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加拿大革命与艺术essay:Revolution and Art

时间:2019-07-19 11:36来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
1917年十月革命爆发,列宁领导布尔什维克党推翻沙皇统治,建立了世界上第一个社会主义国家。十月革命的胜利开创了人类历史的新纪元。它为世界无产阶级革命、殖民地半殖民地民族解放运动开辟了道路。十月革命宣告了全世界从理想到现实的新社会制度。这是人类历史上第一次铲除剥削和压迫的不平等社会,第一次尝试建设一个公平、公正、富裕的社会。俄罗斯在欧洲是一个独特的存在。它继承自西欧,但独立于西欧。就像法国大革命结束了古典主义,带来了浪漫主义。革命往往伴随着社会各方面的巨大变化,包括艺术和文化,因此十月革命也与俄罗斯艺术有着密不可分的关系。俄罗斯艺术能否成为当代艺术的灵感和典范,超越原始艺术的边界,赋予它更多的政治意义?1917年十月俄国革命给一个新的世界带来了希望,这意味着自由和解放。对于艺术界来说,这意味着鼓励各种艺术形式。作为一名艺术家,卡齐米尔·马列维奇和其他一些爱国艺术家一样,积极参与了革命。
In 1917, the October revolution broke out, and Lenin led the Bolshevik party to overthrow the Czar rule and set up the first socialist country in the world. The victory of the October revolution has created a new era of human history. It has carved out a way for the world's proletarian revolution, colonial and semi colonial national liberation movement. The October revolution declared the whole world a new social system from ideal to reality. For the first time in human history, it eradicates the unequal society of exploitation and oppression and the first attempt to build a fair and just and affluent society. Russia is a unique existence in Europe. It is inherited from Western Europe but independent from Western Europe. Just like the French Revolution ended the classicism and brought about romanticism. Revolution is often accompanied by great changes in all aspects of society, including art and culture, so the October revolution also had an inextricable relationship with Russian Art. Can Russian art become an inspiration and example of contemporary art, to surpass the boundary of the original art and give it more political significance? The 1917 Russian Revolution of October brought about a promise to a new world, which means freedom and liberation. For the art world, it means encouraging all kinds of art forms. As an artist, Kazimir Malevich, like some of the other patriotic artists, was actively involved in the revolution. 
 
White on White白底白字
1878年出生于波兰,1895年进入基辅艺术学院学习绘画。之后,他去莫斯科继续学习,并从绘画和雕塑学校毕业。后来,他从事绘画艺术活动。他创造了一种极其简化的几何抽象绘画风格——至高无上的绘画风格,使最简单的几何形式如十字、圆和正方形达到最高价值(Thomas 2005,1)。马列维奇创造的白底白布是最著名的至上主义风格。这项工作与色调中的两个方块是一致的,而倾斜的小方块只能通过精细的纹理来识别。白色成为光的化身。白色地面上的白色方块太小,无法区分(Malevich,2007年)。它似乎在白炽光的氛围中扩散和再现。它的出版引起了轰动,打破了绘画艺术的思维,重构了绘画艺术的语言。这幅作品几乎没有图像,甚至连白色的正方形都找不到。理论上讲,白底白字包含无限的盒子,但你无法计算它有多少。白色方块的出现是艺术家内心至高无上情感的外在合理化的终极表现,是黑色和红色时期的进一步发展(以斯帖2005,80)。白上白完全摒弃了绘画的语义和描述性元素,摒弃了三度空间的表现。在Malevich的作品中,几何构图是自由的,不受限制地在图片中形成旋转或离心运动。在立体主义和未来主义被宣布为政治变革之前的变革艺术之后,马列维奇还认为,霸权将产生新的驱动力。
Born in Poland in 1878, Kazimir Malevich entered the Art Academy of Kiev in 1895 and studied painting. After that, he went to Moscow to continue his studies, and graduated from painting and sculpture school. Later, he was engaged in painting art activities. He created an extremely simplified geometric abstract painting style -- supremacy, giving the simplest geometric form such as crisscross, circle and square to the highest value (Thomas 2005, 1). White on White created by Malevich is the most famous supremacist style. This work is consistent with the two squares in the hue, and the small tilted squares can only be identified by fine texture. White becomes the incarnation of light. The white square on the white ground is too small to distinguish (Malevich, 2007). It seems to be diffused and reappeared in the atmosphere of incandescent light. Its publication has caused great sensation; it breaks the thinking of painting art and reconstructs the language of painting art. This work is almost no image, and even the white square cannot be found. Theoretically speaking, White on White contains infinite box, but you cannot count how much it is. The emergence of white squares is the ultimate manifestation of the external rationalization of the artist's inner supreme emotion, which is the further development of black and red periods (Esther 2005, 80). The White on White completely abandoned the semantic and descriptive elements of the painting, and abandoned the presentation of the three degree space. In Malevich's works, the geometric composition is free and unrestrained to form a rotating or centrifugal motion in the picture. After cubism and futurism were declared to be the art of change before political change, Malevich also believes that the supremacy will produce a new driving force.
 
Educated by Western art and aesthetics and experiencing the October revolution, Malevich became the pioneer of geometric abstraction (Long, 2003). White on White is made by simple and abstract geometric shapes, highlighting the unique and supreme spirit of works of art, which is the distillation of the spirit of Russian Revolution. Malevich believes that the art of imitation must be destroyed, just like the elimination of the imperialist army (Park 2009, 29). First, the white square is used in the work, and the square that can never be found in nature is the basic element of the supremacy. Because Russian art has long been intermingled with a lot of non art factors and it can't be truly pure. After the October revolution, Malevish has to change and liberate painting from all superfluous and completely unrelated impurities. The first step in change is to find the simplest element in the painting, and the element is the white square. Why is it a square? Because Malevich thinks that the square shows the most explicit idea of human will, showing the human victory over nature (Misiano 2010, 27). It is the most direct expression of the people's emotional world. In White on White, the elements of the works are no longer derived from the objective natural objects, but from the creation of the painter. The existence of a square depends only on itself, not on anything it may describe. Second, White on White tries to use the square to convey a new artistic view, hoping that people can discover many kinds of expression in the art with a new vision. Before the October revolution, the paintings emphasized the semantic and descriptive elements of the painting, and also emphasized the presentation of the three degree space. The traditional creators believe that the geometry of the plane does not have the slightest sense of volume and depth. But in White on White, the superimposed two geometric squares are free and unrestrained to form a rotating or centrifugal motion on the picture. Therefore, the block shows Malevich's negation of the old culture and the pursuit and desire for the new art. Third, the use of white is a manifestation of the loyalty to the revolution. Malevich once said that the supreme reality in the world is the pure emotion that has nothing to do with the image. And the simplest and economical figures of pure emotion are black, white, and red. Black is the symbol of the universe; white is pure action; red is the signal of the revolution. Therefore, it can be understood that White on White is the best oath of action. This work reflects the fact that Malevich denied the traditional art and emphasized the experience of the spiritual world and inner experience, which accords with the revolutionary political spirit of the October revolution. As a matter of fact, the artistic connotation embodied in White on White coincides with the Russian revolutionary spirit. In 1919, Malevich asked the painter Mark Chagall to join the people's Art College of Vitebsky. Within a year, Malevich and his supporters took over the school and introduced a new art teaching system, named UNOVIS, which is the acronym for the assertion of new art. Students of UNOVIS gathered to study supremacy, which were applied to many design fields: printing, porcelain, and textiles. At this time, marinovic went to the top of his Russian art world. Under the support of the Russian government, Malevich's style of block supremacy extended to street posters, porcelain pattern design, costumes, stage background design and many other aspects. 
 
Girls in a field
 
Malevich is full of illusions and hopes for the brilliant prospect after the October revolution. He believes that the Soviet Union will make rapid progress in the field of politics and art at the same time. However, he was completely disappointed. In order to propagate the revolution and inspire the people, the Soviet regime needed the popular art of mass (Milner, 2017). As a result, Russian artists and intellectuals had to embrace socialism and realism in response to Stalin's censorship. Girls in a field are a typical work of his late creation. In Girls in a field, there are three girls, a colorful world behind them, representing a world without problems. First, as a matter of fact, this work is actually a statement of the political oppression that began in Russia in early 1924. In the painting, he drew three characters with no five senses. They are stiff, with a blank expression, like a puppet, and the whole body seems to float in an uncertain space. In order to build an industrialized country in a short time, the Soviet Union forced the implementation of agricultural collectivization. Stalin's agricultural policy has caused a lot of famine, of which the Ukraine famine has led to millions of deaths (Taidre 2014, 111). Malevich was subconsciously opposed to this extreme agricultural policy. Meanwhile, the Russian ordinary people who lost their land and life were suffering Christ in the eyes of Malevich; Malevich deeply sympathized with their fate. Second, Girls in a field is simple but colorful, and is quite different from the realism of the Stalin period. The change of light and shadow in this work is a bright spot. Malevich reduces the color to only three original colors, with black and white. These colors contain three shades of deep, shallow and medium. He uses black and white to build core images, and then adds red, yellow and blue to adjust and highlight the main body. The addition of the intermediate color makes the black and white contrast less abrupt and the high color red then integrates yellow into the image. The use of white allows the artist to highlight the color and edge of the geometric figure. The treatment of the background is more straightforward: he eliminated the perspective, leaving only a strip of color that was wide and narrow. This kind of treatment, not only does not let the picture lose the sense of space, but we can suddenly realize the difference between the main body and the background. Through the brightly colored decorative colors, you can feel a lonely atmosphere. This situation is partly due to historical reasons, because Stalin carried out the high pressure policy in the whole country and strictly limited the content of literary and artistic works, and Stalin regarded abstract art as the art of bourgeois (Zhadova and Malevich 1982). Therefore, the art of realism was appreciated and respected by the leadership, and was defined as the only artistic style that can be used in the creation of art. Malevich's works were confiscated and he was banned from creating and exhibiting. Malevich responded by saying “art can advance and develop for art’s sake alone. Art does not need us, and it never did.” Malevich was not a compromising man, and he shaped an image that fits the situation. Malenvich combined color and geometric visualization to create a series of personalized models of men and women. A combination of color geometric figures of men and women seemed to be the combination of supremacy theory and stereoscopic futuristic thinking (Thomas 2005, 3). Third, this painting shows that Malevich tries to transcend the actual reality and explore the design of clothing. The work has a strong contrast of color and gives people a sense of stereoscopic. The painting method of Malevich is to draw a contour of each part of the object, and then fill color, like coloring on the map. In his eyes, the collocation of all kinds of color blocks and geometric figures had different feelings (Drutt and Malevich 2003, 95). Girls in a field not only has decorative visual effects, but also has varied rhythms produced by collocation of geometric figures and collocations. After creating a series of geometric figures, Malevich tried a realistic portrait of the Renaissance style. His last work in his life is his self portrait. He opened his right hand with a religious gesture and a firm eye.


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