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硕士结课Essay格式范文:What kind of value commitments has a legitimat

时间:2019-08-02 11:07来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
1.0 Introduction介绍 社会科学是以社会现象为研究对象的科学。其任务是研究和阐述各种社会现象及其发展规律(Burawoy,2005年,第4-6页;Weber,1949年,第50-65页)。但是,社会发展规律与自然规律
1.0 Introduction介绍
社会科学是以社会现象为研究对象的科学。其任务是研究和阐述各种社会现象及其发展规律(Burawoy,2005年,第4-6页;Weber,1949年,第50-65页)。但是,社会发展规律与自然规律有很大的区别。因此,自然科学方法往往被用来研究社会科学,这有很大的不足,而忽视自然科学方法将使自然科学方法和结论不那么客观(Burawoy,2005年,第4-6页;Weber,1949年,第50-65页)。在不影响社会科学客观性的前提下,研究者在社会科学研究过程中能够传达什么样的价值承诺,一直是困扰社会科学发展的问题之一。韦伯最著名的著作之一阐述了社会科学的研究方法和原理。韦伯分别运用价值相关性、理想类型和价值中立性的概念,从研究对象的选择、研究方法和研究结果评论等方面说明社会科学是如何客观的(韦伯,1949年)。韦伯理论为解决社会科学研究的客观问题提供了一种有价值的方法。本文根据韦伯(1949)的理论分析了特里凡特(2013,第563-580页)的研究,探讨了什么样的价值承诺在社会科学中具有合法的作用。本文首先介绍了韦伯的价值关联理论,分析了Triventi(2013,第563-580页)在研究对象选择中的价值承诺问题。然后提出了韦伯的理想类型理论,并从研究方法的角度探讨了特里凡特(2013,第563-580页)的价值承诺问题。接着运用韦伯的价值中立理论分析了特里凡特(2013年第563-580页)在评价结果中的价值承诺问题,最后对韦伯理论的不足之处进行了评述。
Social science refers to science that takes social phenomena as its research object. Its task is to study and elaborate various social phenomena and their development laws (Burawoy, 2005, p.4-6; Weber, 1949, p. 50-65). However, there are great differences between the law of social development and the laws of nature. Therefore, natural science methods are often used to study social science, which has great deficiencies, while ignoring natural science methods will make natural science methods and conclusions less objective (Burawoy, 2005, p.4-6; Weber, 1949, p. 50-65). It is always one of the problems plaguing the development of social science that what kind of value commitments researchers can convey in the process of social science research without affecting the objectivity of social science. One of Weber's most famous works expound the research methods and principles of social science. Weber used the concepts of value relevance, ideal type, and value neutrality respectively to illustrate how social science is objective in terms of the selection of research objects, research methods, and commentary on research results (Weber, 1949).  Weber's theory provides a valuable method for solving the objective problems of social science research. This article analyzed the research of Triventi’s (2013, p. 563-580) according to Weber's (1949) theory, and explored what kind of value commitments have a legitimate role in social science. This article first introduced Weber's value relevance theory, and analyzed the problem of Triventi’s (2013, p. 563-580) value commitments in the selection of research objects. Then it provided Weber's ideal type theory and discussed Triventi’s (2013, p. 563-580) problems of value commitments in terms of research methods. Followed by Weber's value neutrality theory to analyze Triventi’s (2013 p. 563-580) problems of value commitments in the evaluation of results, finally, the author commented the shortcomings of Weber's theory.
 
2.0 Main body主体
2.1 Value relevance and selection of research object价值关联与研究对象选择
韦伯(1949,第50-65页)认为社会科学研究的对象是一种文化现象,社会科学的任务是认识而不是评价社会经济文化现象。然而,我们面临的研究课题数量是如此之多。我们如何选择我们研究的对象?一般来说,选择自己关注的研究者会受到很多个人因素的影响,包括他的学术背景、研究兴趣,甚至他的物质兴趣、宗教信仰等(韦伯,1949年,第50-65页)。正因为如此,不同的研究者会选择不同的研究对象来关注,这完全取决于他的个人立场和态度,也就是他的价值取向。这就是所谓的价值关系(Weber,1949年,第50-65页;Hammersley,2016年,第1-11页)。就研究对象而言,虽然研究者必须根据自己的价值观在各种具体的社会现象之间进行选择,但从这个角度来看,建立一个研究对象必然是主观的。然而,这种选择是基于研究的意义,而不是基于研究者的主观喜好和厌恶(标题,2004年,第1639-1643页;Hammersley,2016年,第1-11页)。也就是说,研究者可以痛恨毒品和犯罪,或者对宗教信仰漠不关心,但这并不排除研究者会研究这些特定的社会现象,只要他认为这些现象具有重大的研究意义。Weber (1949, p. 50-65) believed that the object of social science research is a cultural phenomenon, and the task of social science is to recognize rather than evaluate social economic and cultural phenomena. However, the number of research subjects we face is so numerous. How do we select the objects we study? Generally speaking, a researcher who chooses his concern will be influenced by many of his personal factors, including not only his academic background, research interest, and even his material interests, religious beliefs, etc. (Weber, 1949, p. 50-65). It is precisely because of this that different researchers will choose different research objects to pay attention to, which depends entirely on his personal position and attitude, that is, on his value orientation. This is the so-called value relationship (Weber, 1949, p. 50-65; Hammersley, 2016, p. 1-11). As far as a research subject is concerned, although a researcher must choose between various concrete social phenomena based on his own values, from this perspective, the establishment of a research subject will inevitably be subjective. However, this choice is made based on the significance of the study, it is not based on the subjective likes and dislikes of the researcher (Title, 2004, p. 1639-1643; Hammersley, 2016, p.1-11). That is to say, a researcher can hate drugs and crimes, or he is indifferent to religious beliefs, but this does not rule out that the researcher will study these specific social phenomena, as long as he thinks that these phenomena have great research significance. 
As for Triventi’s (2013, p. 563–580) article, why the author chose gender differences between men and women as a research topic, because a large number of studies have shown that there are many harms to the gender differences in wages between men and women, including: violations of the principles of fairness and equality, which do not contribute to the establishment of corporate image, and the establishment of harmonious labor relations, and so on. However, it is not very objective to merely take this as a research aim, as not all gender differences in wages will cause these harms. Wage differences are common in real society. There are many reasons leading to the differences in wages. These differences exist not only between men and women, but also between different countries and regions, and between different companies (Wilton, 2007, p.520-38; Mandel and Semyonov, 2006, p. 1910-49; Halaby, 2003, p. 251-78). In the theory of human resource management, the difference in employee wages caused by performance appraisal finally plays a role in motivating employees, which is even recognized. It is also widely used by enterprises. This shows that the existence of wage differences is a widespread social phenomenon, and in many cases it can be reasonably explained (Wilton, 2007, p. 520-38). The view believing that wage differences between men and women are completely unreasonable may be too subjective. With such a subjective attitude to conduct research will inevitably affect the objectivity of research. From the perspective of value relevance, it is acceptable to study the subject with a certain subjective attitude, but it should be more objective in explaining and studying the research significance of this topic. So why should we study the gender differences between men and women, objective explanations are needed, including not that all wage differences between men and women are unreasonable, and what differences between men and women are reasonable and irrational, to what extent the differences in wages between men and women are inappropriate, what bad outcomes will be caused by unfair wage differences between men and women, and what significance will be brought by research on this unreasonable differences to a society. 
2.2 Ideal types and research methods
When Weber explained how to determine objects of social science research, the next thing is how to achieve this goal. This involves research methods of social science. Weber (1949, p. 50-65) introduced his own concept of "ideal type". In Weber's research methodology, this is a very important concept. Here, Weber showed how to use the concept of "ideal type" to programmatically complete the revealing of causal relationships between specific social phenomena (Hammersley, 2016, p.1-11). For example, to study the social phenomenon of "democracy," the first step in Weber's view is to construct an ideal type of "democracy." Some of the most crucial characteristics of democracy, such as free elections, confrontational parties, the legitimate power of the opposition, the decentralization of power, and the protection of civil liberties, are necessary elements of the democratic model of the ideal type. Using this as a frame of reference, it is found that communist or socialist democracy has a considerable distance from this. In contrast, the Western democratic political system is closer to the ideal democratic model. On this basis, it can be concluded that Western democracy is more democratic than socialist democracy (Weber, 1949, p. 50-65).


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