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加拿大Reflection Paper作业

时间:2019-04-03 15:56来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
你觉得那些陈词滥调怎么样?你认为他们是基于一个基本的、普遍的真理还是他们强加了一个真理的形象?刻板印象和一个人认为应该体现的形象有什么区别?在你对自己的性别理解中,形象有
你觉得那些陈词滥调怎么样?你认为他们是基于一个基本的、普遍的真理还是他们强加了一个真理的形象?刻板印象和一个人认为应该体现的形象有什么区别?在你对自己的性别理解中,形象有多重要?
What do you think of stereotypes? Do you think they are based on a basic, general truth or do they impose an image of a truth? What is the difference between a stereotype and an image that a person feels that they should embody? How relevant is image in your own understanding of yourself in terms of gender?
刻板印象是指人们对一个人或一件事物,或头脑中某类人或事物的固定印象,作为判断和评价人或事物的基础的心理现象(Chappetta和Barth,2016)。人们往往将特定的人或物视为某种人或物的典型代表,形成评价标准和印象,然后根据这些标准和印象来评价同一群体的人或物(Hermann和Vollmeyer,2016)。例如,老年人被认为是保守的,年轻人是冲动的,英国人是保守的,美国人是热情的,等等,刻板印象本身就包含着一定的社会现实,或多或少反映了这一群体的实际情况(Hoyt和Murphy,2016)。因此,使用刻板印象可以简化我们的理解过程,在一定程度上有助于人们对某物或人做出判断,节省时间和精力。
Stereotypes refers to the psychological phenomenon that people take a fixed impression about a person or a thing, or a certain kind of persons or things in their minds as the basis to judge and evaluate persons or things (Chappetta and Barth, 2016). People tend to regard a specific person or thing as a typical representative of people or things of a certain kind to form evaluation criteria and impressions, then according to these criteria and impressions to evaluate people or things of the same group (Hermann and Vollmeyer, 2016). For example, the elderly are considered to be conservative, young people are impulsive; the British are conservative and the Americans are enthusiastic, etc. Stereotype itself contains a certain social reality, it more or less reflects the actual situation of this group of people (Hoyt and Murphy, 2016). Therefore, the use of stereotypes can simplify the process of our understanding, which to a certain extent helps people to make a judgment on something or people, saving time and effort.
然而,我不认为刻板印象总是能反映事实的,因为刻板印象的形成往往是基于给予人们有限的物质基础上的普遍结论,这使得人们在识别他人和事物时忽略了个体差异,从而导致认知偏见和先入为主的思维阻碍了人们对事物的认知。对其他人和事务的评估。人们不仅对所接触的人和事有成见,而且对所不接触的人也有成见,这是基于一些不相干的间接信息,影响了他们对这些人和事的正确判断,如果不及时纠正,就会进一步发展,并被扭曲为歧视。成见倾向于阻止人们看到新的现实和接受新的想法,导致对某些群体和事务的成见。However, I do not think that stereotypes can always reflect facts, as the formation of stereotypes is the universal conclusions often based on the limited material given to people, which makes people ignore individual differences when they identify other people and affairs, resulting in cognitive bias and preconceived thinking to hinder making a proper assessment on other people and affairs. People will have a stereotype towards not only persons and affairs contacted, but also whom they do not contacted with based on some irreal indirect information, thus affecting their correct judgment on these persons and affairs, if it is not promptly corrected, it will further develop and be distorted as discrimination. Stereotypes tend to discourage people from seeing new realities and accepting new ideas, leading to stereotypes about certain groups and affairs.
From the perspective of the formation of stereotypes, first, it is based on direct contact with someone or something to form a fixed impression of the characteristics of people or things; second, it is affected by indirect information to form a fixed impression on the characteristics of people or things (Hoyt and Murphy, 2016). An image that a person feels that it should be embodied is mainly affected by subjective factors, such as his knowledge, cognition and values, and people make their own judgment on people or things that they do not contact with according to their own subjective cognition. The main difference between the two is that the former is mainly affected by objective factors, people make judgments based on direct or indirect objective information, the latter is mainly affected by subjective factors, people take their own knowledge, cognition and values as the criteria to make judgment. In reality, the two can be consistent or inconsistent, and in many cases, the two can not fully reflect the true objective facts.
The formation of stereotypes is affected by traditional culture, advertising, public opinion and many other reasons (Hoyt and Murphy, 2016), there is also a stereotype in my understanding of gender. I am a man, thus my own understanding of men is reflected in the following aspects. Firstly, in Chinese traditional culture, men are responsible for the source of household income, women are mainly responsible for handling domestic affairs and caring for children and the elderly. Therefore, I think that men should work hard more than women, they should have more enterprising and courageous, so as to be able to bear the responsibility to support their families in the future. Secondly, in China's advertising and news, entertainment, men are always tall, robust. Therefore, I also think that men should exercise more, so that they will have a healthy and robust appearance, and I also think that men should be higher than women, so I more believe that to choose a partner, women should not be higher than men. Finally, from the perspective of public opinion, the Western friends have the common stereotype for the Oriental male college students that they are short and weak, they have good academic records and they are shy, do not like sports, etc.( Hermann and Vollmeyer, 2016). I do not deny that the characteristics of what the Western college students think about a considerable number of Chinese students are consistent with the stereotypes, but not all Chinese students are like that. I and my many Chinese friends also love sports, we are also very strong and active in participating in community activities. Our performance and the exchange with local friends have also changed some of Western friends’ stereotypes towards Oriental boys. At the same time, I must admit that my previous stereotypes about women were wrong. In the process of contacting with local friends and classmates, I was amazed to find that women can work independently and aggressively to pursue what they deem to be valuable, like boys do. In short, stereotypes only provide us with a framework and a choice to understand the world, and we can not rely entirely on stereotypes to perceive and look at objective things, otherwise it will lead to deviation in assessment as my previous stereotypes about genders produced based on my perception of women and men.
 
References
Chappetta, K. C. and Barth, J. M. (2016). How gender role stereotypes affect attraction in an online dating scenario. Computers in Human Behavior, 63(10), 738-746.
Hermann, J. M. and Vollmeyer, R. (2016). “Girls should cook, rather than kick!” – Female soccer players under stereotype threat. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 26(9), 94-101. 
Hoyt, C. L. and Murphy, S. E. (2016). Managing to clear the air: Stereotype threat, women, and leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(3), 387-399. 


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