代写 TAG标签


时间:2015-09-24 14:03来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:anne 点击:
企业家是影响国家经济的主要因素之一,它影响了国际贸易,基础设施,就业和生活水平,以及资本增长。这也反映了政府政策的有效性。创业活动的水平不仅仅与上述因素相互作用,而且还与文化、地理因素、法规的相互作用。人格特征、行为和动机也是应考虑的主要因素。“有人从事个体经营,这是也有着许多因素,如就业状况,少数人的行为,移民行为,家族企业的影响和态度的影响”(freytak和thurik,2007,p.120))。创业还涉及到一些其他的因素,如国家政策(税收,法规,易做业务),创业融资(银行,政府支持),经济环境(经济自由),营销(竞争力),文化(生活方式,历史背景),公共机构援助(政府支持),个性(对风险的态度)和专业知识等。Entrepreneurship is one of a major factor influencing the economy of countries in terms of international trade, infrastructure, employment and living standards as well as capital growth. It also reflects the effectiveness of government policies. The level of entrepreneurial activity not only interacts with the above factors, but also with cultural, geographical factors, and regulations. Personality characteristics, behavior and motivation are also the major elements which should be taken into consideration. ‘There are many determinants of being or becoming self-employed which are dealt with in the literature, such as employment status, minority behaviour, immigrant behaviour, family firm effect and attitudinal effects' (Freytak & Thurik, 2007, P.120)). Entrepreneurship also relates to some other factors such as national policies (taxation, regulations, ease of doing business), entrepreneurship finance (banks, government support), economic circumstances (economic freedom), marketing (competitiveness), cultural (living style, historic background), public agency assistance (government support), personality (attitude to risk) and expertise etc.
The assignment compares the level of entrepreneurial activity between US, China and Hong Kong as these three locations have contrasting characteristics with respect to all these different aspects. They also have similarities which relate to entrepreneurial activity. According to GEM Report 2007, the Early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) was 9.6% in US, 16.4% in China and 10% in Hong Kong. All the factors have mentioned above have major effect on the TEA levels, the assignment will discover and compare the reason why they are influencing TEA in these countries, and it will categorize the factors which influencing the level of entrepreneurial activity into 5 major sections: cultural factors, government policies, geographical factors, economy, education and training.
1. Culture文化

Culture is ‘the customs, institutions and achievements of a particular nation, people or group' (Oxford English Dictionary online). Culture has a significant influence on people and nation's attitude and behavior, personality's characteristics and motivation, perception, psychology as well as living style. It consists of history, tradition, literature, education, philosophy, social structure and society etc. In GEM Global Report 2008, it states that each individual has different level of fear of failure, perception towards entrepreneurship as well as willingness of people to take risk. As all countries have different historical background, people's attitude and behavior differ in different countries because of the different environments in which they have grown up. These are affected by the nation's culture and the effectiveness of the societies.
United State
United State is a top leading country in the world with 300 millions of population (U.S. Census Bureau), it combines with many different nations of people, and thus it mixes with all different cultures. US people are highly acceptance of varies innovations, cultures and risks as they have been a multi-nations country since 18th century, and these create a welcome and open acceptance atmosphere and environment for all different kind of business innovation. They are open-minded people with high motivation, positive perception of risk, fear of failure and entrepreneurship. ‘U.S. people pursuit of seemingly impossible dreams, impatience with time, acceptance of mistakes and intrigue with what's new' (Hammond and Morrision 1996). US people also think that becoming entrepreneur is a societally sanctioned and appropriate outlet for their achievement motivation. Since U.S. people have all these positive characteristics, it does help and encourage the entrepreneurship activities in the country, in GEM Report 2008, percentage of fear of failure would prevent starting a business in U.S was 44% while comparing Hong Kong was 37% in 2007. Percentage of entrepreneurship considered as desirable career choice in U.S was 63% while Hong Kong was 66%.
Hong Kong
In Hong Kong, people generally work hard, long hours and are more productive in order to get ahead. Hong Kong people are a special group of people as they have mix personality characteristics which influence by the Chinese culture and also British culture as she was a British colony for 155 years. Hong Kong people can be characterized as strong aspirations and ambitions for wealth, societal pragmatism and Chinese values and work ethic like traditional Chinese; they can also be characterized as open-minded as strong perception of equal opportunity and willingness to adapt like western people. ‘Hong Kong's culture is highly supportive of success achieved through self-sufficiency, autonomy, personal initiative - where the individual has ultimate responsibility for managing his or her own life - and entrepreneurial risk taking' (GEM Report Hong Kong 2007, P.40).
Hong Kong people are a group of ‘fast-turning' people in terms of business innovation, living as well as working. Hong Kong is a well known efficient city in the world. It is one of the world leading financial centers and Four Asian Tigers, these positions have influencing most of individuals to establish a basic financial concept and the sense of globalization, however, on the other hand, it also gives a pressure environment to people by being a competitive market. Therefore, by catching up the speed and securing their living standard in this fast changing world, Hong Kong people walk fast, work fast and change fast.  According to The World Competitiveness Yearbook 2009, Hong Kong has the best overall ranking on business efficiency in the world, especially on flexibility and adaptability, when comparing US and China is in the position of 16 and 37 representatively.
As a multicultural nation, Hong Kong people have good perception of varies business innovations; they have evolved into their own brand by perceiving the ideas from other countries. Their living style also has been significantly influencing by other countries and culture, for example, fashion, eating, technology and home. They would like to show they are a group of new fashion people, by doing this, they keep trying new products and services to catch the top fashion. Thus, it gives lots of opportunities for creating different variation of business, for example, restaurants, cosmetic and high technology products.
Even though Hong Kong has been a colony of Britain for so many years, most people are still Chinese like. Chinese people often put family and money as the first two priority, they believe that running business is the best way to make money as well as gain a good reputation for themselves and their families. In Chinese culture, elders in families are hoping that they can have some wealth to pass on to their next generation, i.e. business, money and reputation. Therefore, this traditional culture does encourage entrepreneurship activities in Hong Kong as well as China.
China is one of the powerful developing countries in the world with 1.3 billion populations which contains more than four thousands years of history. People in China are fasten with the Confucian culture which asserts obedient, respect for parents and ancestors, therefore, Chinese people are strongly respect for age and hierarchy, and also put their families in the first priority. They also believe that hard work and successful business are the signs of reputation. The culture of social and economy were patriotism as most of the business activities were state owned, ‘local government in rural areas invariably co-ordinated economic activities within their territory as if it was a diversified business corporation, with officials acting as the equivalent of a board of directors' (Li J & Matlay H 2006, P248 - 262). People's attitudes focus on follow the exact instructions from the top levels of management; they ignore creating any unnecessary innovation and ideas themselves to reduce the chance of making mistakes as their attitudes are extremely passive and collectivism, they motivate by the government, the state and moral to secure their jobs. People accept the traditional bureaucracy since the hierarchical culture characteristic; they obey, respect and sustain this management system without question. The entrepreneurial activity was not very popular under this centralized and official climate. However, follow by the economic development and globalization, this phenomenon has been changed. People start thinking the realistic about the business world due to the market economy and competition, and of course, the Chinese economic reforms in 1978 was also a crucial factor of this changed. The activities of private entrepreneurs have increased because of the open market. Young generations are not constraint by the culture and family factors, they start accepting the global business world, education, infrastructure, profit and insecure jobs. They also understand the important of innovation and creativity in these competitive economies.

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