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加拿大心理学作业:Critically discuss the differences and similarities

时间:2019-07-26 10:58:08 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:未知 点击:16
I)Critically discuss the differences and similarities between "positive psychology" and "traditional psychology". What are the focuses of these two fields of psychology? How has both fields of study evolved over the last 10 years?批判性地讨论“积极心理学”与“传统心理学”的异同。这两个心理学领域的重点是什么?这两个研究领域在过去10年中是如何发展的?
积极心理学的力量是帮助人们发现和利用他们的内在资源,从而提高他们的生活质量和质量。每个人内心深处都需要自我实现。这种需要激发人们内在的积极力量和优秀的素质,积极的心理运用内在的资源,帮助普通人或有一定天赋的人最大限度地挖掘自己的潜能,获得美好的生活。这些积极的力量和良好的品质是人类生存和发展的核心要素。积极心理学反映在修正其发展的心理不平衡性的本质上,强调心理学的发展既有赖于人类心理疾病的防治,又更依赖于文化,构建人的素质,两者都可以完成。彼此平衡发展。
The power of positive psychology is to help people discover and utilize their inner resources, thus improving their quality and quality of life. There is a need for self-fulfillment in the deep heart of everyone. This kind of need to inspire people inner positive force and excellent quality, positive psychology using the internal resources to help ordinary people or the person that has a certain talent maximum digging their own potential, and to gain the good life. These positive forces and good qualities are the core elements of human survival and development. Positive psychology reflected in the nature of amending its psychological imbalance of development, emphasis on the development of psychology depends on both the prevention and treatment of human psychological disease, and more dependent on culture, construct the human qualities, the two can complement each other, the balanced development.
Research topics include :(1)positive experience, such as happiness, well-being, etc. (2)positive traits, such as self-determination, wisdom, creativity, virtues, etc.; (3) positive community, such as social relationship), culture norms the effects of family on the development of talent, etc.研究主题包括:(1)积极的经验,如幸福、幸福等;(2)积极的特质,如自决、智慧、创造力、美德等;(3)积极的社区,如社会关系)、文化规范、家庭对人才发展的影响等。
In the United States, the "Templetion positive psychology prize", which is the highest in psychology, is awarded to scientists under 40 who have made outstanding contributions in the field of positive psychology (Southwick, Satodiya, & Pietrzak, 2016). One of the major universities in the United States has established the center for positive psychology research, and the university of Pennsylvania will be the first to grant a degree in positive psychology. The annual international conference on positive psychology was held in Washington on the first weekend of October. DannyKahneman became the first positive psychologist to win a Nobel Prize. Positive psychology is also developing rapidly in Europe, and Oxford University press has published a number of positive psychology books, such as the handbook of positive psychology. The European positive psychology conference was held in milan, Italy, in July 2010. In China, positive psychology is being started and pay more attention to the positive, the introduction and the research field of positive psychology, the Chinese references can be documented by the end of this article. For example, the contribution of self-determinism to positive psychology research and so on. 在美国,“暴风雨积极心理学奖”(templetion positive psychology prize)是心理学领域最高的奖项,授予40岁以下在积极心理学领域做出杰出贡献的科学家(Southwick、Satodiya和Pietrzak,2016年)。美国的一所主要大学已经建立了积极心理学研究中心,宾夕法尼亚大学将是第一个授予积极心理学学位的大学。10月的第一个周末,积极心理学年度国际会议在华盛顿举行。丹尼卡尼曼成为第一个获得诺贝尔奖的积极心理学家。积极心理学在欧洲也发展迅速,牛津大学出版社出版了一批积极心理学书籍,如《积极心理学手册》。欧洲积极心理学会议于2010年7月在意大利米兰举行。在我国,积极心理学正处于起步阶段,越来越重视积极心理学的积极性、引言和研究领域,本文最后可以对中国的参考文献进行记录。例如,自我决定论对积极心理学研究的贡献等。

Reference list 
Southwick, S, Satodiya, R, & Pietrzak, R 2016, 'Disaster Mental Health and Positive Psychology: An Afterward to the Special Issue', Journal Of Clinical Psychology, 72, 12, pp. 1364-1368, Education Source, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 February 2018.
 
II) Critically discuss the extent to which positive emotions can be said to have beneficial and/or harmful effects on people? Pinpoint three areas in your daily life that positive emotions can have beneficial and/or harmful effect. How do these three areas impact your overall psychological health?
Positive emotions, generally considered to be not accompanied by specific action trends, are only accompanied by general activation, such as pleasure and pleasure accompanied by aimless activation; Interest and pay attention to the orientation, individual interest caused a hope to study and explore or involved in feelings and by integrating new information to the self and gain new experiences for the object and others; Satisfaction is associated with a relaxed state. Despite the positive emotion is not associated with a particular action trend, do not have the concrete action, but the positive emotions can produce a kind of common action to activate, is close to or bias, the continuity of the positive emotions can promote activities. In positive mood state, individuals keep reaching and explore new things, keep active connections with the environment. 
Positive emotions promote physical health mainly because positive emotions can improve people's immune system function, which is mainly reflected in the study of subjective well-being and laughter and humor (Szczygieł, & Mikolajczak, 2017). Numerous studies have shown that people experience of subjective well-being can affect the person's immune system to influence people's health, compared with those who lack of subjective well-being, a subjective well-being experience more people, the immune system work more effectively, more can ensure people's health. About laughter and humor research shows that laughter can increase a person's positive emotions and increase the improvement of immune system function, and, more importantly, the improvement of the immune system function is through positive emotions to regulate the subjective experience, especially for the old man. This suggests that the positive emotions generated by this behavior can promote health. Humor associated with laughter is more often seen as a cognitive structure. People often use humor to cope with the stresses of life, and people who use humor to cope with stress are more likely to have a positive mood. In addition, foreign a lot about the nun's research shows that positive emotions is conducive to longevity, the study found that people with positive emotional experience.
Positive emotions expanded the psychological activity space, expanded the individual moment thinking activity sequence, and the expansion of the psychological activity space to increase the individual was a meaningful event for sex, which increases the chance to experience positive emotions and possibilities. Positive emotional experience not only promoted the challenge to alleviate the negative emotions, and the repeated experience positive emotions, increase the elasticity of individual psychological, improve the quality of the social relations, to enhance the subjective well-being of the individual. "Emotional experience sampling method" is used to study also suggests that report positive emotions in daily life or mood is higher than that of negative emotion or state of mind of individuals with higher mental flexibility, more dynamic, live more happiness.

Reference list 
Szczygieł, D, & Mikolajczak, M 2017, 'Why are people high in emotional intelligence happier? They make the most of their positive emotions', Personality & Individual Differences, 117, pp. 177-181, Education Source, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 February 2018. 

III) Critically evaluate the available research evidence on the correlates and predictors of subjective well-being. Identify three strongest predictors of subjective well-being by using primary research articles. How did the psychologists set up the experiment, what were the findings and what were the shortcoming of the experiment?
The purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between social support and subjective well-being based on social support rating scale, and to explore the research characteristics that influence the relationship between the two. A total of 89 independent samples were produced in 86 original studies, with a total sample size of 32948 (Wen, Geng, & Ye, 2016). According to the results of subjective support, objective support and utilization degree, and the whole subjective well-being, life satisfaction, positive emotions significantly positive correlation between moderate, with moderate degree of significant negative correlation between negative emotion. The correlation between the two subjects was regulated by the group type, i.e. the relative sizes of the two groups were different in different subjects.#p#分页标题#e#
To occupy literature as much as possible, in accordance with the following criteria: (1) at the same time using social support rating scale and happiness scale, and report the dimension or total score of at least one scale to another scale dimension or the correlation coefficient between the total score. (2) the subjects were normal people. Criminals, treated mentally ill patients are excluded. (3) the investigation time is at ordinary times. Disaster period, emergency period, such as earthquake, "SARS", and its front and rear exclusion. (4) the sample size is clear. (5) only one of the data is published repeatedly. If the dissertation is changed into a paper and published in the academic journal, and the relevant data is reported, the published journal article shall prevail. Otherwise, use the data in your dissertation.
The research on social support and subjective well-being is meta-analysis, trying to find the answer to the following questions: 1) society will support, especially the use of support, and the relationship between subjective well-being. 2) whether the different structure of subjective well-being is different from that of social support. 3) whether the research characteristics of the original research (such as the types of subjects, scale types, subjects, etc.) will affect the correlation between subjective well-being and social support, namely whether the research feature effect exists.
(1)
General and three dimensions of social support (subjective support, objective support, support the use of degrees) of the whole and subjective well-being, life satisfaction, positive emotions significantly positive correlation between moderate, with moderate degree of significant negative correlation between negative emotion.
(2)
Between the related subjects group type adjustment, namely different subjects groups, both related to the size is different, is not affected by the use of subjective well-being scale, the types of publication, published s etc to study the effect of characteristics.
However, the results of this study showed that the degree of disability was highest, followed by students and the lowest among the elderly. According to the previous view, the correlation depends on the degree of need and the subjective judgment of the possibility of implementation. The elderly, although is needed, they may think that the use of these support and not very good, or attempt to use multiple have hit a wall, so that they think using social support is difficult to achieve, and formed a kind of subjective judgment. Combined with bandura's concept of self-efficacy, this subjective judgment can be called support for the use of efficacy.
 
Reference list
Wen, Z, Geng, X, & Ye, Y 2016, 'Does the Use of WeChat Lead to Subjective Well-Being?: The Effect of Use Intensity and Motivations', Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 19, 10, pp. 587-592, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 February 2018.


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