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中国的主要挑战和制约

时间:2016-02-01 18:01来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:anne 点击:
Introduction:介绍
 
在社区党建的18日,中国政府正在不断地蔓延到全球社会,这是中国新一代领导人是要提高改革,以构建一个可持续发展的,和谐和经济社会类型的明确和统一的信息。同时,在推进的过程中,中国政府将采取一定的积极,开放的战略,以及化妆努力找出双赢的解决方案。
新一代领导人接管中国在紧急时刻。尽管目前中国仍是全球各地的主要发展引擎,此重载型在中国的经济已经导致几个严重的后果,如创建大量财富的人的;生产日益膨胀的中产阶级;并形成大量的不满的农民。不幸的是,社会不平等是不是起因于重载经济的唯一问题。根据讲义,有中国新一代领导人正面临着三个主要的和紧迫的问题:1)污染; 2)腐败; 3)社会不平等。In the Community Party’s 18th, Chinese government is continuously spreading a type of clear and consolidated information to the global society, which is China’s new generation of leaders is going to improve the reformation in order to construct a sustainable, harmony and economic society. Meanwhile, in the process of promoting, Chinese government will take certain active and open strategies as well as make endeavors to figure out the win-win solution. 
The new generation of leaders takes over China in a urgent timing. Even though currently China is still a primary developing engine around the whole world, this overloaded type of economy in China had resulted to several serious consequences, such as creating large amounts of fortune for someone; producing an increasingly inflatable middle class; and forming lots of dissatisfactions from farmers. Unfortunately, social inequality is not the only issue that resulted from the overloaded economy. According to Lecture Notes, there are three main and urgent problems that Chinese new generation of leaders are facing with: 1) pollution; 2) corruption; 3) social inequality.
 
Section One: Pollution第一部分:污染
 
自1978年改革和开放的世界,中国在发展经济的一个突出成果。在改革,中国经历了经济体制根本性转变,从高度密集的刨光经济体制转变为社会主义市场经济。在这个过渡,中国也得到了来自全世界的关注,也是一个成就。从文章“中国的环境问题:是一家专门法院的解决方案”,这表明,2010年中国国内生产总值达到6.04万亿美元,这意味着中国已经赶上日本成为第二大经济体,整个世界各地(Goelz2009年)。然而,这一成绩也带来了一些中国的潜力和不可忽视的环境问题。这里有一个主要的污染,中国的领导层应与处理:空气污染。Since the reformation and openness to the world in 1978, China has an outstanding outcome in developing the economy. Over the reformation, China experienced a radical shift in its economic system, changing from a highly intensive planed economic system to a socialist market economy. During this transition, China also got an attention from the entire world as well as an achievement. From the article “China’s Environmental Problems: Is A Speicialized Court The Solution?”, it shows that in 2010 China’s GDP reached to 6.04 trillion in US dollars, meaning that China has caught up with Japan to be the second biggest economy around the whole world (Goelz 2009).However, this achievement also brings China some potential and unignored environmental problems. There have a primary pollutions that Chinese leadership should handle with: air pollution.
According to Darcey J. Goelz (2009, pp.158-9), he states out some reasons in leading to the environmental issues, saying that the very seeming reason is resulted from some breakdowns and dangerous transitions in the process of production. But the other principle and direct reason is that individual, corporation and local government focus too much on the pace of growth as well as neglect the long-term consequences that polluting environment might bring to us (Goelz 2009, p.159).Nowadays, the air pollution is a huge problem to Chinese leadership, since the air quality is a lot worse in China, especially in those main industrial cities. According to the article “China faces massive pollution challenge”, it describes that particles with an aerodynamic diameter should be less than 2.5 to qualify a health environment (Shapiro J 2012). Unfortunately, in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, andXi’an, PM2.5 concentration levels in these four cities all exceed World Health Organization air quality guidelines (Shapiro J 2012). However, even though Chinese government can aware of the seriousness of this issue, it is hard for them to fundamentally shift the economic growth model, which can release huge amounts of coal consumption. Based upon the current developing situations, it is tough for China to change the model in one second. At the same time, one trouble also matters most in solving the air pollution issue is to reduce the coal consumption. There are several measures, they should take in order to relieve the degree of coal consumption as well as develop a sustainable economy in China. So, the biggest challenge for Chinese leadership is to arise the awareness of protecting the air quality. If Chinese leaders do not take it seriously, this issue can be a potentially socialistic disorder factor. The fact is that currently Chinese people, especially the Middle-Class people, concern more about the benefits they can get, but not the affects they will have. To some extent, Chinese government should have the ability to compulsorily shift the way of people’s thinking in increasing economic benefits, but not natural ones. 
What is more, in reducing the using of coal consumption, there are three measures Chinese leaders can make. The first one is trying to vigorously develop circular economy (Ho & Nielsen 2007, p.99). Circular economy is, following by ecology rules, more reasonable to implement natural resources and environmental capacity (Ellen Macarthur Foundation 2014). Meanwhile, on the basis of cyclic utilization, it makes economy system harmoniously embrace human beings into the process of natural circle. Thus, circular economy can realize the increase via abiding by the rule of ecological system as well as taking accounts of social, economic and environmental perspectives (Ellen MacArthur Foundation 2014). Instead of using the traditional way of producing, circular economy might cost too much for China at the present time. Even though Chinese government and corporations have the senses or consciousness of decreasing discharge the garbage, it still takes time to really fix this issue because of the huge amounts of expenditures. However, if Chinese people feel the seriousness of air pollution, everyone should and automatically act as an air protector, same as in United States. DuPont Co. put forward the “Rules of 3R” through giving up producing environmentally hazardous substances, reducing deleterious wastes, recycling and reuse the wastes, and designing a product with multifunction (The Three R’s of the environment 2014). Overall, the first challenge for Chinese leadership might be arising people’s consciousness of reducing coal consumption, and realizing the seriousness of air pollution.
The second one is improving the green technology. Essentially “Green Technology” is a new tech that can accelerate the environmental development to human beings as well as build a harmony environment for humans and nature (Ho & Nielsen 2007, p.154). Specifically, to develop “Green Technology”, leaders have to figure out certain kinds of technological methods that can be worked for every single corporation, such as employing the alternatives of nonrenewable resources, developing the skill of renewing those limited resources, and providing various types of skills in recycling natural resources. Hence, Chinese leaders should seek more helps from certain developed countries, which successfully solved or partially reduced the degree of air pollution. What is more, developing Green Technology should be got some financial supports from the country, meaning that government does have that much finance to continuously explore this issue. And scientific people also should be a main force in solving this issue, showing that in the next few years Chinese leaders should concentrate a lot on fostering more people in technology or related to this field.
 
Section Two: Corruption第二节:腐败

According to the dictionary, the definition of corruption is a dishonest behavior by those in positions of power, such as managers or government officials (Investopedia 2014). Corruption can contain giving or accepting brides or improper gifts, double-dealing, under-the-table transactions, manipulating elections, etc. (Investopedia 2014). For China, corruption issue is a historical problem. At the very beginning of establishing, Chinese government suffered a big problem in corrupting, but at that time Beijing government tried to draw some lessons from the past and thereafter effectively control it finally. However, since going into 20 century, China has been in trouble with corruption issue for several times (Lubman 2014). At the present time, there has an existence with individual corruption and group corruption, making the situation to be more severe, challengeable, and complicated (Lubman 2014). Meanwhile, in certain fields the behaviors of corruption are becoming open and systemized. The above phenomenon reflects the first challenge for Chinese leadership in coping with corruption issue in that it is complex and expanding.
Since corruption will damage the development of social economy as well as hurt the stability of political environment. Therefore, Chinese new leaders should strengthen the construction of political system, enlarge the coverage of anti-corruption education, increase the management of incorrupt protection, reinforceconstrain or supervision of power, and intensify the efforts of punishment in corruption. The above are second types of challenges for Chinese leadership to deal with corruption issue. For example, China’s new leader Xi Jinping begins to go against the corruption issue in decreasing the expenditures in restaurant (Roberts 2014). It is a meaningful, direct and useful way to reduce the occasion of corruption, but the side-affect is that it also hits the growth of China’s restaurants (Roberts 2014).


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