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Essay写作结构要点

时间:2020-04-29 16:30来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:Hpan317 点击:
人们把essay称作话题作文和论文的统称,在国外,人们将话题作文和论文统称essay,Essay可以看做是说明文,也可以是议论文。总体来说就是引用别的事物来证明某个观点。Essay的套路也是很深。
Essay写作结构要点
 
我们称Essay为主题写作和论文的总称,在国外,人们都将主题写作和论文称为Essay。 综上所述,这是通过引用其他对象来证明一种观点,而写Essay要注意的结构问题是非常重要的,因此今天让我们对其进行挖掘。

Essay写作结构要点

Essay的结构:

1)Introduction
Introduction包括:general statements和thesis statement (thesis statement的定义是:a kind of mini-outline for the paper)。这个一般叫introductory paragraph,通常是为了告诉读者what the essay is about。本部分的最后一句还必须包含一个过渡的“钩子hook”,它将读者移动到文章正文的第一段。也就是要过渡得好。
 
Example
Women employees right are not effectively protected. Under these circumstances, labor law may be a good way to save woman from a bad job situation.thesis statement
The essay will explain in detail the women sexual harassment from the phenomenon of women employees’ condition in work place and the labor law about female sexual harassment in western Europe. In addition, it will also describe the wage inequality between male and female workers. Furthermore, the phenomenon, the effects and the law about maternity leave in western Europe all will be referred precisely. (文章内容构成)
In the UK, 90 percent of female workers had suffered sexual harassment (Bajema & Timmerman 1998). hook
 
2)Body
​​一般来说,essay的body paragraph(正文段)写作结构如下: 
1)  Topic Sentence:主题句(一句话阐明本段的论点) 
2)  Assertion statements:主张句(几句话阐述你的论点) 
3)  example(s):举例(列举一些事实) 
4)  Explanation:解释(说明以上事实为什么能支撑你的论点) 
5)  Significance:意义(总结说明为什么本段论点能论证全文的主题) 
 
也可以更简单地分为三个部分,在美国这被称为“汉堡包结构”: 
1)  Topic Sentence:主题句 
2)  Supporting Evidence:证据 
3)  Conclusion Sentence:总结句
 
Example
In western Europe, about 66% female employees have admitted that they had been harassed by their superiors (Timmerman et al. 1998). Assertion statements
Cela (2015) explain that sexual harassment in the workplace includes one-time harassment and multiple sexual harassment. Women are more likely to be harassed.example+ Explanation
If the offender is the manager of a female victim, the offender may use their right to threaten them by controlling the performance evaluation and work incentives of the female staff.Significance
 
1Topic Sentence主题句的写作要点
 
首先,注意主题句应该是一个观点,而不是事实。比如:
 
事实:Plagiarizing is to steal and pass off the ideas or words of another as one's own.
 
观点:People can avoid plagiarizing by taking certain precautions.
 
其次,主题句应该是一个观点,而不能仅仅包含一个话题。比如:
 
只包含话题:Today I'm going to discuss the benefits of gardening.
 
包含观点:Gardening gives us pleasure and is very effective to our minds.
 
最后,你的观点不能是泛泛的,而应该是确切的。
 
模糊:The United States suffered a lot during the Civil War.
 
确切:Sherman's destruction in the South during the Civil War also caused incredible suffering.
 
ExampleAccording to ILO (1997), prevention can solve female sexual harassment in workplace, and law-making is the most effective way to avoid this problem.

 
Essay写作结构要点

2、如何引述证据
 
在列举证据时,首先我们应当保证所有的论据都是与主题相关的。
 
证据可能包括以下类型:
 
事实(Facts)
 
公开发表的观点(Published opinions)
 
书刊网站等媒体上的调查研究(Research from books, journal articles, websites, etc.)
 
公开的案例(Published case studies)
 
研究数据(Research data)
 
引用证据有三种方法:
 
引用(Quoting):逐字逐句地复制原信息
 
复述(Paraphrasing):按自己的语言重新组织
 
概括(Summarising):更简洁的语言概括原信息 ....
 
但无论采用哪种方法,我们都需要注意:一、让证据自然地穿插在文中;二、注明来源。
 
Example
(1998) showed that 89% of Norwegian women had suffered sexual harassment during work. More than half of the women had suffered sexual harassment by superior or colleague have mentioned already. Therefore, the employment of women may quit their job and may claim for damages because of sexual harassment.
 
Essay写作结构要点

3)Conclusion

总结也是要简洁,其实怎么写结束语,也是有一定技巧的。Conclusion是为了总结你的观点,并建议你的结论可以在更大的意义上的思考。包括:restament or summary of the main points;final comment。
详细点来讲,要点有:
1、提及introductory paragraph
2、 回应thesis statement, 可以用原始语句修改下,但是不要复制粘贴原始语句。
3、总结正文Body中的要点。
 
Example

To sum up, in western Europe, the situation of the female sexual harassment in workplace is not optimistic. In addition, the gender wage gap is also great. Furthermore, many female workers do not have paid maternity leave and some women employees lose their job during pregnancy. However, almost all the western European countries are trying to solve this problem by establishing workforce regulation.(提及introductory paragraph)
 
 There is no doubt that labor law can prevent female sexual harassment during working to some extent, reduce the wage gap between male and female, and force employers to offer maternity leave and paid maternity leave to staff who is pregnant. In this case, although the law does not completely solve these problems, it is absolutely useful for female workers. These issues have been clearly defined in the labor law in most Western European countries. (回应thesis statement)
 
As a result, defining female sexual harassment in workplace, gender wage gap and maternity leave specifically and formulating the corresponding punishment for different situations may have a positive effect on these problems.(总结正文Body中的要点)

4)References
正确引用作品原文或专家、学者的论述是写好英语论文的重要环节;既要注意引述与论文的有机统一,即其逻辑性,又要注意引述格式 (即英语论文参考文献)的规范性。引述别人的观点,可以直接引用,也可以间接引用。无论采用何种方式,论文作者必须注明所引文字的作者和出处。

 





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