Literature review怎么写?employee satisfaction in manufacturing

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-07-26 11:33:18 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
1.0 Introduction介绍
大量研究表明,员工满意度在提高员工绩效、减少员工流失、提高员工创新和改善企业形象方面是积极的(Milliman、Gatling和Kim,2018年)。随着经济的发展和社会文明的进步,中国制造业企业也越来越重视提高员工满意度,以摆脱以往血汗工厂的企业形象。关于员工满意度的定义,学者们做出了许多不同的解释。Huang,Li,Meschke和Guthrie(2015)提出员工满意度是员工对其工作本身、薪酬、职业、领导和同事的整体认知;Lacy(2018)认为员工满意度是一种感觉状态,个人认为其工作能够满足或促进其工作价值观的需要;Alegre、Mas Machuca和Berbegal Mirabent(2016)认为,员工满意度是员工对工作条件、工作本身、工作回报、人际关系和整个企业的满意度;Osibanjo、Igbinoba、Falloa和Awe(2018)提出,员工满意度是员工比较工作环境、奖励期望与实际情况时的心理感知。也就是说,员工对特定工作环境的实际感受和期望之间的差距越小,他们的满意度就越高;差距越大,满意度就越低。综上所述,虽然学者对员工满意度提出了不同的定义,但他们对员工满意度的概念进行了总结,提出了员工满意度构成中的一些高频因素主要是工作本身、工作报酬、管理等。从人力资源管理的角度看,这些要素与公司的绩效考核、薪酬管理、员工培训、企业文化等密切相关,这就意味着这四个方面对员工满意度更直接。以下是关于这四个方面对员工满意度影响的文献综述。
A large number of studies have shown that employee satisfaction is positive in terms of improving employee performance, reducing employee turnover, improving employee innovation, and improving corporate image (Milliman, Gatling & Kim, 2018). With the development of the economy and the progress of social civilization, companies of Chinese manufacturing industry are also paying more attention to improving employee satisfaction in order to get rid of their past corporate image of sweatshops. With regard to the definition of employee satisfaction, scholars have made many different interpretations. Huang, Li, Meschke and Guthrie (2015) proposed that employee satisfaction is an employee's overall perception of his job itself, salary compensation, career, leadership, and colleagues; Lacy (2018) believed that employee satisfaction is a kind of sensational state that an individual feels that its job can satisfy or contribute to the needs of its work values; Alegre, Mas-Machuca and Berbegal-Mirabent (2016) held that employee satisfaction is an employee’s satisfaction with his work conditions, his work itself, the return on his work, interpersonal relationships, and the overall enterprise; Osibanjo, Igbinoba, Falola and Awe (2018) proposed that employee satisfaction is an employee's psychological perception when he compares his working environment, reward expectations with his actual conditions. That is, the smaller gap between the actual feelings and expectations of employees towards his specific work environment is, the higher degree of satisfaction they will have; the greater the gap is, and the lower the degree of satisfaction there will be. In summary, although scholars have put forward different definitions for employee satisfaction, they summarize the concept of employee satisfaction to bring forward that some of the high-frequency elements in the composition of employee satisfaction are mainly work itself, work remuneration, managers’ identification, communication between colleagues, job promotion, etc. From the perspective of human resources management, these elements are closely related to a company’s performance appraisal, salary management, employee training, and corporate culture, which means that these four aspects are more direct to employee satisfaction. The following is a review of the literatures on the impact of these four aspects on employee satisfaction.
2.0 Main body主体
2.1 Performance appraisal绩效考核
对于企业来说,科学、严谨、公正的绩效考核体系可以提高员工的工作效率和绩效,也有助于提高员工的满意度(Alegre,Mas Machuca&Berbegal Mirabent,2016)。Jacobs、Yu和Chavez(2016)提到,对于一家公司的员工来说,优秀的绩效管理体系可以创造一个积极公平的企业氛围,以提高员工满意度。程、杨(2018)指出,管理人员在人员晋升、配置培训、薪酬管理等方面,根据考核结果做出正确的决策,使员工获得公平的回报,进而提高员工满意度,调动员工的积极性。从而激发员工的创造力。
Performance appraisal refers to the process that a company adopts scientific, fair and objective assessment methods and approaches, according to work objectives or performance standards to assess employees' completion of work, the degree of fulfillment of their duties and the merits and demerits of their work performance, etc., and sends the result of feedback to employees in a timely manner (Kang & Busser, 2018). The purpose of an enterprise's performance assessment is to enable the company's human resources to exert its maximum effectiveness (Milliman, Gatling & Kim, 2018).
For enterprises, a scientific, rigorous, and fair performance appraisal system can improve employees' work efficiency and employee performance, and it is also helpful to improve employee satisfaction (Alegre, Mas-Machuca & Berbegal-Mirabent, 2016). Jacobs, Yu and Chavez (2016) mentioned that for employees of a company, excellent performance management system can create a positive and fair corporate atmosphere to improve employee satisfaction. Cheng and Yang (2018) pointed out that management personnel make correct decisions based on assessment results in personnel promotion, configuration and training, and pay management, so that employees can receive a fair return, which in turn can improve employee satisfaction and mobilize the enthusiasm of employees, thus inspiring employees' creativity.
However, it is worth noting that unscientific performance appraisal will not only fail to bring about an increase in employee satisfaction, but will also reduce employee satisfaction (Huang, Li, Meschke & Guthrie, 2015). Hatane (2015) believed that if the performance assessment system formulated by a company focuses only on performance assessment methods and techniques, and neglects propaganda and training, it cannot allow the enterprise’s department managers and employees to accurately understand the content and objectives of its performance assessment, therefore, the performance appraisal is difficult to get employees' approval and correct implementation, such an appraisal system is likely to arouse the disgust of employees and reduce employee satisfaction. Navimipour and Zareie   (2015) found that some companies are not scientific enough to formulate their assessment indicators, and they cannot truly and accurately reflect employees’ work performance, thus employees' efforts fail to be recognized by the company. Alegre, I., Mas-Machuca, M., & Berbegal-Mirabent (2016) figured that the failure of the performance appraisal system of some Chinese companies is not entirely due to problems in the performance appraisal system itself, but due to poor implementation (Zhu & Warner, 2017). They further analyzed that the reason for the lack of execution is that the implementation of the performance appraisal system fails to receive strong support from corporate executives, the assessment indicators and standards are set unreasonably, the influence of corporate culture, the influence of human relations, etc. The performance appraisal system of an enterprise is not well implemented, and it is often easy to cause that the results of performance appraisal is inconsistent with the employee's rewards and penalties, which will inevitably impair employee enthusiasm and reduce employee satisfaction (Čech, Yao, Samolejová & Wicher, 2016).
2.2 Salary management 
Salary management refers to the system that companies are based on their overall strategy to carry out dynamic management towards their compensation system, salary level, and salary structure (Navimipour & Zareie, 2015). Salary management is an important part of human resources management in an enterprise and an important means for enterprises to attract talents, retain talents, and motivate talents.
A reasonable salary management system can effectively arouse employees' enthusiasm and satisfaction, and can attract and retain a high-quality, competitive talent team that meets the company's strategic requirements (Alegre, Mas-Machuca & Berbegal-Mirabent, 2016). In terms of salary system, Hatane (2015) commented that the form of a compensation management system guarantees the right of employees to obtain reasonable remuneration, while allowing employees to clearly understand what remuneration should be obtained, how much they get, and when they get paid. , this will help reduce the sense of uncertainty of employees to increase the sense of belonging of employees to increase employee satisfaction.
In terms of salary level, Lacy (2018) studied Huawei’s compensation management strategy and pointed out that the most important role of a reasonable compensation system is to enable employees to receive compensation that matches their contribution to the company and it can be effective in motivating employees, increasing employee satisfaction. The management of a company must ensure that employees’ compensation can be linked to their work performance, ensuring that employees with excellent work performance can obtain more reasonable returns (Osibanjo, Igbinoba, Falola, & Awe, 2018). In terms of salary structure, Milliman, Gatling and Kim (2018) divided the salaries of employees into two categories: first, basic salaries, such as basic salaries, fixed allowances, and social compulsory benefits, second is performance-based compensation, such as bonuses, material rewards, training, etc. If the basic salary does not reach employee's expected level, the sense of well-being of employees will decrease and employee satisfaction will decline. Cheng and Yang (2018) complemented that although high wages and well-rounded benefits can attract employees, these are often treated as desirable by employees and cannot be used to motivate employees. Performance pay can mobilize the enthusiasm of employees and improve employee satisfaction. In reality, it is necessary to keep the proportion of the two kinds of compensation within a reasonable range according to the needs of a company and the changes in the market environment, so as to effectively improve employee satisfaction (Osibanjo, Igbinoba, Falola, & Awe, 2018).#p#分页标题#e#
It is equally worthwhile that unscientific salary management system is very unfavorable to the improvement of employee satisfaction. Cooke, Wu, Zhou, Zhong, Wang (2018) figured that in reality, many Chinese companies have not established a complete and scientific salary management system, the chaotic management of compensation is reflected in the fact that some business owners determine the compensation of their employees based on their personal experience and preferences, and their non-standard remuneration standards, which may cause the employees to feel unfair, employees of some of the companies are not paid on time, and the rewards promised to outstanding employees cannot all be paid (Osibanjo, Igbinoba, Falola, & Awe, 2018). The incomplete remuneration management system not only has a detrimental effect on the enthusiasm of the employees, but also causes the core employees to lose trust in the management of the companies and the satisfaction of the employees has been greatly reduced. Zhu, Cooper, Fan and Cieri (2013) analyzed the problems of salary management in the development process of small and medium-sized private enterprises. Jacobs, Yu and Chavez (2016) pointed out that the design of some companies' compensation systems does not closely link with the performance of employees, but rather link more with the staff's working life, educational background, etc., employees who work hard cannot obtain proper returns, resulting in a decrease in employee satisfaction and causing a loss of talents. In addition, Cooke and Wang (2014) discussed that in the process of the design of the salary system, some companies follow the principle of equalitarianism, employees with excellent performance are paid the same with employees with general performance, this is also unfavorable to inspire employees' enthusiasm for work and improve employee satisfaction.
2.3 Corporate culture
Corporate culture is spiritual values of corporate sense of worth, corporate mission, corporate vision, and corporate management philosophy with distinctive corporate characteristics (Navimipour & Zareie, 2015). The connotation of corporate culture is very rich, and its core content is the value concept that a company and its employees hold in the process of production and management. The importance of corporate culture is that it helps to build a harmonious, progressive working atmosphere and unite employees in order to achieve common goals and efforts.
The importance of corporate culture to modern enterprises is increasingly valued by corporate managers and related scholars. A large number of facts also prove that successful companies often have excellent corporate culture (Cheng &Yang, 2018).
Alegre, Mas-Machuca and Berbegal-Mirabent (2016) discussed that the primary task of corporate culture construction is to build the corporate values, once a company's core values are recognized by its management personnel and ordinary employees, it can form centripetal force and cohesion within the company, and the employees' enthusiasm and satisfaction will be greatly improved. Kang and Busser (2018) found that employees of enterprises have different world views, different family and education backgrounds, and different living habits, the existence of these differences can easily lead to friction and conflict among employees, and then affect the normal work atmosphere and work order of enterprises. Lacy (2018) thought that the construction of corporate culture helps to create a harmonious atmosphere within a company, the trust and cooperation between employees of the company is continuously enhanced, the overall efficiency of the company can be greatly improved, and the employees can also have a higher degree of satisfaction. Cheng and Yang (2018) were from the perspective of Maslow's need hierarchy theory to analyze that material incentives belong to employees' low-demand level incentives, their effectiveness is diminishing at the margin, and spiritual incentives belong to employees' high-demand level incentives, and the utility is more stable and lasting. They further analyzed that enterprise human resource management must pay attention to the use of spiritual incentives to motivate employees, through corporate culture construction, employees are motivated to jointly fulfill their responsibilities in order to realize and complete the common goals of the enterprise, thus employees’ dedication and teamwork spirit are cultivated, thereby greatly improving employee satisfaction.
However, it is worth noting that many Chinese companies still do not recognize the importance of corporate culture, resulting in the lack of substantive content in the formalization of corporate culture, and its corporate culture has not brought about the expected results for the companies (Navimipour & Zareie, 2015). The lack of corporate culture construction results in employees’ lacking a sense of mission, a sense of belonging, responsibility, and sense of accomplishment, a decrease in employee satisfaction, and a decline in work enthusiasm. Hatane (2015) pointed out that a mature corporate culture is conducive to the stable development of an enterprise, but for a strategic transformation of the enterprise, a mature corporate culture may not only promote the successful completion of the strategic transformation of the enterprise, but may also hinder the strategic transformation of the enterprise, the corporate culture does not match the corporate strategy will restrict the enthusiasm and creativity of employees and reduced employee satisfaction and enthusiasm.
2.4 Staff training
Employee training refers to a series of educational activities organized by a company to improve employees' skills, abilities and efficiencies, as well as employee loyalty and satisfaction (Hanaysha & Tahir, 2016). Companies improve employees’ skills and efficiency through training, which in turn drives the efficiency of the entire companies. Employee training can help to improve employee satisfaction, enthusiasm, creativity and sense of belonging. More and more companies regard training as an important way to motivate employees.
Staff training in an enterprise is an important factor affecting employee satisfaction. Shen and Tang (2018) found that in many enterprises, employees did not receive retraining and education after they joined in the companies, due to neglect of employee training, the employees would feel that the development of their future was limited, the level of technology and capabilities were not sufficiently improved, and the employees' satisfaction was objectively reduced, which in turn led to the idea that employees have decided to change jobs (Shen & Tang, 2018). Effective employee training can help employees to improve their own abilities, which is very beneficial for the future development of individual employees. Therefore, effective training is helpful for the improvement of employee satisfaction. In addition, a company's emphasis on employee training can make employees feel that they are valued by the company and are respected by the company (Ozturan, & Kutlu, 2010). Therefore, employee training is helpful to improve employee satisfaction. Targeted corporate training can help employees to better solve problems in their work, thereby improving employee performance and income, and gaining opportunities for promotion. Employees will be more satisfied because they are provided with good training opportunities. A large number of empirical studies have also supported the above scholars' viewpoints through data analysis. Ozturan and Kutlu (2010) surveyed 242 employees in public universities in northern Malaysia. The survey results showed that employee training has a significant positive effect on job satisfaction.
However, Shen and Tang (2018) also found that not all training can improve employee satisfaction. If companies provide training that does not meet the needs of employees and it fails to improve employees’ capacity, income, and positions, such training will increase employees’ burden and increase employee dissatisfaction. Ozturan and Kutlu (2010) was from the perspective of training effectiveness to find that the expenditures on training of Chinese enterprises were seriously insufficient then it was compared with that in Western companies. The expenditure on training for employees accounted for about 1% of employees' wages and was lower than that of in developed countries. Hanaysha and Tahir (2016) pointed out that at present, most enterprises in China, especially small and medium-sized enterprises, have not established a scientific and reasonable training system, and the companies failed to understand the training needs of employees, there were no unified plans for issues such as objectives of training, content of training, training methods, and training time, and their training programs were highly random. The content of the training was not forward-looking, which was out of touch with the needs of employees and enterprises, and it was of little significance for the improvement of employees, therefore, such training not only failed to receive the understanding and support of employees, but also aroused the disgust of employees and did not contribute to the improvement of employee satisfaction. Shen and Tang (2018) analyzed that the lack of corporate training incentive system is one of the reasons that led to poor corporate training. Some corporate training results have not been linked to employee performance, salary management, and personnel promotion, making employees lack the motivation to participate in training and are unwilling to invest a great deal of time and energy in improving their professional quality and ability. At the same time, after training, employees' abilities and skills have been improved. However, the companies do not have corresponding incentive measures to affirm the employees’ performance, the employees feel that their abilities are not recognized and their employees' satisfaction is reduced (Hanaysha & Tahir, 2016).#p#分页标题#e#
3.0 Critical analysis
In summary, performance appraisal, salary management, staff training and corporate culture of a company have an impact on employee satisfaction. However, this kind of influence can be either positive or negative, depending on whether the four aspects of the management systems are scientific and rational, whether they can meet the needs of employees, and whether they can be effectively implemented. Due to the huge differences in politics, economy, and culture, the criteria for the reasonableness of human resources management systems in various countries are not exactly the same, and the needs of employees in various countries also differ greatly. Therefore, to study the employee satisfaction in Chinese manufacturing industry needs to combine with China's actual conditions, including: institutional factors and employee demand factors. According to the current research on employee satisfaction, in particular, research on the satisfaction of Chinese employees is often based on the discussion of employee satisfaction under ideal conditions, while ignoring the influence of China's special political, economic and cultural factors. For example, in theory, shaping an equal and inclusive corporate culture that allows employees to be more respected and give full play to their talents should improve employee satisfaction, but Chinese employees are more willing to accept leadership and discipline, and the employees have less autonomy. If an enterprise wants to create an equitable and tolerant corporate culture and gives employees too much autonomy, the employees feel that they can't adapt, and the employee satisfaction may be reduced. Therefore, combining with Chinese special culture, competition and political factors to study how to improve the employee satisfaction in Chinese manufacturing industry by improving the human resources management system is the innovation of this paper.
Alegre, I., Mas-Machuca, M., & Berbegal-Mirabent, J. (2016). Antecedents of employee job satisfaction: Do they matter? Journal of Business Research, 69(4), 1390-1395.
Čech, M., Yao, W., Samolejová, A., Li, J., & Wicher, P. (2016). Human Resource Management in Chinese manufacturing companies. Perspectives in Science, 7(3), 6-9. 
Cheng, J., &Yang, Y. O. (2018). Hotel employee job crafting, burnout, and satisfaction: The moderating role of perceived organizational support. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 72(6),78-85.
Cooke, F. E., Wu, G., Zhou, J., Zhong, C., & Wang, J. (2018). Acquiring global footprints: Internationalization strategy of Chinese multinational enterprises and human resource implications. Journal of Business Research, 26, 4. 
Cooke, F. L., & Wang, D. S. S. (2014). Talent management in China and India: a comparison of management perceptions and human resource practices. Journal of World Business, 49(2), 225-235. 
Hatane, S. E. (2015). Employee Satisfaction and Performance as Intervening Variables of Learning Organization on Financial Performance. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 211(25), 619-628.
Hanaysha, J., & Tahir, P. R. (2016). Examining the Effects of Employee Empowerment, Teamwork, and Employee Training on Job Satisfaction. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 219(31), 272-282.
Huang, M., Li, P., Meschke, F., & Guthrie, J. P. (2015). Family firms, employee satisfaction, and corporate performance. Journal of Corporate Finance, 34(10),108-127.
Jacobs, M. A., Yu, W., & Chavez, R. (2016). The effect of internal communication and employee satisfaction on supply chain integration. International Journal of Production Economics, 171(1), 60-70.
Kang, H. J., & Busser, J. A. (2018). Impact of service climate and psychological capital on employee engagement: The role of organizational hierarchy. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 75(9), 1-9.
Lacy, R. A. (2018). From spirituality to strategies: a chaplain's guide to improve employee satisfaction and workplace positivity. Nurse Leader, 16(3),173-176.
Milliman, J., Gatling, A., & Kim, J. S. (2018). The effect of workplace spirituality on hospitality employee engagement, intention to stay, and service delivery. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 35(6), 56-65.
Navimipour, N. J., & Zareie, B. (2015). A model for assessing the impact of e-learning systems on employees’ satisfaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 53(12), 475-485.
Osibanjo, A. O., Igbinoba, E. E., Falola, H. O., & Awe, K. O. (2018). Dataset on social demographic and employee job satisfaction in the Nigerian manufacturing company. Data in Brief, 19(8),13-15.
Ozturan, M., & Kutlu, B. (2010). Employee satisfaction of corporate e-training programs. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 5561-5565.
Shen, J., & Tang, C. (2018). How does training improve customer service quality? The roles of transfer of training and job satisfaction. European Management Journal,12, 4. 
Zhao, S., & Du, J. (2012). Thirty-two years of development of human resource management in China: Review and prospects. Human Resource Management Review, 22(3),179-188. 
Zhu, C. J., Cooper, B. K., Fan, D., & Cieri, H. D. (2013). HR practices from the perspective of managers and employees in multinational enterprises in China: alignment issues and implications. Journal of World Business, 48(2), 241-250. 
Zhu, C. J., & Warner, M. (2017). The emergence of Human Resource Management in China: Convergence, divergence and contextualization. Human Resource Management Review,12, 11. 

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