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代写留学生作业:残疾人运动机会探析 Exploring Sport Opportunities for Disabled(2)

时间:2017-11-24 14:44来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
Holt points out that sport itself provides a developmental context that has been associated with PYD, but sport on its own does not lead to PYD. In fact he points out that in some environments there a
 
Holt points out that sport itself provides a developmental context that has been associated with PYD, but sport on its own does not lead to PYD. In fact he points out that in some environments there are instances when negative outcomes arise from sport participation. Thus it is the manner in which sport is structured and delivered to children that influences their development.
 
Nicholas Holt quotes Larson and expresses that, organized activities can provide youth with opportunities to experience positive development. He states that sport is the most popular organized activity into which youth engage (Larson and Verma 1999).
 
Both theory and research point out the importance of structural out-of-school-time (OST) activities as important assets in the positive development of youth (Mahoney et al. 2005).
 
Holt in his article says that youth participation in organized sports has been linked to indicators of adolescent’s physical, social, psychological, and achievement related behaviour and development. Researchers (Barber et al. 2001: Eccles et al. 2003) found that, in comparison to non-participants, youth who participate in sport enjoyed attending school more, received more frequent educational and occupational support, had higher academic performance, longer periods of tertiary education by age 25, and attained a job at age 24 that offered autonomy and a promising future. Although there where diverse research findings regarding the relationsip of sport participation and alcohol use, some found a relationship between sport participation and a lower level of alcohol use (Peretti-Watel et al 2003). Other findings indicated a positive relationship between sport participation and alcohol use. Sport participation has also been consistently linked to a lower use of cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and ‘other drugs’ (Page et al 1998). Furthermore it was also related to lower rates of depression and lower incidence of suicidal behaviour.
 
Researchers and youth advocates have proposed important benefits of sports involvement. However, to date, little research has accounted for the dynamic ways in which youth spend their free time.
 
A book entitled No one`s perfect, tells the story of a Japanese Boy who despite being born without arms and limbs he managed to do it his way into sport.
 
This Japanese little boy, named Ototake, came home from school one day and told his parents he had signed up to play basketball. In contrary to other parents who would be delighted to such a request, they where shocked. Oto was born with no arms and no legs. Despite his disability, this extraordinary young man has always proven a hard-worker, rich in versatility and with an upbeat approach to life. This positivity served him as valuable as limbs. No One's Perfect is his true account of how he slam-dunked one challenge after another, including basketball.
 
Ototake says that thanks to having short arms and legs plus a wheelchair, he was a winner in the popularity department. He found himself always the centre of a circle of friends. With time the typical willfulness of an only child began to kick in. Ototake maintains that at first break time, when everyone would be playing tag in the playground, or physical education lessons, were dead boring for him since with his power wheelchair he could not keep up with his friends. Thus he usually yelled for them to come and play with him: “If you want to play in the sandbox, follow me!” Strangely enough, the kids who had been happily chasing one another a short while before would all troop after the wheelchair to the sandbox.
 
Ototake highlights that looking back to school days, most people with disabilities admit that recess was the worst part of their day. This is that particular time when ordinary children, unless they are real bookworms, would enjoy. The main reason is that for disabled kids the forty five to fifty minutes of a class period pass quickly enough while they sit quietly in their seat, but during breaks, when they can`t join in the fun their classmates, they feel greater sense of isolation so they can`t wait for recess to be over.


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