium: A leaderless group discussion model. Journal  Communication Quarterly, 37(4), 105-113.
Bowler, M. C. & Woehr, D. J. (2009). Assessment center construct-related validity: Stepping beyond the MTMM matrix. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75(2), 173-182.
Chen, Z., Ge, Y., Lai, H. & Wan, C. (2013). Globalization and gender wage inequality in China. World Development, 44(4), 256-266.
Chen, Z., Tang, J., Wan, J. & Chen, Y. 2017 ().Promotion incentives for local officials and the expansion of urban construction land in China: using the Yangtze River Delta as a case study. Land Use Policy, 63(4), 214-225.
Chi, W. & Li, B. (2014). Trends in China’s gender employment and pay gap: Estimating gender pay gaps with employment selection. Journal of Comparative Economics, 42(3), 708-725.
Chui, W. Y., Lee, S. K. & Tsang, C. K. (2016). Father involvement in Hong Kong: By multitrait-multimethod model and item response theory (IRT). Personality and Individual Differences, 98(8), 333-344.
Guinea, A. O., Titah, R. & Léger, P. M. (2013). Measure for measure: a two study multi-trait multi-method investigation of construct validity in IS research. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 833-844.
Jaiswal, N. K. & Dhar, R. L. (2015). Transformational leadership, innovation climate, creative self-efficacy and employee creativity: a multilevel study. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 51(10), 30-41.
Jakobsson, N., Kotsadam, A., Syse, A. & Øien, H. (2016). Gender bias in public long-term care? A survey experiment among care managers. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 131(11), 126-138.
Knapp, P. R. &Mujtaba, B. G. (2011). Strategies for the design and administration of assessment center technology: a case study for the selection and development of employees. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 2(2), 154-171.  
Pan, J.Q., Zhou, X.Q. & Zhou, X. (2008). The role of leadership between the employees and the organization: a bridge or a ravine? -an empirical study from China. Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 11(2), 203-221.
Pema, E. & Mehay, S. (2010). The role of job assignment and human capital endowments in explaining gender differences in job performance and promotion. Labour Economics, 17(6), 998-1009.
Wang, X., Huang, J., Zhang, L. & Rozelle, S. (2011). The rise of migration and the fall of self employment in rural China's labor market. China Economic Review, 22(4), 573-584.
Yuan, J. et al. (2016). Promotion and resignation in employee networks. Physical a: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 444(15), 442-447.
 


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