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留学生作业:全面质量管理技术 Total Quality Management Techniques

时间:2017-07-07 12:23来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
全面质量管理(TQM)的原则和技术现在几乎是每一个经理的管理方式中的一个很容易接受部分。根据鲍威尔的观点,大多数大公司在某种形式上都采用了TQM,而官方质量奖是公司在日本、美国、欧洲或澳大利亚经营的荣誉徽章。实施全面质量管理是一个重大的组织变革,需要改变组织的文化、过程、战略重点和信念。
 
质量:
 
不同的人对质量有不同的定义,但它们都有相同的中心主题。根据(教科书),质量是一致的,以符合客户的期望。有些人把质量称为“适合使用”,另一些人称之为“符合要求”。根据美国质量协会的说法,“质量是产品或服务的特性和特性的总和,而产品或服务的能力取决于其满足规定或隐含需求的能力”。然而,质量并没有单一的视角,对于任何产品和服务的客户以及对该产品或服务的生产者来说都是不同的。
在操作的角度,针对质量进行操作产生的结果是与规范定义的通过设计和控制保持在指定的生产与上述一致性过程线,使“客户期望”是通过生产商品或服务。
在客户看来,质量对所有客户没有单一的定义。这取决于他们如何看待它。因此,质量被称为顾客对单个产品或服务不同价值的感知和期望。
 
Total quality management (TQM) principles and techniques are now a days well accepted part of almost every manager's tool kit'' (Dow et al., 1999). According to Powell (1995), most large firms have ``adopted TQM in some form'', and official quality awards are a badge of honour whether a company is operating in Japan, the USA, Europe, or Australia. Implementing TQM is a major organizational change that requires a transformation in the organization's culture, processes, strategic priorities, and beliefs, among others.
 
Quality:
 
Different people have different definitions of quality but they all have the same central theme. According to (Text book), Quality is consistent conformance to customers' expectations. Some refer to quality as "fitness for use" and other calls it as "conformance of requirement". According to American Society for Quality, "Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs". However, quality doesn't have a single perspective and is different for the customers of any product and service and for the producers of that good or service.
 
In the Operation's view, targeting quality is to undertake operations to produce outcomes which are in line with the specifications defined through processes that are designed and controlled to maintain consistency in the specified production and above all, that the 'Customers' Expectations' are met through the produced good or service.
 
In customer's view, quality has no single definition for all customers. It depends on how they perceive it. Hence, quality is referred to as customers' perception and expectation about different values of a single product or service.
 
Following are the different dimensions of any product or service:
 
Performance
 
Main characteristics of a product/service
 
Special Features
 
Extra characteristics
 
Conformance
 
How well a product/service corresponds to the customer's expectation
 
Reliability
 
Consistency of performance
 
Durability
 
Useful life of a product/service
 
Perceived Quality
 
Indirect evaluation of quality (e.g. reputation)
 
After Sales Service
 
Handling of complaints and requests for information
 
THE DIMENSIONS OF QUALITY (Stevenson, 1999)
 
The Quality Costs
The cost of quality is a balance of the cost of assurance of quality against the costs associated with shortcomings resulting in the lack of quality. An attempt to minimize the total quality costs is mere balancing of the four components of quality cost: 'prevention': incurred to prevent quality problems, 'appraisal': associated with controlling quality to check whether problems have occurred or not, 'internal failures': associated with errors dealt with inside of operations and 'external failures': associated with errors or problems going out of the operation to a customer.(Text Book) The variations within the individual quality cost categories are secondary in importance compared to their combined effect on the overall total quality cost.
 
The quality cost concept is an effective tool that can be used to express the value of the quality aspects of the operation in terms of money so that monitoring and analysis of investments and savings in that area can be readily evaluated using the language of business: money. (George P. Laszlo)
 
Prevention is the important influence more than inspection, according to a rule of thumb, for every dollar spent in prevention; a company can save $10 in failure and appraisal costs. (Chase, Aquilano and Jacobs, 1998)
 
Consequences of Poor Quality
Quality has been recognised as the key ingredient for success in business and has been focused upon intensely so as to match the pace of the contemporary market growth and the subsequent competition in it. Production of good or service with the required quality is possible only through properly managed production process, whose vital part is to ensure the satisfactory quality assurance. However, in case this vital part fails to contribute its role effectively, processes produce outcomes with poor quality.
 
Poor quality products may disappoint the buyer and result in the customer migration. Buying a product and finding it below expectations will make buyer not to buy the same product again. In fact, the chances that the buyer will buy any other product from the company are also low.
 
Poor quality affects the overall costs associated with that product. The failure cost increases as poor quality product is repaired, replaced or made new. The cost associated with the reimbursements and waste materials increases the overall variable production costs and hence profit margins and contribution. As a consequence of the cost increase, companies alter the price levels. ( Begg & Ward) However, spending enough prevention cost at first place, the economic turbulence in the market can be avoided.
 
More than all, poor quality damages the image and reputation of the company among the customer base. The famous example of Mercedes, launching A-class car without noticing its faulty design, showed the sensitivity of the relation between reputation of a company with the quality of its products. ( Topfer,1997)
 
As the repairs or rectification of any faulty product demands for more efforts, the overall productivity of the firm is also affected by the poor quality outcomes.
 
Also, the Consumer and Product Safety Act of 1972 makes firms liable for damages caused by the products or services, which do not fulfil the standards set and enforced by the act. (Heizer and Render, 2000)
 
What is TQM?
The concept of TQM (Total Quality Management) is generally understood, and often also described, as some form of ' management philosophy' based in a number of core values, such as customer focus, continuous improvement, process orientation, everybody's commitment, fast response, result orientation and learn from others. (Ulrika Hellsten and Bengt Klefsjo, emerald). All these core values collectively are nothing but quality improvement. Hence, TQM is best thought of as a philosophy of how to approach the organization of quality improvement. (Text Book)
 
TQM philosophy stresses the 'Total' of TQM. Putting quality or improvement at the heart of everything and including all activities within an operation, TQM aims at participation of all the members in organization targeting long-run success through customer satisfaction, and benefits to all members of the organization and to society.
 
TQM and the Quality Gurus
Although the quality 'gurus' seem to be recommending different solutions to bringing about improvement, they are all talking the same 'language' but they use different dialects.(Text book). Each 'Guru' stressed a different set of issues, which catalysed the transition from TQM concept to operations improvement. It is believed that Japanese were the first to introduce the concept and implemented it on a wide scale and subsequently popularized the term Total Quality Management. Few of the popular contributors and their philosophies about TQM are briefly described.
 
A. Feigenbaum stressed on the integration of quality development, quality maintenance and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable production and service at the most economical levels which allow for full customer satisfaction.( Text book)


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