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制造业员工满意度文献综述范文:employee satisfaction in manufacturing indust

时间:2019-07-31 09:44来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
1.0 Introduction介绍
大量研究表明,员工满意度在提高员工绩效、减少员工流失、提高员工创新和改善企业形象方面是积极的(Milliman、Gatling和Kim,2018年)。随着经济的发展和社会文明的进步,中国制造业企业也越来越重视提高员工满意度,以摆脱以往血汗工厂的企业形象。关于员工满意度的定义,学者们做出了许多不同的解释。Huang,Li,Meschke和Guthrie(2015)提出员工满意度是员工对其工作本身、薪酬、职业、领导和同事的整体认知;Lacy(2018)认为员工满意度是一种感觉状态,个人认为其工作能够满足或促进其工作价值观的需要;Alegre、Mas Machuca和Berbegal Mirabent(2016)认为,员工满意度是员工对工作条件、工作本身、工作回报、人际关系和整个企业的满意度;Osibanjo、Igbinoba、Falloa和Awe(2018)提出,员工满意度是员工比较工作环境、奖励期望与实际情况时的心理感知。也就是说,员工对特定工作环境的实际感受和期望之间的差距越小,他们的满意度就越高;差距越大,满意度就越低。综上所述,虽然学者对员工满意度提出了不同的定义,但他们对员工满意度的概念进行了总结,提出了员工满意度构成中的一些高频因素主要是工作本身、工作报酬、管理等。从人力资源管理的角度看,这些要素与公司的绩效考核、薪酬管理、员工培训、企业文化等密切相关,这就意味着这四个方面对员工满意度更直接。以下是关于这四个方面对员工满意度影响的文献综述。
A large number of studies have shown that employee satisfaction is positive in terms of improving employee performance, reducing employee turnover, improving employee innovation, and improving corporate image (Milliman, Gatling & Kim, 2018). With the development of the economy and the progress of social civilization, companies of Chinese manufacturing industry are also paying more attention to improving employee satisfaction in order to get rid of their past corporate image of sweatshops. With regard to the definition of employee satisfaction, scholars have made many different interpretations. Huang, Li, Meschke and Guthrie (2015) proposed that employee satisfaction is an employee's overall perception of his job itself, salary compensation, career, leadership, and colleagues; Lacy (2018) believed that employee satisfaction is a kind of sensational state that an individual feels that its job can satisfy or contribute to the needs of its work values; Alegre, Mas-Machuca and Berbegal-Mirabent (2016) held that employee satisfaction is an employee’s satisfaction with his work conditions, his work itself, the return on his work, interpersonal relationships, and the overall enterprise; Osibanjo, Igbinoba, Falola and Awe (2018) proposed that employee satisfaction is an employee's psychological perception when he compares his working environment, reward expectations with his actual conditions. That is, the smaller gap between the actual feelings and expectations of employees towards his specific work environment is, the higher degree of satisfaction they will have; the greater the gap is, and the lower the degree of satisfaction there will be. In summary, although scholars have put forward different definitions for employee satisfaction, they summarize the concept of employee satisfaction to bring forward that some of the high-frequency elements in the composition of employee satisfaction are mainly work itself, work remuneration, managers’ identification, communication between colleagues, job promotion, etc. From the perspective of human resources management, these elements are closely related to a company’s performance appraisal, salary management, employee training, and corporate culture, which means that these four aspects are more direct to employee satisfaction. The following is a review of the literatures on the impact of these four aspects on employee satisfaction.
2.0 Main body主体
2.1 Performance appraisal绩效考核
对于企业来说,科学、严谨、公正的绩效考核体系可以提高员工的工作效率和绩效,也有助于提高员工的满意度(Alegre,Mas Machuca&Berbegal Mirabent,2016)。Jacobs、Yu和Chavez(2016)提到,对于一家公司的员工来说,优秀的绩效管理体系可以创造一个积极公平的企业氛围,以提高员工满意度。程、杨(2018)指出,管理人员在人员晋升、配置培训、薪酬管理等方面,根据考核结果做出正确的决策,使员工获得公平的回报,进而提高员工满意度,调动员工的积极性。从而激发员工的创
Performance appraisal refers to the process that a company adopts scientific, fair and objective assessment methods and approaches, according to work objectives or performance standards to assess employees' completion of work, the degree of fulfillment of their duties and the merits and demerits of their work performance, etc., and sends the result of feedback to employees in a timely manner (Kang & Busser, 2018). The purpose of an enterprise's performance assessment is to enable the company's human resources to exert its maximum effectiveness (Milliman, Gatling & Kim, 2018).
For enterprises, a scientific, rigorous, and fair performance appraisal system can improve employees' work efficiency and employee performance, and it is also helpful to improve employee satisfaction (Alegre, Mas-Machuca & Berbegal-Mirabent, 2016). Jacobs, Yu and Chavez (2016) mentioned that for employees of a company, excellent performance management system can create a positive and fair corporate atmosphere to improve employee satisfaction. Cheng and Yang (2018) pointed out that management personnel make correct decisions based on assessment results in personnel promotion, configuration and training, and pay management, so that employees can receive a fair return, which in turn can improve employee satisfaction and mobilize the enthusiasm of employees, thus inspiring employees' creativity.
However, it is worth noting that unscientific performance appraisal will not only fail to bring about an increase in employee satisfaction, but will also reduce employee satisfaction (Huang, Li, Meschke & Guthrie, 2015). Hatane (2015) believed that if the performance assessment system formulated by a company focuses only on performance assessment methods and techniques, and neglects propaganda and training, it cannot allow the enterprise’s department managers and employees to accurately understand the content and objectives of its performance assessment, therefore, the performance appraisal is difficult to get employees' approval and correct implementation, such an appraisal system is likely to arouse the disgust of employees and reduce employee satisfaction. Navimipour and Zareie   (2015) found that some companies are not scientific enough to formulate their assessment indicators, and they cannot truly and accurately reflect employees’ work performance, thus employees' efforts fail to be recognized by the company. Alegre, I., Mas-Machuca, M., & Berbegal-Mirabent (2016) figured that the failure of the performance appraisal system of some Chinese companies is not entirely due to problems in the performance appraisal system itself, but due to poor implementation (Zhu & Warner, 2017). They further analyzed that the reason for the lack of execution is that the implementation of the performance appraisal system fails to receive strong support from corporate executives, the assessment indicators and standards are set unreasonably, the influence of corporate culture, the influence of human relations, etc. The performance appraisal system of an enterprise is not well implemented, and it is often easy to cause that the results of performance appraisal is inconsistent with the employee's rewards and penalties, which will inevitably impair employee enthusiasm and reduce employee satisfaction (Čech, Yao, Samolejová & Wicher, 2016).
2.2 Salary management 
Salary management refers to the system that companies are based on their overall strategy to carry out dynamic management towards their compensation system, salary level, and salary structure (Navimipour & Zareie, 2015). Salary management is an important part of human resources management in an enterprise and an important means for enterprises to attract talents, retain talents, and motivate talents.
A reasonable salary management system can effectively arouse employees' enthusiasm and satisfaction, and can attract and retain a high-quality, competitive talent team that meets the company's strategic requirements (Alegre, Mas-Machuca & Berbegal-Mirabent, 2016). In terms of salary system, Hatane (2015) commented that the form of a compensation management system guarantees the right of employees to obtain reasonable remuneration, while allowing employees to clearly understand what remuneration should be obtained, how much they get, and when they get paid. , this will help reduce the sense of uncertainty of employees to increase the sense of belonging of employees to increase employee satisfaction.
In terms of salary level, Lacy (2018) studied Huawei’s compensation management strategy and pointed out that the most important role of a reasonable compensation system is to enable employees to receive compensation that matches their contribution to the company and it can be effective in motivating employees, increasing employee satisfaction. The management of a company must ensure that employees’ compensation can be linked to their work performance, ensuring that employees with excellent work performance can obtain more reasonable returns (Osibanjo, Igbinoba, Falola, & Awe, 2018). In terms of salary structure, Milliman, Gatling and Kim (2018) divided the salaries of employees into two categories: first, basic salaries, such as basic salaries, fixed allowances, and social compulsory benefits, second is performance-based compensation, such as bonuses, material rewards, training, etc. If the basic salary does not reach employee's expected level, the sense of well-being of employees will decrease and employee satisfaction will decline. Cheng and Yang (2018) complemented that although high wages and well-rounded benefits can attract employees, these are often treated as desirable by employees and cannot be used to motivate employees. Performance pay can mobilize the enthusiasm of employees and improve employee satisfaction. In reality, it is necessary to keep the proportion of the two kinds of compensation within a reasonable range according to the needs of a company and the changes in the market environment, so as to effectively improve employee satisfaction (Osibanjo, Igbinoba, Falola, & Awe, 2018).

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