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跨文化管理之联想收购IBM

时间:2016-03-28 16:51来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:anne 点击:
Introduction介绍
 
世界经济的发展呈现出全球化和一体化的趋势,国际市场和资源的充分利用和有效利用已成为企业乃至国家发展和增长的重要战略选择(常与公园,2012)。在这样的背景下,越来越多的企业在全球范围内对资源进行有效配置,积极参与国际分工与合作,寻求更为广阔的发展空间。同时,国家和地区之间的文化差异,提出了新的问题和挑战国际公司(MNC)和传统的管理思维和管理理念。本文在这样的背景下,以联想集团为例,对跨文化企业人力资源管理进行了初步的分析,并提出了提高人力资源管理的跨国企业的一些建议。本文将首先讨论联想的管理问题。在此之后,它将分析如何在处理跨文化问题时,国际性的公司应该如何处理。The development of the world economy shows a strong trend of globalization and integration, and the full and effective use of the international markets and resources has become an important strategic choice for businesses and even national development and growth (Chang & Park, 2012). Under this background, more and more enterprises make efficient allocation of resources on a global scale, and actively participate in international division of labor and cooperation, and seek a broader space for development. At the same time, the cultural differences between the countries and regions propose new issues and challenges to international companies (MNCs) and their traditional management thinking and management concepts. This essay, in this context, takes the case of Lenovo Group, makes preliminary analysis of cross-cultural enterprise human resource management, and puts forward some recommendations for the MNCs to improve human resource management. This essay will firstly discuss the IHRM issues of Lenovo. Following this, it will analyze how the international company should do when dealing with the cross-cultural issues.
Main body主体

1.0 IHRM issues of Lenovo after acquiring IBM PC学习联想收购IBM PC后的问题

On December 8, 2004, Lenovo Group acquired IBM Personal Computing Division, becoming the third largest PC vendor in the world with annual revenues exceeding 10 billion U.S. dollars. Lenovo’s successful acquisition is a win-win situation for both sides, but it is faced with the challenges of the organic integration and cultural differences. Lenovo and IBM's PC resources are integrated into one, but not equal to the integration of talent. The two companies are geographically located in the east and west hemisphere, there are great differences in many aspects of its corporate culture, personnel philosophy and management style. When disadvantaged business acquires strong business, the biggest risk is how to establish a new culture through effective cross-cultural management. 
For Lenovo, this acquisition has the following two characteristics, and the new Lenovo’s cultural integration has a greater risk. On one hand, Lenovo's acquisition of IBM's PC division is a cross-border acquisition case, Lenovo has almost no international management experience; it is conceivable that in a period of time, Lenovo is difficult to find the right people sent overseas. No matter how smoothly the integration is, the movement of persons in a period of time is bound to very serious; if Lenovo cannot make up for the loss of staff in this area, the integration of Lenovo will face a major risk. On the other hand, IBM's PC division has more than 10,000 employees from dozens of different countries with different characteristics of life, culture, customs, management features, and the rule of law. Lenovo Group employs a total of more than 11,000 people, mostly from mainland China. Personnel of different cultural background and values are great challenge for Lenovo's international human resource management (Stucchi, 2012). Facing with this condition, Lenovo conducts the cross-cultural management.

2.0 Lenovo’s cross-cultural management efforts联想的跨文化管理工作

2.1 How to integrate staffs from different cultural backgrounds?
Integration of different cultures, mutual learning and innovation
Lenovo tries to create a new human resources management system through the integration of different cultures. Lenovo Group recognizes advanced cultural management experience of IBM PC sector, and actively opens to be absorbed to accept and continue to stimulate cross-cultural exchange and learning. Lenovo compares the cultural types of China and USA; finds out their differences from the organization's goals and collective interests, and paves the way for cross-cultural integration. 
  Cross-cultural human resources training
The cross-cultural human resource training is also an approach. The main content of the cross-cultural training includes understanding of different cultures, cultural sensitivity training, language learning, cross-cultural communication, dealing with conflicts training, and regional environment training. The employees with different cultural backgrounds are gathered together for special cultural education, cultural studies, field trips, environmental simulation, situational dialogues, role playing, language training and cultural barriers in order to break the cultural barrier of each person, to better identify intercultural differences, to strengthen employees’ adaptability to different cultures, and to improve intercultural awareness and contact. In addition, Lenovo divides the cross-cultural training into four phases: preparatory training, training before leaving, training after arrival and training before returning home. For the employees will be sent to overseas for development, Lenovo also do a good job of the full periodic training of human resources. 

2.2 How to select and manage cross-cultural team?
Select management staff who adapts to different cultural differences
The selection of expatriate managers for foreign operations should meet the following: on the one hand, the expatriates are able to implement the strategy of the headquarters, and faithfully represent and safeguard the interests of the headquarters; on the other hand, the expatriates need to have a wealth of expertise, management experience and strong management skills, especially to have specific qualities working in a multicultural environment. Therefore, in addition to the loyalty and competence, the overseas management personnel selection of Lenovo focuses on the ability to withstand the impact of foreign culture, control and regulation of them to adapt to different national cultures (Klossek et al. 2012).
Identify the balance between “maintaining self” and “adapting to others”, implement localized management
Lenovo Group takes superior to inferior, takes use of complementary advantages, and implements localized management. Lenovo gradually achieves recruitment localization and training of local talent, purchasing localization, product localization, and localization of profits. In addition, when the localization changes in the international marketing environment, Lenovo Group is flexible to take measures to respond to a variety of restrictions.
Global-oriented international human resource management
Lenovo conducts the global-oriented international human resource management. The selection and training of managers in Lenovo is from different national backgrounds. It should also be paid more attention to the job matching of Lenovo: Lenovo dilutes the consideration of nationality of individuals working in the country, makes the staffs take the initiative to accept the global corporate culture, flexible to deal with different cultures and national social systems. Lenovo Group has established worldwide talent pool independent of nationality and geographical limitations, so that the company attracts managers, professionals and technical personnel on a global scale (Schuler et al. 2012). Lenovo also develops a reasonable pay and performance mechanism, which is the most important means to attract talent worldwide.

3.0 Inspirations for multinational companies跨国公司的启示
 
3.1 How culture plays the role in the cross-cultural organization?
International Human Resource Management (IHRM) refers to the human resource planning, recruitment, performance management, training and development, compensation plan and benefits, labor relations and other general human resources functions of the internationalization of the activities. According to the definition given by Morgan, International Human Resource Management the interactive combination among the staff, business and the country three dimensions in the human resources activities (Zhao & Du, 2012). There are many factors affecting cultural integration, the most important is the difference in size and whether the management mode the cultural characteristics represent is efficient or not. Due to the cultural differences, Lenovo and IBM PC sector makes the reserved cultural integration in the initial stage, when operating for some time, Lenovo then turns to other means of cultural integration in order to reduce cultural conflict. It is worth noting that, Lenovo Group, in the cross-cultural integration process, takes into account the overall balance of organization itself as a particular cultural group.

3.2 How to conduct cross-cultural management after mergers and acquisitions?
Cross-cultural management is not limited to cross-border operations and cross-border mergers and acquisitions, which is widely present in the integration between the different regions, different industries and different forms of ownership. Technology, products are relatively easy to copy from one market to another market, but a clash of cultures cannot disappear overnight (Baloğlu, 2011). According to Peter Drucker, the management guru, the cross-cultural management is essentially combined and unified management issue of a political and cultural diversity. For the cross-cultural management of enterprises, there is no ready-made model can be applied. Effective cross-cultural management should organically integrate the different national characteristics, values and cultural traditions with management methods, and be applied to all aspects of business management. The enterprises’ cross-cultural management problems can be solved from four aspects, including the corporate culture, core competitiveness of enterprises, personnel training and cross-cultural management mechanism (Stone, 2007). Among them, the establishment of excellent corporate culture is the core, to build the core competitiveness of enterprises is the base, globalization managers is the guarantee and the cross-cultural management mechanism is fundamental. 


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