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经济学专业的essay怎么写(附范文)

时间:2018-08-01 16:57:21 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:未知 点击:102
经济学是当前非常热门的专业,每年都有大量的留学生去欧美国家学习深造。不过在欧美国家留学,都要面对各式各样的essay。经济学essay不仅涉及经济学专业知识理论,还有一堆数据和图表,另外还涉及一些计算和编程知识,对于综合能力要求很高,想要写好并不容易,下面小编给大家带来一篇经济学essay写作攻略,最后还精选了一篇范文以供参考。有代写需求的同学可以直接联系本站客服噢。
一、经济学essay写作要点
1.选择合适的主题
大部分的留学生Essay写作话题都是老师规定的,不过,即使在规定的话题范围内,我们仍然有充分的自主发挥空间。因此,当我们拿到一个新命题的时候,首先要考虑的事情就是要选择什么样的话题:是泛泛而谈更容易抓住读者,还是选择一个特定的角度更吸引人?
2.写论文前先做大纲
一篇成功的Essay永远都是目的明确、环环相扣的,可以将它们有条理地组织在一起,使文章符合逻辑。这时候,大纲就派上了用场,使整个文章的脉络、思路会变得更加清晰,而且,这种大纲结构完全可以作为论文的基础,在真正写作的时候,思路才会更加流畅。
3.文章主体要最先完成
在文章的起步阶段,我们并没有做足够的research,甚至都还没有得到非常确定的结论,这时候着手写下一步Introduction,绝对不可能一步到位,所以,先写文章主体,一边写作一边整理思路,把Introduction放到后面完成,反而可以节省时间。
4.介绍部分要有特点
完成主体部分后,相信我们得出的结论、整体的文章思路已经非常清晰,这时候再来写介绍部分是最合适不过的。
5.结论要简洁有力
结论是对论文整体思路的总结,因此,在结论部分,新观点就不应该再出现了。那么,我们应该写些什么呢?亮出之前推导出的最终观点,并用三五个简洁的句子对推导过程进行简单的解释、回顾,并且再一次强调文章得出的结论,这样,一个强有力的结尾就诞生啦~
6.最后的检查很重要
写完结论就万事大吉了?No!有时候一些小细节可是会严重影响老师的印象的!即使deadline近在眼前,以下这些细节也一定要再检查一遍。
二、经济学essay范文:Debt management
摘要:这篇论文讨论了负债经营。随着企业的发展,有的可能自有资金已经不能满足发展的需求,即使硬件设施跟得上,但是由于资金不足,不能投入生产,往往会导致错失良机,造成损失。这时候很多企业会选择借款去进行投资或者继续扩大规模,提高自身的竞争力,从而获得更大的利润,这就是负债经营。虽然负债经营可以给企业带来利润,但是同时,也存在各种各样的风险,稍有不慎,就会陷入财务危机。
With the development of enterprises and the expansion of scale, self-owned funds can no longer meet the development needs of enterprises. Even if the hardware facilities can keep up with them, they cannot be put into production due to insufficient funds, which will often lead to missed opportunities and losses. At this time, many enterprises will choose to borrow money for investment or continue to expand their scale to improve their competitiveness, so as to achieve greater profits. Debt management can bring profits to enterprises, but at the same time, there are all kinds of risks. A little carelessness will lead to financial crisis. Combined with the case of kaisa group, this paper analyzes various risks in the liability management of enterprises, so as to enable enterprises to correctly understand this financing method, improve the capital condition, avoid risks and maximize profits.
 
With the development of enterprises and the expansion of production scale, if enterprises only rely on their own accumulation to develop, it is likely to limit the production scale and even break the capital chain. In this case, enterprises can obtain funds by borrowing. As a low-cost external financing method, including bank loans, bond issuance and commercial credit, liability management has become an indispensable financing method in enterprise operation, which can not only relieve the pressure of capital, accelerate the flow of funds, but also save tax. At the same time, many failed enterprises are unable to repay due debts due to overpaying ability and excessive borrowing, and eventually go bankrupt, or are restricted by production due to debt, thus missing out on opportunities. Therefore, how to make reasonable use of debt management, control and avoid risks and maximize profits has become an inevitable problem for enterprises to solve on the road to success.
 
The most important reason for enterprises to use debt management is insufficient accumulation of their own, while debt management can quickly raise external funds and improve the strength of enterprises. Debt management can not only replenish capital for financing enterprises, but also collect and utilize idle funds from the society by issuing bonds to realize resource integration, which is more beneficial to realize the development strategy of enterprises.
 
If an enterprise raises funds by issuing shares, new shareholders have the right to vote on the operation of the company and can also share the accumulated surplus of the company, thus reducing the net earnings per share of common stock. However, in debt financing, creditors do not participate in the management of the company and do not share the accumulated earnings of the company, so as to avoid diluting the control of common shareholders.
 
The interest paid by the enterprise to the creditor is not related to the profit level of the enterprise. When the return rate of the enterprise's total assets changes, it will bring greater changes to the earnings per share. Because of financial leverage, owners gain more when the rate of interest on debt is lower than the rate of return on capital. Therefore, debt management is of great importance to increase the rate of return on equity capital.
 
Relative to equity financing, when the company goes through bankruptcy liquidation and distributes the remaining assets, the creditor takes priority in the distribution of preferred stock and common stock shareholders, and takes less risks than shareholders. Therefore, the expected investment return rate of creditors is lower than that of shareholders, which reduces the financing cost of debtors.
 
According to the relevant provisions of the enterprise income tax law of the People's Republic of China, debt interest can be deducted when calculating the taxable income of enterprises, so enterprises can make full use of this function to reduce the operating burden.
 
Because the standard of corporate debt repayment is the book value of liabilities, which is not affected by inflation and deflation, the amount that enterprises should repay is lower than the real amount of borrowed money in the case of inflation, thus alleviating the negative effect of currency depreciation.
 
In the process of debt management, enterprises may borrow money on a large scale because they do not want to miss the opportunity. However, they do not evaluate their solvency. In the environment of independent management and self-financing, enterprises should establish correct financial risk awareness, conduct scientific risk assessment, prevent and successfully deal with risks.
 
Keeping a good capital flow is an important measure to deal with risks in the operation of liabilities. When the liquidity of assets is good, when the debt crisis occurs, the liquidity is strong and the solvency is strong, so the ability to resist financial risks becomes stronger.
 
In the case of the good trillion industry, because of its no good risk awareness, in the process of the market, to a large amount of debt to construction and development, after the housing is locked, because 80% of the assets as part of the land, property, etc., cashability is low, causing a debt crisis, not only unable to repay, or even don't have enough working capital, eventually lead to debt restructuring. In addition, as enterprises believe that foreign currency borrowing is not a large proportion, there has been no corresponding hedging policy. For example, large adverse changes in the exchange rate will increase the pressure on enterprises to repay debts.
 
Enterprise in debt, the creditor will often to reduce risk and limit lines and USES of funds, so the debtor debt can be used to supplement capital, but in fact often borrowed amount is not very big, at the time of financial crisis will be failed to such problems as insufficient amount of lending or borrowing, so enterprises operating in good condition, should reserve some cash or cash equivalents, keep a reserve/some reserves financing ability, in addition to help to solve the financial crisis, to meet a good investment opportunity, can invest in a timely manner, to earn maximum profit. In addition to maintaining the right amount of cash, enterprises should improve the quality of assets and maintain the liquidity of assets.
 
In the case of the good trillion industry, in the first half of 2014 its cash and cash equivalents accounts for less than 9% of total assets, suggesting that companies are most of the money used for investment, business development, but the outbreak of the debt crisis has reflected the ability to raise reserve is insufficient, can't in a short time to raise money or use its own funds to return loan.#p#分页标题#e#
 
The capital structure, that is, the ratio of liabilities to equity, allows enterprises to operate in debt, on the one hand, they can obtain the tax deduction income of debt interest, on the other hand, they will get into financial difficulties due to excessive debts or failure to repay them in time. The cost brought by financial difficulties to enterprises, such as reduced operating income, reduced operating value, and debt restructuring costs, will lead to the outflow of cash from enterprises. Therefore, enterprises need to balance the income from debt tax deduction and the cost of financial difficulties. When the debt-tax return is equal to or close to the cost of financial distress, the company achieves the optimal capital structure. Working capital financing strategy refers to how to raise funds for current assets in general, using short-term sources of funds or long-term sources of funds, or both. This strategy has three types: one is the moderate financing policy, that is, to implement the matching principle of financing as far as possible, long-term investment is supported by long-term funds, and short-term investment is supported by short-term funds. Second, conservative financing policies. Short-term financial liabilities only meet the financial needs of some volatile current assets, while the other part of volatile current assets and all stable current assets are supported by long-term sources of funds. Third, the radical financing policy. Short-term financial liabilities not only meet the financial needs of volatile current assets, but also meet the financial needs of some long-term assets. If an enterprise needs to carry out liability management, it should consider the funding sources of long-term and short-term assets, and select appropriate working capital financing strategies based on its actual situation.
 
In the case of kaisa, as shown in figure 1, the capital structure of the company is unreasonable and the amount of liabilities is much higher than the amount of equity. The total liabilities were 149.01% higher than the total equity in 2011, and as high as 210.11% in the first half of 2014, resulting in excessive financial risks of the company.
 
In the course of operation, kaisa issued a large number of bonds to raise funds, with low interest expenses and issuing costs. Meanwhile, it also used bill financing with low interest rate. All of these financing methods reduce the financing cost of enterprises, so that more cash flow can be used for production development.
 
The market is constantly changing, and the interest rate and exchange rate are also constantly changing. If enterprises do not conduct market research before financing, they should try to use floating interest rate to calculate the interest rate when the interest rate is low. When the expected interest rate will rise, the fixed interest rate can be used to calculate the interest rate, so as to stabilize the interest expenditure. Of course, when interest rates are low, we should not blindly over-fund. When raising foreign currency funds, we should pay attention to the change of exchange rate and timely adjust the financing plan.
 
In debt management, many enterprises may have excessive debt or even default on debt. Such high debt causes serious financial risks and damages their own reputation, making it difficult to refinance. Therefore, enterprises should establish an effective mechanism to maintain their reputation. As for accounts receivable and payable, financial data should be sorted out in a timely manner, accounts receivable should be prepared for bad debts, and follow-up work on accounts receivable, so as to timely recover the funds that can supplement the enterprise and improve its solvency. Accounts payable, pay attention to the payment time, timely payments will reduce the effect of financial leverage, but maintain enterprise credibility, to achieve the virtuous cycle of "borrow" not hard, otherwise, although delayed payment may ease tensions and obtain the time value of money, but not conducive to the prestige, when in trouble, no one will lend a helping hand.
 
Debt management is the operation strategy of most enterprises, and debt does not necessarily become a burden for enterprises. If enterprises want to maximize their profits, they also need to make proper use of debt management. However, financing is bound to meet various risks. By correctly recognizing risks, taking preventive measures, controlling risks within an acceptable range and avoiding financial crisis, losses can be reduced. In addition, when borrowing, we should follow the principle of moderation, act within our means, correctly understand the double-sided nature of debt management, make good use of the positive effect, and formulate the best debt management strategy according to our actual situation, so as to make the enterprise develop better and faster.


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