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Literature review:英国媒体专业文献综述范文-关于过年送红包的习俗

时间:2019-04-10 15:09来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
Literature review文献综述 近两年来,红包作为我国传统习俗之一,正逐渐走向一种新的出现方式。通常情况下,在一些特殊的节日或某些活动中,如农历新年、婚礼或葬礼等,红包就如同它的字面
Literature review文献综述
近两年来,红包作为我国传统习俗之一,正逐渐走向一种新的出现方式。通常情况下,在一些特殊的节日或某些活动中,如农历新年、婚礼或葬礼等,红包就如同它的字面意思一样,是以红包的形式把真实的货币从一个发往另一个发往另一个发往另一个发往。自2014年以来,电子红包(或电子红包,电子幸运钱)已经呈现给了普通人的生活。
社会学家图赫曼(1978)在《新闻制作》一书中指出,新闻是世界的窗口,人们利用窗口框架来了解和认识世界。然而,窗框的大小影响着我们观察世界的视野和习惯。在这种情况下,我们能透过窗框看到什么样的风景?中国的报纸是如何在网上寄出红包的?这与中国政府在这方面的立场相比如何?
In recent two years, sending red envelopes, one of the traditional customs in China, is changing to a new way to appear. Normally, red envelopes, just as its literal meaning, is sent the real currency in an red envelope from one to another during some special festivals or in some events, such as Chinese Lunar New Year, wedding or funeral ceremony so on and so forth. Since the year 2014, electronic red envelope (or e-red envelopes, e-lucky money ) has present to ordinary people’s life.
On the book called News Making, sociologist Tuchman (1978) indicates that news is the window of the world and people uses the window frame to know and then recognize world. However, the size of the window frame affects our vision and habits to look at the world. In this case, what kind of sceneries could we see through the window frame? How do Chinese newspapers frame the process of sending red envelope online? How does this compare to the Chinese government position on this practice?
 
Theoretical background理论背景
到目前为止,许多学者对这一理论框架做出了贡献,如欧文·戈夫曼、图恩·范·迪克、威廉·甘森等。然而,这一贡献的理论框架相对较大,学者们经常引用美国社会学家欧文戈夫曼的话。传播理论框架下的新闻研究(框架理论),源于美国社会学家戈夫曼的思想。然而,戈夫曼的概念框架借鉴了人类学家、心理学家贝特森(Gorp,2009年)。框架概念从人类学到戈夫曼符号互动理论,再到传播学的研究。
1959年,戈夫曼的社会学著作《日常生活中的自我呈现》在讨论个人如何向他人展示自己时出版。他说,引入一个分析框架,个人社会生活中呈现出的各种特征:他们共同构成一个框架,框架涉及到各种动态问题,都有助于将读者零散的体验结合在一起,也为研究者和要扩展的逻辑框架。如果对上述观点的解释,我们可以看到戈夫曼在三个层面上使用了概念框架:第一,主体(个人);第二,读者;第三,调查人员。对于个人而言,扩大社会活动必须界定一个侧面,这是个人行动的前提。框架是人们定义组织类型的场景。对读者来说,当框架帮助读者将体验碎片化联系在一起时,实际上就是引导读者(受众)转换为重要的社会真实凭证主观思想。对于研究人员来说,框架提供了一个有价值的指导测试。也就是说,该框架将帮助研究人员回顾事件,并提供检查或指导。此外,框架检验了原有的架构,进而实现了对事件的主观解读和结构思维,可见框架是一种元信息传播。
So far, many scholars make the contribute to the theoretical framework , such as Erving Goffman, Tuen van Dijk, William Gamson and so forth. However, the theoretical framework of the contribution is relatively large, scholars often cited to the American sociologist Erving Goffman. Journalism studies in the framework of the theory of propagation (framing theory), derived from the American sociologist Goffman’s thinking. While, Goffman’s conceptual framework is borrowed from the anthropologist, psychologist Bateson (Gorp, 2009). Framework concept has gone from anthropology to Goffman symbolic interaction theory, then to the course of communication studies.
In 1959, Goffman sociology book “The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life ” published when discussing how individuals presented themselves the way to the others. The introduction of a framework for analysis, he said, the various features presented in individuals’ social lives: they form a framework together, the framework involves a variety of dynamic problems, both contribute to have joined together the fragmented experience of readers, and also provides a worthy test of guidance for the researchers and the logical framework to expand. If the interpretation of the above point of views, we could see that Goffman use a conceptual framework on three levels: first, the subjects (individuals); second, the readers; third, the investigators. For individuals, expand activities in society must define a profile, which is the premise of individuals’ action. Framework is that people define tissue type scenario. To the readers, when the frame to help the readers to fragment experience linked together, in fact, is to guide readers (audiences) to be converted to the important social real credentials subjective thoughts. For researchers, framework provides a worthy test of the guidance. That is to say, the framework will help researchers to look back upon the events, and also give inspections or guidance. More over, framework examining the original architecture, then to achieve subjective interpretations and structural thinking to the events, and it could be seen that framework is a metacommunication  information dissemination.
In 1974, Goffman published a book "Frame analysis: an essay on the organization of experience," to further elaborate the framework of his early thinking: framework is a personal interpretation illustration, and to through such a pattern, everyone could find, understand, recognize and distinguish information or events. Goffman (1974) believes that people's daily activities implied or using a particular interpretation of the framework, will enable chaotic situation had become of some significance. Besides, it is a particular reality that people construct rules followed, or a specific category meaning. Framework is true that people will be converted to subjective social thought important credentials, furthermore, will be provided to receivers who pass from the communicators should to know how to understand the interpretation of the rule symbol. This has been involved in the issue of symbols and information flows.
Frame theory is introduced journalism, after communication, mainly used in news production, media content and media effect three research areas. The theoretical framework is introduced in the field of information dissemination Berkeley sociologist Gitlim. He (Gitlim, 1980) defines the framework concept is to about the existence of what happened and have to choose the significance of these issues, emphasizing performance criteria and when to use it. Framework is a sustained perception, interpretation and presentation box type, also chose to emphasize and stable missing paradigm change. Through this framework, the symbol of handlers routinely organize discourse. This fact has gone beyond the specific news, but a pass abstract and general laws have handled.
In the 1980s, the theoretical framework of the ascendant, some scholars call it in the relationship between the media and public opinion research new paradigm, so that scholars started to discussing. American scholar Gamson is one of the most important theoretical framework researchers, divided frame into two categories: one means boundary, such as the role of the camera lens, the lens is important to be accessible , and also excluded unimportant, so that like a picture frame effect; another one refers to the interpretation of a social phenomenon structure, namely as explained, paraphrased or comments to the outside world (Gamson, 1992) . The former represents the range of coverage, the latter is the sense of the structure of the display. Some scholars believe that boundary and structure, one as internal aspect, for the purposes of human knowledge structures; another one as external aspect, for the purpose of exchanging information and having interaction. The former for the latter set approximate boundaries, which in turn lead the scene how to choose the former. In addition, Gamson (1992) also proposed that a mature framework analysis should include three parts: first, focusing on the production process; second, examining the text; the third is in the negotiation of meaning between the a complex interactive audience and the initiative text.
Another communication scholars Entman (1993) is that the framework includes a selection and highlights. That is to see, frame conduct the selection process in the report and to highlight certain aspects of social reality in particular. Entman's selection and highlights, compare with the boundary of Gamson, seems describing the content of the same area.
Chinese scholar Pan Zhongdang believes that Goffman's frame analysis is a social reality about people in the construction process of how to contact the research area, including the following few points: first, social reality is constructed with the people through social action and interaction. Structural analysis is the analysis about how people construct social reality, which means a part of the real life is selected and interpretation, and then will be placed in a particular system; second, the construction of social reality is the need to establish common life scenes through contacting interaction occurs, and to achieve social realities of inter-subjectivity in this process, which is constituted subjective externalities from internalities. Structural analysis examined how people follow some specific rules of discourse or narrative construction commencement communicative action, so that to achieve concrete action scenes in the definition of the scenario; third, it happens in the real political and economic scene. This construction of reality discourse or narrative actions performances that discussed the activities or have some debates. Structural analysis must examine the process of struggle, and launched simultaneously in the normative and experiential levels; fourth, discourse debates occurred in the public domain, namely that the process of structure, is a core component of a democratic society which people live in public life. Structural analysis is to examine how people carry out the public life, at the same time, it is an important analysis tool which appears in the field of studying and discussing democracy with broad deliberative political communication. Thus, it can be seen that Pan is based on the basic idea of social constructivism and the perspective of political economy, combined with modern social and public life, discussed the concept of democracy and studied structure analysis, so that thinks that the structure is the process of which the social interaction of people get through the discourse, the formation and the exchange of knowledge of the phenomenon and the construction of a shared discursive environment, so that the public life to be started.


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