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文献综述范文-有关绩效管理的Literature Review

时间:2019-08-22 10:22来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
Literature Review 文献综述 1.1绩效管理的定义 绩效管理是指组织、团队或个人在特定资源、条件和环境下实现目标的效率和结果水平(Blackburn,2014)。在管理实践中,绩效主要强调工作活动的过程
Literature Review 文献综述
1.1绩效管理的定义
绩效管理是指组织、团队或个人在特定资源、条件和环境下实现目标的效率和结果水平(Blackburn,2014)。在管理实践中,绩效主要强调工作活动的过程及其结果。一般来说,绩效包括个人素质、工作行为、工作作风和工作成果。为了理解绩效随着研究和实践的发展,这是从一开始就不断深化对质量的追求,逐渐认识到质量的重要性。此外,一个满足需求的事件,从最初的价值到现在注重行为表现的结果,从关注当前的回报到强调未来的表现等等,生产的内涵也不断丰富和完善。绩效可以从组织、团队和个人层面进行查看。对于一个组织来说,绩效与组织的战略和目标密切相关。绩效是组织在实现目标和履行职能过程中的管理有效性。对于团队而言,绩效通过提高团队成员的合作水平和满意度,提高团队能力,更好地为组织服务。对于个人而言,绩效管理是指个人通过其行为能力来实现团队和组织的目标,并在过程中实现目标的努力(Rana,2011年)。可以说,绩效反映了一个组织、一个团队和一个个人在某个特定时间以某种方式实现目标的整个过程。
1.1 The definition of the performance management 
Performance management refers to the efficiency and result level of an organization, a team or an individual in achieving a goal under specific resources, conditions, and circumstances(Blackburn, 2014). In management practice, performance mainly emphasizes the process of work activities and their results. Generally speaking, performance includes personal quality, work behavior, work style and work results. For the understanding of the performance with the development of the research and practice, which is deepening from the beginning the pursuit of quantity, gradually realize the importance of quality.  In addition, an event to meet the demand, from the initial value to now focus on the results of the performance of behavior, from attending the current return to emphasize the future performance and so on, the connotation of production are also enriched continuously and perfect. Performance can be viewed from the organizational, team and individual levels. For an organization, performance is closely related to the organization's strategy and goals. Performance is the management effectiveness of an organization in the process of achieving goals and fulfilling functions. For the team, performance improves team capability and serves the organization better by improving team members' cooperation level and satisfaction. For an individual, performance management refers to an individual's efforts to achieve the goals of the team and organization through his or her behavioral ability and to achieve the goals in the process (Rana, 2011). It can be said that performance reflects the entire process of an organization, a team, and an individual making the desired goal in a certain way at a particular time.
作为组织的战略和绩效管理或经营计划,普通成员虽然是内部组织运作、过程和文化变化的因素,但他们认为这并不是绩效管理关注的主要对象。他指出,绩效管理是将每个员工或经理的工作与整个工作单位的目标联系起来,以支持组织的整体职业目标(Orozco,2018年)。企业绩效评价的历史发展过程,对企业自身绩效评价的研究框架和方法进行研究,进而考察企业战略绩效评价的效果。在企业绩效评估过程中,必须避免误会(West&Blackman,2015)。运用不同的沟通技巧,保证绩效评价的有效性和准确性。
As the organization's strategy and performance management or business plans, although ordinary members are internal to the organization operation, process and culture change factors, but they think it is not performance management focus on the primary object. He pointed out that performance management is to connect the work of each employee or manager with the purpose of the whole work unit, to support the overall career goals of the organization (Orozco, 2018). The historical development process of enterprise performance evaluation, to the study on the performance evaluation of their own to study its framework and method, then examine the effect of performance evaluation of enterprise strategy. In the process of enterprise performance evaluation, it is necessary to avoid falling into misunderstandings (West & Blackman, 2015). The effectiveness and accuracy of performance evaluation should be guaranteed by using different communication skills.
1.1.1 performance management methods绩效管理方法
At present, popular performance appraisal methods mainly include 360-degree appraisal method, key performance index method, balanced scorecard method, and target management method. An important research direction of performance management methods is the study of performance evaluation methods. Edward points out that 360-degree assessment can serve both organizational development and organizational management (Amerine, et al., 2016). Most enterprises start to use it for internal control, but in the process of enterprise performance evaluation, employees may worry about their remuneration, promotion and so on. Enterprises of economic power in the top 12 performance evaluation research, are performance management domain the new evaluation method is proposed. Namely, the balanced scorecard method referred to as BSC; they suggest that enterprise managers or operators from closely related to corporate customers, internal business processes, innovation and learning, and four angles such as financial management to measure and determine enterprise performance level. In this paper, different interview methods of performance appraisal are studied in depth (Blackburn, 2014).
Model for academic performance management research focuses on the general performance management model and the application of quantitative evaluation model, performance management, performance comprehensive evaluation model and its use, performance management implementation model, strategy-oriented performance management model, etc. Due to the complexity of the construction and use of performance management application model, many management scientists have made relatively slow progress in the study of performance management application model due to the limitation of the professional and technical level. With bp's oil business as an object to establish a strict performance management model, to obtain about the key performance indicators and performance stipulated in the contract the action effect of reliable information (Rana, 2011).
1.1.2 Dimensions of performance management
Early, most scholars believe that performance is unidimensional, its task is to put as the main content of the performance review, for example, that performance is in a specific period, have a particular job function or activity of output records. Last century, however, with the development of the economy and the transformation of the organizational structure, the scholars found that the performance is not just a unidimensional concept, its connotation is beyond the traditional sense of the behavior. As a result, extends to the attention to behavior process. Put forward the performance of the model, the production is divided into eight different aspects, namely the work proficiency, proficiency in non-work related, work performance, written and oral communication skills, assist colleagues with the team, discipline, supervision, management and administrative ability and leadership, etc., these efforts in the work performance, work-related proficiency performance and control were the main factors. It is considered that job performance is a multi-dimensional concept, and the behavior and results of production should be understood from multiple perspectives. Although the model is lengthy, it shows that there are two kinds of actions related to job performance, which are named task performance and peripheral performance respectively through research. Task performance is an in-job behavior clearly defined, and its useful predictors are cognitive ability. Task performance is adjusted with the change of position and position. Peripheral performance is considered. Besides that, the production of organizational characteristics and organization are closely related to the factors such as psychological environment. Behavior is a relationship between the organization and randomness of employees in production, including the motivation to maintain the excellent working relationship, interpersonal relationships and help others to finish the work efficiently (Pater, 2012). They are in different positions and duties between the difference is not apparent. Chinese scholars make adopted confirmatory factor analysis method, such as in Chinese culture under the background of inspection on the structure of the task performance and the surrounding performance difference. The results show that the two can be a strict distinction between in the structure, and the research under the background of Chinese culture also verified the two factors of the performance of scientific nature and rationality of the model. Later, some scholars by task performance and contextual performance increase adaptive performance, the performance of three-dimensional structure model is put forward, namely to seek to adapt to unfamiliar or change the situation of employees. People to adapt to the production, such as exploratory study, eight factors of adaptive performance classification model is put forward (Ulrych, 2011). Namely, deal with emergency and crisis, deal with work pressure, creative problem solving and dealing with uncertain and unpredictable work situation, job skills, and procedures, show interpersonal adaptability, show a cultural flexibility, show the body orientation of resilience and so on. By studying various performance models, a four-dimensional conceptual model of work performance, namely, task performance, relational performance, learning performance and innovation performance, is proposed. They believe that the performance dimensions of these four dimensions are a continuous dynamic and continuous cycle of rising process. Through the above, the literature work performance of induction, which is beneficial to clarify the connotation of the production and development, and also for the choice of performance measurement dimension in this study provides an essential theoretical basis.


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