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Management Essay:跨国公司的现代商业伦理挑战

时间:2016-05-05 16:14来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

Management Essay:跨国公司的现代商业伦理挑战
Ethical Challenges Of Multinational Companies In Modern Business Management Essay

 

介绍:

商业伦理决策的概念包括一个商业组织中所有方面的操作。总有一个组织的最终结构的问题,这是至关重要的,因为它将有助于帮助平稳运行生产商品和服务。总是倾向于道德问题出现在全球市场和跨国组织也不例外。相反,积极的道德实践的一个组织是非常重要的(Etzioni 1988赫斯克特科特和,1988)这通常会促进这样一个组织的形象,因为他们在竞争非常激烈的市场往往胜过其他人。

关于跨国组织的挑战,假如员工的动机是为一个组织的社会?他们展示的社会责任感?还是单独组织严格的企业将受益吗?是什么国家的跨国组织的责任企业所在地或位于?跨国公司如何执行在一个伦理和社会责任?

跨国组织,将在这篇文章将会讨论沃尔玛。跨国组织经历一个动态的、复杂的全球市场,正确和错误可以被解释为广泛不同(Donaldson 1985, 1989).

法律规定某些企业在一个组织在一个国家可以有其差异和矛盾,然而当其他县具有国际而言,强度不一致甚至更加多样化。

组织中谨慎的努力成为真正的道德必须评估和测量规则和规定的国家企业。这些组织必须意识到,必须符合东道国的国内法律。


介绍:——Introduction:
 

The concept of ethics to business decisions encompasses all aspects of operations in a business organisation. There is always the question of what the ultimate structure of an organisation would be, this is vital as it would help aid the smooth running in the production of goods and services. There is always a tendency for ethical issues to arise in a global market and multinational organisations are no exceptions. On the contrary, the positive ethical practices of an organisation are highly important (Etzioni, 1988 Kotter and Heskett, 1992) this would normally boost the image of such an organisation as they tend to have an edge over others in a very competitive market.

In regards to the challenges of multinational organisations, does it matter if employees are motivated to contribute to an organisation in a society? Are they demonstrating a sense of social responsibility? Or is it strictly businesses that would benefit the organisation alone? What is the duty of the multinational organisations in the countries businesses are located or situated? How can Multinationals perform in an ethical and socially responsible way?

The Multinational organisation that would be discussed in the course of this essay would be Wal-Mart. Multinational organisations undergo a dynamic and complex global market, where right and wrong could be interpreted as widely different (Donaldson 1985, 1989).

Laws governing certain businesses within an organisation in an individual country could have its variances and inconsistencies, nevertheless when other counties are internationally concerned, the intensity of inconsistency is even more diverse.

Organisations that have made a cautious effort to be truly ethical must evaluate and measure the rules and regulations governing the countries in which businesses are carried out. These organisations must be aware of and must conform to the host country's domestic laws. Not neglecting trade organisations such as United Nations as well as international agreement between companies.

The United States has made it unlawful to bribe high level foreign officials to acquire or retain businesses in overseas. By 1995 October, approximately 45 billion dollars of international business was eliminated according to congress (Greenberger, 1995). It is therefore important to come up with solutions to Multinational ethical dilemmas.

What is Ethics?什么是道德?

Ethics is one of those terms when mentions, a lot of things come to mind so as a result, Ethics could be define in various ways. It is said to be a system that rules and governs the body, a science with rules governing it's principles whether good or bad, rules in practice of human actions. For example, Social ethics, political ethics.Authors from different parts of the world have also defined ethics in a lot of different ways. (Holtzapple and Recce 2003) they defined ethics as "The general and abstract concepts of right and wrong behaviour were derived from philosophy, theology, and professional societies."In the same way, (Martin and Sherry, 2000) in their terms say ethics means moral principles through ethical, cultural and religious irrespective of the situation or circumstance. They claim that ethics should be based on character or behaviour. Trust could be embraced when these values are maintained.

Ethics is said to be "that branch of philosophy dealing with values relating to human conduct, with respect to the rightness and wrongness of certain actions and to the goodness and badness of the motives and ends of such actions". (dictionary.com).

Multinational organisations and their Relationships:
Multinational organisations have the ability to move about a massive amount of resources globally. Moving things from one location to the other would be the least of its problems. A lot of things that could limit profit could be worked around if things like environmental standards, production costs, taxes, safety at the work place, production costs (Desjardins and McCall, 1990). The size of a multinational organisation and power could play a huge impact on the policy issues in a nation, such issues would be felt more by relationships with developing nations as supposed to developed nations.

Multinational organisations must realize that, the culture of an organisation could have an effect on the behaviour of an employee within an organisation. an organisational culture could affect the behaviour of employees in an organisation.

Getz (1990) came up with a list of Multinational organisations, how they were interrelated and their rights as well as their duties. Getz (1990) classified Multinational organisations into three categories:

(i) MNC with host governments

(ii) MNC with the general public.

(iii) MNC with individual people.

Multinationals must think about its responsibilities in relation to a number of other things such as political engagements, regulations and laws, developmental and economic policies. The requirements in these areas consist of (but are not restricted to) providing local, raw materials, equity participation, preferential treatment to local sources. The MNC is not above the regulations, laws and jurisdiction of the host and should use suitable international disagreement resolution mechanisms when necessary. MNCS should avoid interfering with improper political activities, intergovernmental issues nor pay bribes to public servants. Getz suggests that control of the host is the basic right that must be recognized and respected by the MNC.

If the country is a developing country, it could be helpful if some research is carried out by the host country and it would save a lot of costs as well if local personnel are and local resources to every reasonable extent.

MNCs should also give licenses, in terms of realistic terms and conditions, for using properties and rights. In the area of environmental protection, MNCs should collaborate with the host country in producing and increasing national and international environmental security standards, as well as notifying the host of any possible environmental impact of the goods manufactured, services executed, and/or processes made use of.

Finally, the relationship between MNCs and people rotates around consumer guidance, human rights issues and employment practices. MNCs should value consumer laws of protection and preserve the safety and health of consumers through accurate advertising and appropriate labelling.

MNC should also endorse a non-discriminatory employment policy, provide sufficient training for local employees, value workers' rights to organize for collective bargaining, discuss with with workers' representatives on labour matters, and have an objective of stable employment. Human rights responsibilities require that MNCs not discriminate on the basis of religion, gender or race and that these organisations respect the cultural and social objectives, traditions and values of the countries in which they function (Getz, 1990)

The relationship between MNCs and the public has two major categories: technology transfer and environmental protection issues (Getz, 1990). With regard to technology

Culture, according to Hofstede is a combination of mental programming that differentiates various groups from others that is seen in the beliefs and values of a society (Hofstede, 1980).

Grosse and Kojawa (1992) define culture as the result or outcome in a given situation accepted by people in terms of observing and the responses accordingly. Vines and Napier (1992) define culture as ". . . that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.

The massive differences in culture generate a lot of managerial issues and ethical problems, are no exceptions. Recognising the relationship between the economic, cultural and political aspects facing multinationals is, however a firm ground from which to identify the necessity for international codes for organisations carrying out international business.

Characteristics of Wal-Mart Facing Unethical practices:
Wal-Mart, a gigantic company retain a lot of customers, both home and away are widely known for their enormous variety of goods and services at low prices. It was founded by Sam Walton, a very creative and innovative entrepreneur.



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