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essay应该怎么写?各种essay的标准写法详解

时间:2012-04-20 09:37:24 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:essay应该怎么写 点击:3395

essay应该怎么写
指导essay 1, 在essay 里,你不能用第一人称,比如:I,me,mine,my(我)这些你要是一用,就是扣分。
2, we(我们)这只有在指很大一个数不清的集体的时候可以用,比如 :our humans 我们人类,这样的可以用。要是只是指你和你朋友我们,那样的话不行。
3, essay里一定不能有私人用语,比如 stuff 东西,这种说法感觉太私人。
4, essay 里的语句一定要很肯定,不能含糊,比如:she is like friendly towards him. 她好像对他很友好。 句子用了 ‘好像’,这就是不肯定。
5,essay里的段落一定要有顺序,每个段落里都要先有开头句topic sentence(一个话题),然后支撑句 support sentence, 结合句 linking sentence,总结局 conclusion
6,段落里一定要赞成主题的题目,不能跑题
7,essay 里不能写缩写字,比如 cause,because 的缩写,不能有


Agreement: 主语和谓语在人称、数上的一致,关系代词与先行词的一致。
Ambiguity: 尽量不去使用可能引起歧义的词语或句子。
Brief: 文章"简为贵",要抓住要点,简明扼要。
Coherence: 文理通顺,前后连贯。
Development: 主题的发挥应当充分、合理、正确。
Division: 词汇、句子、段落要分配使用得当,划分要清楚,避免使用重复字句和种子片段。
Figures: 正确合理使用各类修辞格式。
Inflated diction: 不使用做作的语言。
Key: 用适当的关键词突出主题,每段都应有主题句。
Logical: 内容要符合逻辑。
Message: 信息要新鲜、确实、可信。
Omit: 合理删除多余的不必要部分。
Proposition: 主张、观点、论述要清楚肯切、合情入理。
Punctuation: 正确适时使用标点符号。
Relevant: 文章一定要要题。
Sentence pattern: 句型要尽量多样化。
Strait: 开门见山,直来直去。
Style: 文体恰切,适合内容要求。
Tense: 动词时态要正确、一致、变化合理。
Theme: 选题得当,主题突出。


Essay 由 introduction, body, conclusion, reference四部分组成,下面以这篇文章为例,教你如何写作一篇符合格式的essay
全文统一用times new roman字体,小四,1.5倍行距
Essay 是理论性较强的论文,通常情况下,一定用第3人称,禁止出现“I”,“we” “our”, “you”, “your”这些第一,二人称字样,注意语言措辞,多用些副词。为了避免使用 第一人称,某些地方可以用被动语态或其他句型代替。
内容方面:
1, 由于essay理论性较强,请用相关例子来支撑论点,避免空谈理论
2, 在叙述完了理论之后,请一定要对理论进行评论,体现作者的critical thinking
3,请多用的数据和图表,使用数据图表时请附上reference表明出处。
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Introduction (essay的introduction只有一段,但由两部分内容组成。蓝色字体的地方是introduction的第一部分, 它相当于一个开篇,引出Essay指导这篇essay的主旨。然后从this essay will开始是introduction的第二部分,介绍本文结构,不要再用the structure is like this这样的语句了,比较chinglish。介绍结构请统一用将来时态)
Since the setting up of the first factories in the late eighteenth century, management had become a problem seriously affecting the factories’ production. Then, management was gradually recognised as an important element of the success or failure of a company. Until the nineteenth century, the systematic and scientific management theory came out with its leading thinkers, two of whom were well known as Frederick W. Taylor and Elton Mayo. Both Taylor and Mayo stated the importance of the productivity and cooperation between managers and workers. This essay will firstly discuss these similarities in their different management theories and how they relate to each other. Following this, it will explain the differences of the two theories concerning the consideration of the human beings during management. Finally, it will look at how the two theories affect the feeling of workers and support increasing the productivity and maximising the efficiency.
(Introduction之后body,把文章分成几大部分讨论,每一个板块写一个小标题,加粗)
Similarities and relations in management theories of Taylor and Mayo
Although Taylor and Mayo have different management theories, they both aim to make workers more productive and efficient during the management. Taylor, the founder of the movement known as ‘scientific management’, states ‘The principal object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for the employee’ (Taylor, 1947, p.36). According to this, workers should be trained as ‘first-class’ and follow the methods of the work which managers have carefully analysed and set up. Workers are not responsible to think about the way of doing the work, and they just do what managers
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tell them to, and that makes them more productive, which is the aim of work. Taylor is much concerned about increasing the output of the production systematically and scientifically and at the meantime decreasing the cost per output. Taylor (1947) believed that by scientifically selecting them, workers would possess the physical and intellectual qualities to enable them to get work done systematically and efficiently and consequently achieve the output. Similarly, Elton Mayo also pays much attention to productivity and efficiency. Mayo (1933) introduced rest pauses as one technique and explained its importance for accomplishing work productively. The rest periods eliminate the monotony of the work, which can lead to ‘pessimistic reveries’ (p.59). Workers could re-participate into the task fast due to the relief of postural fatigue and impaired circulation during the rest pauses. Generally speaking, both Taylor and Mayo treated labor as the main sour
怎样写你的目标
              by Sandy Kreisberg
          Founder of the Cambridge Essay Service 

 

  每个申请MBA的人都要吞一块“硬骨头”——写论文(Essay),论文要求你:
(一)评价你的事业;
(二)表述的目标;
(三)说明你为什么申请这个商学院。
-Why are you seeking an MBA from the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business? What do you hope to experience and contribute? What are your plans and goals after you receive your degree (750 words maximum). 这是今年芝加哥商学院的典型问题。

  -Briefly assess your career progress to date. Elaborate on your future career plans and your motivation for pursuing a graduate degree from Kellogg (One to two double spaced pages).
这是凯洛克商学院的另一版本。

  -Please discuss the factors influencing the career decisions you have made that, in turn, have led you to your current position. Why is now an appropriate time to pursue an MBA, and what will you contribute to the class entering in the fall of 2000? What are your career goals for the future, and how will you avail yourself of the resources at the Wharton School to achieve these goals? 沃顿商学院的类似问题似乎问得更为具体。

  实际上,最难的问题是关于你的目标。申请者很容易阐述自己的事业,因为它们实际存在,但当被问到未来的目标,许多人都沉默了。目标并非没有,而是难以阐述,因为大多数人的目标是不具体的,只想追求一种更好或更有成就感的生活。而这,很难打动人心。

  无论如何,要写好你的目标,仍有很多你应该熟记于心的要点和绝对应该避免的问题。

  1. 在你过去经历的基础上构筑你的目标。

  最好在你过去经验的基础上对未来的目标加以人格化和多方面的陈述,而不是单纯说你的“希望”。这样,你的目标是从过去发掘并积累而成的,它们有“现实”作为生长土壤,不空洞,也不生硬。

  所以不要说“My goal is to become a consultant to high-tech firms starting business in Asia”,最好的说法是“Based on my experiences working in India and Hong Kong as a programmer and business analyst, and on my project leader work at Cenco Corporation in Singapore, my long term goal is to return to this area and start a consultancy advising large technology companies how to 'do business' as an employer in these countries.”。

  而且你的目标最好是人格化的,有特色的,感人的。许多申请者要成为咨询顾问、投资银行家、股票投资商或是高科技公司的总裁。而你能够从过去的经历建立一个的目标,它们就变得既有趣又富有人情味。

  2. 把你的目标分成阶段性。

  想使你看起来很有理性,对人生深思熟虑,最好把你的目标分成阶段性:长期目标、中期目标和MBA毕业后的短期目标。分段构思使你能够真正达到长期目标,而且读来也十分可信,同样为你攻读MBA提供了合理的解释。学校能在成千上万的人中发现你就是因为它们确信你知道毕业后什么工作最适合你(他们同样想知道这种工作是否可能实现,是否其他毕业生已拥有同样的工作,你也应该在写之前看一看)。应该与学校的Career Office联系,了解最近的毕业生从业情况,你对自己未来事业的描述必须有同样的起点。#p#分页标题#e#

  3. 使用“Interests”和“Could Take The Form”的句型来写长期目标。

  不要在撰写长期目标时将工作写的过于具体明确,只需指出工作技能和你所感兴趣的领域,比如领导、创立公司、战略、营销、管理等。想使它具体化,你可以把这些兴趣和技能写到工作上的具体应用。例如:

  Based on my leadership and cross-functional team experiences as the SDK Laser X-Ray project leader at Medco in California , and as a marketing specialist at Jetco in Shanghai, my long-term career objective is to use my technical and marketing know-how and leadership skills to help China obtain high-tech medical equipment. This goal could take the form of my starting a company in China to import or distribute such equipment, or my heading the division of a large American high-tech medical device firm such as X-med, Y-med, or Z-med with production for the Asian market as its goal. 

  My short-term goal after my MBA is to move from R&D to general management in a health care technology company such as X or Y. My five-year plan is to gain experience in various aspects of the health care technology business including business development, marketing, operations and strategy and also to establish my credibility in running a medium-sized organization.

  4. 谈论你的长期目标时,列出你心中一两位英雄,或者你心中最欣赏的公司。

  如果能够列举出你钦佩的商业人物,一定能为论文增强说服力。也可以列出公司名称,根据上面的举例,应该写成:

  Based on my experiences as the SDK Laser Widget team leader at Medco in California , and as a marketing specialist at Jetco in Shanghai, my long term career objective is to use my technical and marketing know-how and leadership skills to help China obtain high-tech medical equipment.

  I am greatly impressed by such companies as IndusMed and BengalRx which have specialized in bringing hi-tech medical devices to the Indian marketplace and I hope to replicate some of their success on the Chinese Mainland. Also, Sammy Lee, the Chinese Minister of Hi-Tech, is a personal hero of mine for his efforts to make technology bridges with Western suppliers. Mr. Lee's own company, Go-Go East, which is the leader in supplying Chinese and Hong Kong casinos with the latest in Western hi-tech gambling technology, is a good sign that China may soon be open to medical devices as well. 

  有一点不要忘记,提到这些公司和人名的时候,只须有限地提及一两句,举出实际的名称当然证明你知道你在谈论的重点,但文章的重点是你自己。

  5. 不要写行业或工作报告,只要写你的目标。

  文章要求的是你和你的目标,录取委员会想了解你的经历和你的思想,所以千万不要走题。常见的错误是申请者把一段关于他们未来从事行业的报告插进来,迟迟不能进入正题。如果你的目标是进军电子商务业,你不用写200字介绍什么是电子商务,为什么它会持续发展。很简单,如果你的目标是在亚洲工作,录取委员会不需要了解为何亚洲经济在90年代衰败以及它为何会再度兴起。   6. 把资料集中在一起。

  对许多学校而言,你的目标应该是大约200字的东西。就想下面所列出的模式一样:
BASED ON MY EXPERIENCS AS A _________, _________, AND A _________, MY LONG TERM GOAL IS _________. THIS COULD TAKE SEVERAL FORMS. 
1. _________
2. _________
3. _________

TWO COMPANIES WHICH I GREATLY ADMIRE ARE _________ WHICH IS THE LEADING SUPPLIER OF _________ TO _________ AND _________ WHICH IS A BREAK AWAY FROM A BIG COMPANY.

I ALSO GREATLY ADMIRE JOHN DOE WHO FOUNDED _________ IN HIS _________ WITH ONLY $ _________ AND MARY SMITH WHO STARTED _________ AFTER HAVING NINE CHILDREN AND DEVELOPED IT INTO THE LEADING SUPPLIER OF FERTILIZERS AND PETROCHEMICAL-BASED CLOTHING IN EUROPE. 

ALTHOUGH THERE IS NO CLEAR WAY TO THIS GOAL, AFTER B-SCHOOL I WOULD WANT TO DO _________ WHERE I WILL LEARN: 
1. _________
2. _________
3. _________

IN FIVE YEARS MY PLAN IS AS FOLLOWS: _________.


如何写好MBA essay: 7大标准开头
开头与结尾之所以显得那么困难,一部分原因是作者把它们想象的太难。申请人常常以为要在开头彻底清楚的表明全文的主旨,在结尾作出精锐的结论,文章才够精彩。但这种想法的结果往往令作者太过紧张以至于把开头和结尾写的过于夸张。你并不需要第一稿就写出一个很好的开头;往往作开头的最好的一句话就在第一稿的中间部分,只是一开始你没能够发现它而已。有效的开头有很多种形式,在下面的章节里你会读到其中的几种。如果你的文章根据内容分成几个部分,那么你最好为每个部分写一个有效的开头。
标准型开头
标准型的开头涵盖了以下几方面内容:人物,事件,时间,地点,原因和形式。这种写法很像新闻写作中的六个W,它使读者对于文章即将涉及哪些内容有一个清晰的印象。其中最标准的就是概括性的开头,而最普通的概括性开头往往就是重复一遍问题: "While I have had many opportunities to serve in the capacity of a leader in both my personal and professional lives, there are two occasions that I feel clearly demonstrate my managerial potential." "There are two individuals who have deeply shaped my professional thinking." "My most important cross-cultural experience is related to the fifteen months I spent in Thailand as a teacher of Economics andBusinessin a Cambodian refugee camp."
惊奇型开头
这种开头意在使读者大吃一惊,从而引发他们的阅读兴趣。如:
"Recently, I was trapped on a ledge more than 300 feet above the ground when an unexpected snow storm hit while I was rock climbing." "During my senior year in college, my father was diagnosed with terminal skin cancer."
动作型开头
动作型开头则一开始就把读者带入某一行为之中,它尤其适合需要节省空间的短文章以及用故事作为开头的叙述型/描述型文章。如:
"I carried the puck up the left wing and couldn't find a team-mate as I reached the offensive zone."
领导型开头
领导型的开头在文章的一开始就给读者一个对于作者的某个领导职能的深刻印象。这类文章旨在展现一个自信的、目标明确的申请人。在使用这类开头的时候,文章接下来的内容必须十分有力度,以支撑起这一形象。下面举例的三个开头出于同一篇文章,分别用于引导三个部分的内容。
"During the summer before my senior year, I founded and managed a company that employed five people and grossed twenty thousand dollars." (第一部分) "In my senior year atHarvard, I led our ECAC champion hockey team in points, becoming the first player to ever begin his career on the J.V. team and finish as the varsity's leading scorer." (第二部分) "I paid for the majority of my college education, while achieving Dean's List every semester, spent forty hours each week participating in a Division 1 athletic program, worked ten to fifteen hours each week to help defray tuition costs, and also maintained a balanced social life." (第三部分)
信息型开头
这种开头向读者传达一个事实或信息,而这一事实或者与你的文章的主题有关,或者传达了关于你的某种信息:
"Technological innovation is occurring at an ever-increasing pace." "Six months ago, my church implemented a new organizational structure in which all the various church functions were consolidated under the responsibility of one of ten different committees."
引言式开头
如果你选择一句引语作为开头,你最好选择不同寻常的、深奥的、有趣的、或者晦涩的引语,而且这个引语不能太长。你选择的引语应该包涵你希望向读者表达的某个意思。不要使用谚语或者类似的陈词滥调,也不要尝试在你的文章里对这句引言作出解释。录取委员会更感兴趣的是你如何对这句谚语作出反应,而不是直白的解释。下面就是一个引言式开头的示例:
"'It's in my blood, it's in my veins, I am the ghost who entertains.' -- Peter Weiss, Wie dem Herrn Mockinpott das Leiden ausgetrieben wird"
对话式开头
这种开头把读者引入一场对话当中。它可能是真实的对话,也可能只是你的想法的一个小小片断:
"Stop foolin' around, old boy. How would anMBAhelp you? Better get on with your career." "First-rate skiing, the Winter Carnival, a bucolic setting, Ivy League football, and a great career at the end of it all? Who wouldn't want a Tuck MBA?"#p#分页标题#e#


耶鲁MBA钱永强ESSAY写作体验
(前言:钱永强老师是新东方资深讲师,尤其擅长逻辑教学,于1994年参加GMAT考试,1998年获得美国耶鲁大学商学院的奖学金,赴美就读MBA。在此之前他实际申请了8所美国院校,耶鲁、麻省理工大学、GEORGETON等名校先后向他发出录取邀请函,最后他选择了耶鲁。
有感于各校对ESSAY的书写的截然不同的要求,他愿与大家分享其经验体会,在此兹作GMAT作文的先手感觉。) 
  我们的问题是不知道美国人想得是什么,也不知道ESSAY该怎么写。开始我很希望新东方的老师能帮我改一改文章,最后发现谁也帮不了忙,他们能帮我的,只能是给予我一种思想。因为ESSAY要求的内容包罗万象--个人的体会,人生各方面的经历、人格的形成。在写作过程中,你会发现你把自己这二十多年的人生不知不觉重新审视了一遍。哈佛的校长曾经说过:写完这8篇ESSAY,你就知道你的一生应该干些什么。起初我毫不在意,写完后确实感到了这一点。 

  由于每位申请人都会写同样题目的文章,如果你泛泛而谈,写得枯燥无味,没有丝毫引人入胜的地方,那就根本没有打动人的资本。而且要把个人的人格、思想、经历写得多姿多彩,靠别人替你写,很难确切表达出个人的思路,而学校却恰恰希望通过ESSAY来了解你是不是一个MBA适合的人选。所以ESSAY的写作最重要的是: 
(1)要有自己的实力,对各个问题有自己的看法; 
(2)对于各ESSAY的选材起决定性作用。 

  以下从选材角度就各商学院的ESSAY做具体介绍:

  几乎每个商学院的ESSAY都会有这样一个问题--你对未来的发展计划如何以及选择这个学校的原因。要写好这篇文章,必须对申请的学校情况、教学特点有很详细的了解,这要通过认真阅读学校寄给你的资料,比如哈佛大学,了解其案例教学的特点,应该说明在商业环境中常常碰到的困惑,而哈佛的MBA对解决这些困惑,对人生的发展、未来的成功都有极其重要的作用。又如芝加哥大学,侧重于量化教学,对计算机、数学要求较高;沃顿商学院,着重点在于金融、期货、股票方面,对数学要求较多;西北商学院,特点是营销;耶鲁商学院,金融和非盈利性行业(我认为自己能拿到耶鲁的奖学金,原因就在于我在新东方的教学经验,属于非盈利性行业);MIT(麻省理工商学院)优势在于定量分析,对计算机要求较强。 

  申请人的独特的背景(BACKGROUND),即使你的生活确实平淡如水,也要另辟蹊径,写得波澜壮阔,一定要表现出独特的成就,展现出自己的优点,这些成就和优点并非惊心动魄的大事,只要富有特色,就不愁不打动人。 

  过去五年的成就,这其实指的是职业上、人生中、人格上的成就,有人写考上北京大学,考取全省第一名,这并不是真正意义的成就。要写一些人生中令你成熟的转折,对人格的有震撼力的事情,在生活、商业领域获得的巨大成功,还有对别人做出的巨大贡献。 

  我曾经看过一篇文章,写得是在三峡遭遇落水事件,作者同其他人尽全力也未能救出全部溺水的人,其中描写人对生命的渴求,写得感人肺腑,体现出自己的人格和感受——他获得了沃顿商学院的录取。 

  因为美国人宁愿看一个故事,也不愿平淡的经历。还有一篇写主持一个很小的机构的辛酸苦辣,也很感人。 

  课外活动和体育爱好,我写的是爬山,在爬山中感受到一山更比一山高,克服自我的心理历程。特别要注意每一篇文章都应尽量体现出你的精神状态和人格。 

  领导一个机构所带来的变革,这也是一个非常普遍而且非常难写的问题。我写的是在95年国外期货做得一帆风顺的时候,中国因为政策上的原因关闭了外汇市场的大门,通过巨大的转变,我被迫审视国内不成熟的市场,如何领导我的小组走过这个转变。 

  哈佛的8篇ESSAY题目分别为: 
1. 写一个你崇敬的人——从中看出他对你人格的影响; 
2. 你喜欢和不喜欢你的工作——写为什么喜欢(带来的挑战等等)为何不喜欢(为什么要读MBA);
3. 领导一个机构所带来的变革; 
4. 过去五年的成就; 
5. 面临一个两难的情况内心的斗争——也要体现人格的力量; 
6. 写一次失败——职业上的失败,对你的影响; 
7. 理想是什么; 
8. 独特的经历。 

  MIT(麻省理工商学院)的特色ESSAY题目为: 
1. 随着技术的成熟化,技术对全球经济的融合和管理方面所带来的变革; 
2. 对管理下几个定义。 

  芝加哥商学院的特色ESSAY题目为: 
1. 如果2000年TIME上刊登一篇关于你的文章,会如何描写你和你的成就。


1.) Introduction
a. Introduction to the topic
b. Thesis Statement
c. Essay Outline
2.) Body Paragraph 1
a. Transition Sentence
b. Essay point number 1
c. Explanation + Facts
3.) Body Paragraph 2
a. Transition Sentence
b. Essay point number 1
c. Explanation + Facts
4.) Conclusion
a. Transition Sentence
b. Restate important points and why they support your thesis

 

Terms commonly use in literature essays:
All fiction is based on conflict and this conflict is presented in a structured format called PLOT.
Exposition
The introductory material which gives the setting, creates the tone, presents the characters, and presents other facts necessary to understanding the story.
Foreshadowing
The use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in the story.
Inciting Force
The event or character that triggers the conflict.
Conflict
The essence of fiction. It creates plot. The conflicts we encounter can usually be identified as one of four kinds. (Man versus…Man, Nature, Society, or Self)
Rising Action
A series of events that builds from the conflict. It begins with the inciting force and ends with the climax.
Crisis
The conflict reaches a turning point. At this point the opposing forces in the story meet and the conflict becomes most intense. The crisis occurs before or at the same time as the climax.
Climax
The climax is the result of the crisis. It is the high point of the story for the reader. Frequently, it is the moment of the highest interest and greatest emotion. The point at which the outcome of the conflict can be predicted.
Falling Action
The events after the climax which close the story.
Resolution (Denouement)
Rounds out and concludes the action.
CHARACTERIZATION
MAJOR CHARACTERS
Almost always round or three-dimensional characters. They have good and bad qualities. Their goals, ambitions and values change. A round character changes as a result of what happens to him or her. A character who changes inside as a result of what happens to him is referred to in literature as a DYNAMIC character. A dynamic character grows or progresses to a higher level of understanding in the course of the story.
Protagonist
The main character in the story

Antagonist
The character or force that opposes the protagonist.

Foil
A character who provides a contrast to the protagonist.

MINOR CHARACTERS
Almost always flat or two-dimensional characters. They have only one or two striking qualities. Their predominant quality is not balanced by an opposite quality. They are usually all good or all bad. Such characters can be interesting or amusing in their own right, but they lack depth. Flat characters are sometimes referred to as STATIC characters because they do not change in the course of the story.
POINT OF VIEW
First Person
The narrator is a character in the story who can reveal only personal thoughts and feelings and what he or she sees and is told by other characters. He can’t tell us thoughts of other characters.
Third-Person Objective
The narrator is an outsider who can report only what he or she sees and hears. This narrator can tell us what is happening, but he can’t tell us the thoughts of the characters.
Third-Person Limited
The narrator is an outsider who sees into the mind of one of the characters.
Omniscient
The narrator is an all-knowing outsider who can enter the minds of more than one of the characters.
CONFLICT
Conflict is the essence of fiction. It creates plot. The conflicts we encounter can usually be identified as one of four kinds.
Man versus Man
Conflict that pits one person against another.
Man versus Nature
A run-in with the forces of nature. On the one hand, it expresses the insignificance of a single human life in the cosmic scheme of things. On the other hand, it tests the limits of a person’s strength and will to live.
Man versus Society
The values and customs by which everyone else lives are being challenged. The character may come to an untimely end as a result of his or her own convictions. The character may, on the other hand, bring others around to a sympathetic point of view, or it may be decided that society was right after all.
Man versus Self
Internal conflict. Not all conflict involves other people. Sometimes people are their own worst enemies. An internal conflict is a good test of a character’s values. Does he give in to temptation or rise above it? Does he demand the most from himself or settle for something less? Does he even bother to struggle? The internal conflicts of a character and how they are resolved are good clues to the character’s inner strength.#p#分页标题#e#
Often, more than one kind of conflict is taking place at the same time. In every case, however, the existence of conflict enhances the reader’s understanding of a character and creates the suspense and interest that make you want to continue reading.
FORESHADOWING
An author’s use of hints or clues to suggest events that will occur later in the story. Not all foreshadowing is obvious. Frequently, future events are merely hinted at through dialogue, description, or the attitudes and reactions of the characters.
Foreshadowing frequently serves two purposes. It builds suspense by raising questions that encourage the reader to go on and find out more about the event that is being foreshadowed. Foreshadowing is also a means of making a narrative more believable by partially preparing the reader for events which are to follow.
IRONY

Irony is the contrast between what is expected or what appears to be and what actually is.
Verbal Irony
The contrast between what is said and what is actually meant.
Irony of Situation
This refers to a happening that is the opposite of what is expected or intended.
Dramatic Irony
This occurs when the audience or reader knows more than the characters know.
TONE/MOOD
Tone
The author’s attitude, stated or implied, toward a subject. Some possible attitudes are pessimism, optimism, earnestness, seriousness, bitterness, humorous, and joyful. An author’s tone can be revealed through choice of words and details.
Mood
The climate of feeling in a literary work. The choice of setting, objects, details, images, and words all contribute towards creating a specific mood. For example, an author may create a mood of mystery around a character or setting but may treat that character or setting in an ironic, serious, or humorous tone
SYMBOLISM
A person, place or object which has a meaning in itself but suggests other meanings as well. Things, characters and actions can be symbols. Anything that suggests a meaning beyond the obvious.
Some symbols are conventional, generally meaning the same thing to all readers.
For example: bright sunshine symbolizes goodness and water is a symbolic cleanser.
THEME
The main idea or underlying meaning of a literary work. A theme may be stated or implied. Theme differs from the subject or topic of a literary work in that it involves a statement or opinion about the topic. Not every literary work has a theme. Themes may be major or minor. A major theme is an idea the author returns to time and again. It becomes one of the most important ideas in the story. Minor themes are ideas that may appear from time to time.
It is important to recognize the difference between the theme of a literary work and the subject of a literary work. The subject is the topic on which an author has chosen to write. The theme, however, makes some statement about or expresses some opinion on that topic. For example, the subject of a story might be war while the theme might be the idea that war is useless.
Four ways in which an author can express themes are as follows:
1. Themes are expressed and emphasized by the way the author makes us feel.. By sharing feelings of the main character you also share the ideas that go through his mind.
2. Themes are presented in thoughts and conversations. Authors put words in their character’s mouths only for good reasons. One of these is to develop a story’s themes. The things a person says are much on their mind. Look for thoughts that are repeated throughout the story.
3. Themes are suggested through the characters. The main character usually illustrates the most important theme of the story. A good way to get at this theme is to ask yourself the question, what does the main character learn in the course of the story?
4. The actions or events in the story are used to suggest theme. People naturally express ideas and feelings through their actions. One thing authors think about is what an action will "say". In other words, how will the action express an idea or theme?
IMAGERY: Language that appeals to the senses. Descriptions of people or objects stated in terms of our senses.
FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
Whenever you describe something by comparing it with something else, you are using figurative language. Any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a subject. The most common figures of speech are simile, metaphor, and alliteration.
Simile
A figure of speech which involves a direct comparison between two unlike things, usually with the words like or as. Example: The muscles on his brawny arms are strong as iron bands.
Metaphor
A figure of speech which involves an implied comparison between two relatively unlike things using a form of be. The comparison is not announced by like or as. Example: The road was a ribbon of moonlight.
Alliteration
Repeated consonant sounds occurring at the beginning of words or within words. Alliteration is used to create melody, establish mood, call attention to important words, and point out similarities and contrasts. Example: wide-eyed and wondering while we wait for others to waken.
Personification
A figure of speech which gives the qualities of a person to an animal, an object, or an idea. It is a comparison which the author uses to show something in an entirely new light, to communicate a certain feeling or attitude towards it and to control the way a reader perceives it. Example: a brave handsome brute fell with a creaking rending cry--the author is giving a tree human qualities.
Onomatopoeia
The use of words that mimic sounds. They appeal to our sense of hearing and they help bring a description to life. A string of syllables the author has made up to represent the way a sound really sounds. Example: Caarackle!
Hyperbole
An exaggerated statement used to heighten effect. It is not used to mislead the reader, but to emphasize a point. Example: She’s said so on several million occasions
Descriptive Essay:

1.) Introduction
a. Introduction to the topic
b. Main point in the paper
c. Essay Outline
2.) Body
a. Break down event chronologically, in order of importance, etc.
3.) Conclusion
a. Transition Sentence
b. Restate important points

Research Paper

Title Page
Abstract
Acknowledgements
Table of Contents
Outline of a Critical Essay
Notes: Footnotes, endnotes, and parenthetical in-text citiation
Bibliography
Appendix

Paraphrase, Summarize, Quotes

 



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