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越南失业的成因及类型

时间:2015-12-23 17:25来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业网 点击:
Causes and types of unemployment in Vietnam
越南失业的成因及类型
 
在过去的几十年里,国际上对寻找工作和家庭责任之间的平衡这一话题的关注已显著增长。现在人们认识到在人们的生活质量上,工作和家庭生活之间的冲突(特别是妇女和儿童福利),在工作条件上尤其是对工人的生产力和健康方面都有极其消极的影响。
越南劳动力市场的最新发展可以概述到以下七个主要组成部分(不按其重要性排序):
在2007和1997之间人口的增长增加了大量的劳动力,主要对越南的劳动力市场施加了压力。然而,未来的人口增长预计不会像过去十年一样高。
国内生产总值的增长与随之而来的就业增长和提高劳动生产率,支持减贫工作。
劳动力参与率与就业人口比例有下降趋势。促成这一转变的是青年留在学校的时间越来越长,成年人越来越早地退休。

In the last few decades, international interest in the theme of finding a balance between work and family responsibilities has grown significantly. It is now recognized that the conflicts between work and family life have negative effects on the quality of people's life (notably on the welfare of women and children), and on working conditions, in particular, worker's productivity and health.
 
In Vietnam, recent developments in the labor market can be encapsulated into the following seven major components (not necessary in order of importance):
 
The major growth in population between 1997 and 2007 has added a large number of labors to the country's labor force, placing pressure on the Vietnam labor market. However, future population growth is not expected to be as high as the previous decade.
 
There has been strong growth in GDP with consequent employment gains and improved labor productivity, supporting poverty reduction efforts.
 
There has been a downward trend in labor force participation rates and also employment-to-population ratios. Contributing to this shift are youth remaining in school longer and adults taking earlier retirement.
 
A very large component of total employment falls into the category of being vulnerable and lack to have a decent work.
 
There have been significant shifts in labor market with a decreasing proportion in agricultural employment, and rising employment in the industrial and services sectors.
 
Unemployment is not presently a problem in the country, with the unemployment rate remaining stable and very low over the past decade.
 
While Vietnam still remains a large population in rural area, it is gradually shifting major number of residents from rural area to urban area.
 
Introduction—引言
Unemployment is not only an economic issue but also a serious social problem of all countries, and especially of developing countries such as Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos ... Labour is one of main inputs in production process and unemployment is synonymous with the waste of resources. Unemployment also impacts to poverty and inequality problems of economic development. Moreover unemployment is one of main factor in determining how healthy an economy is. Therefore, explaining unemployment is quite necessary to find causes and to control it.
 
Literature Review—文献评论
The definition of unemployment
"The number of people who are actively looking for work but are currently without a job" [1] .
 
But not everyone without a job is counted as unemployed, it does not include children and pensioners. The economists usually explain unemployment as: "People in the working age are currently without a job and available for work at current wage rates" [2] .
 
Formula—公式
Unemployment Rate = (Unemployed Workers / Total Labor Force) x 100
 
The unemployment rate is expressed as a percentage:
 
Example: The unemployed workers in Vietnam are 1.320.000 people and the total labor force is 44.000.000 people.
 
(1.320.000 / 44.000.000) x 100 = 3% (unemployment rate)
 
Causes of Unemployment—事业原因
In the set up of a modern market economy, there are many factors contribute to unemployment. Causes of unemployment are varied and it may be due to the following factors:
 
Rapid changes in technology
 
Recessions
 
Inflation
 
Disability
 
Fluctuating business cycles
 
Changes in tastes as well as alterations in the climatic conditions. This may in turn lead to decline in demand for certain services as well as products.
 
Attitude towards employers
 
Willingness to work
 
Perception of employees
 
Employee's values
 
Discriminating factors in workplace (may include discrimination on the basis of age, class, ethnicity, color and race).
 
Ability to look for employment
 
These causes of unemployment can be divided into two broad categories disequilibrium and equilibrium unemployment.
 
Types of Unemployment—失业类型
Frictional or Search Unemployment: Unemployment due to the natural friction of the economy, represented by qualified Individuals, who change jobs, with transferable skills.
 
For example: A first-time job seeker may lack of skills or information for finding the company that has the job available and suitable for him or her. As a result this person does not take other work, temporarily holding out for the better-paying job.
 
Structural Unemployment: Unemployment due to structural changes in the economy that eliminate some jobs and create others for which the unemployed are unqualified.
 
For example: In the technological revolution, computers may have eliminated jobs, but they also opened up new positions for those who have the skills to operate the computers.
 
Classical or Real Wage Unemployment: is a form of disequilibrium unemployment that occurs when real wages for jobs are forced above the market clearing level.Â
 
For example: The Vietnam government increases the minimum wage for employees from 1,3 million to 1,5 million per month. Because of that, the firms will cut some of their workers to keep their profit. As a result, some workers will become unemployed.
 
Demand Deficient or Cyclical Unemployment: Unemployment due to contractions in the economy.
 
For example: The U.S recession in 2008, many firms closed down or bankrupt leaded to 2.6 million laborers were unemployed, the unemployment rate rose to 7.2% in U.S
 
Seasonal Unemployment: Unemployment due to seasonal trends.
 
An example of this is Skiing instructors. In winter, they teach people how to ski, but once the snow is gone they're out of a job.
 
Hardcore Unemployment [4] : is the unemployment of people that are unable to get jobs due to severe disabilities or other problems that are unable to be corrected.
 
An example would be a blind, mute, physically or mentally illness. They are unable to find a job, having to rely on government welfare. It can be seen, that although this man might be interested in seeking a job and thus classified as "unemployed", there is no possibility of him finding a job.
 
Hidden Unemployment [5] : The unemployment or underemployment of workers that is not reflected in official unemployment statistics because of the way they are compiled.
 
An example of this is discouraged workers - people who have given up active search for jobs perhaps because they have been out of work for a long time and have lost both the motivation to apply for jobs and also the skills required.
 
The poverty trap can also act to increase hidden unemployment. Jobless workers may not apply for jobs because of financial disincentives created by the interaction of the income tax and state benefits system.
 
Full employment exists when the unemployment rate is equal to the natural unemployment rate. The natural rate of unemployment measures the unemployment when the labor market is in equilibrium. * Full employment does NOT mean zero unemployment.
 
Demand for Labor and supply of Labor:劳动力需求和劳动力供给
Demand for labor increases market wages and more workers enter the market. But this higher cost of labor will mean that employers will use less labor because it’s more expensive. Moreover, companies must pay competitive wages in order to obtain workers [6] .
 
Supply of labor is the number of total hours that workers wish to work at a given real wage rate. Realistically, the labor supply is a function of various factors within an economy. For example: overpopulation increases the number of available workers, it will drive wages down and can result in high unemployment [7] .
 
The four basic laws of supply and demand are:供需的四个基本法则
 
+ If demand increases and supply remains unchanged then higher equilibrium price and quantity.
 
+ If demand decreases and supply remains the same then lower equilibrium price and quantity.
 


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