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新西兰APA文献格式管理学作业:Managerial Self Development

时间:2019-06-12 14:54:55 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:未知 点击:3
Introduction:介绍
授权目前在大多数组织和企业中被广泛使用;它指的是给人们提供机会去做他们想做的事情,而不是强制地做事情。(dux r.2007)上世纪1950年,伊恩·戈登(Ian Gordon)首先统治了该公司,基于大多数大公司都面临着等级制度和管理问题效率低下的事实,要求降低中层管理水平和程序,提高工作效率,以满足客户的要求。托默斯。同时,随着新技术、新知识的不断涌现,社会需求也越来越多样化,大多数人都没有能力解决每一个问题,如果他们只靠自己工作,就不能有效地处理问题,不能满足复杂社会环境的要求。你自己。团队合作已经成为当今企业发展的趋势,人们应该意识到团队在我们生活中的重要性。本文将阐述授权原则、团队、积极变革、团队角色及其对组织的影响或限制。Empowerment is widely used in majority organizations and enterprises currently; it refers to offering people the opportunity to do what they would like to do instead of doing things mandatorily. (Dux R. 2007) It is firstly dominated by Ian Gordon in 1950sof last century which based on the fact that most of the large companies were confronted with hierarchy and the low efficiency of management problems, have the demand of reduce the middle management level and procedures, and boost working efficiency so that to meet the requirements of customers. Also, with the new and varieties of technology and knowledge coming up, social demand is getting more diverse at the same time, most of people do not have the ability to solve every problem if they just work by themselves, it means they cannot deal with problems efficiently and meet up with the requirements of the complex social environment just by themselves. Teamwork has become a trend for today’s enterprise developing; people should realize how important that team plays in our life. This essay will state the principles of empowerment, team, positive change, the roles of team and their influence or limitations to organizations.   
作业要求:

Part A:
授权意味着管理者不需要自己做任何事情,他们可以将自己的权力和责任授权给下属,从而为企业发展花费有限的时间和精力,共同实现组织目标。事实表明,与普通员工相比,有能力的员工更有生产能力,也更快乐。同时,一个组织可以有更强的能力通过授权来适应变化,更灵活。通用电气公司董事长兼首席执行官杰克•韦尔奇(Jack Welch)曾被公认为创造了比以往任何一位首席执行官都多的股东财富,他指出,管理少意味着管理好,它代表着管理的职能已经被削弱,而效率管理,可能产生正常管理效率的十倍。Empowerment means that managers do not need to do everything by themselves, they can authorize their power and responsibility to their subordinates so that to expense the limit time and energy to enterprise development, and to achieve organizational goals together. The fact shows that compare to ordinary employees, the empowered ones are more capable of being productive, and also feel happier. Meanwhile, an organization can have a stronger ability to adapt to variations by empowerment, to be more flexible. Jack Welch, the chairman and chief executive of General electric company, who is credited with creating more shareholder wealth than any other CEO in history points out that manage less means manage well, it represents the function of the management has been weakened, and efficiency management, may produce ten times efficiency of normal management.
People can benefit from empowerment from several ways no matter with or without increasing employee with more compensation First of all, so there is no obstacle for empowered employees during the process of assigning the tasks, and it build them confidence to complete things alone, which called self-efficacy. next, giving people authority could provide the chance that they decide the time, the ways, the pace and how much effort they like to devote, they can be self-determinate, Through effective authorization, the enterprise can help the empowered employees to improve the work of the initiative, to enhance the self-management ability, so that to grow faster in a company. Effective authorization has brought a higher level of motivation; In addition, if someone is empowered by others, that stands for he or she has to take personal consequences and responsible for what they empowered for which can strengthen the faith that they can and will try every effort to things better;what is more, empowerment offers employee with a sense of feeling valuable in the activity, having authority can helps them to establish a clear goal or purpose in an activity, which makes them feel meaningfulness; last but not least, providing authority and responsivity means provide people with a sense of security, a sense of being comfortable developing relationships, a feeling that others treat them equitably and fairly, so that they can behave confidently and having straightforward manner, in all, they are trusted by others of they have empowerment. In general, both managers and employees can benefit from empowerment, no matter with or without additional compensation. There is an example which can illustrate the benefits of empowermentWFM, the whole food market, America’s largest natural and organic food retailers, was established in 1978 by JohnMacky, who was 25 years old at that time; it had opened 265 outlets so far. Compare to Walmart with “everyday low prices”, whole foods gives the impression of “everyday high prices”, however, it does not interfere with whole foods favored by the public. In recent years, the data shows it has always been selected as “global most admire companies” in “Fortune” magazine, and the secret of this is inseparable with Mackey’s management principle, which is empower employees,  providing authority and responsibility, Mackey thought he should let people who are closed to the implement level to make decisions, since decisions should be relevant to people who are influenced by this directly and at the same time to eliminate irrelevant person in this way, in this way can ensure the effectiveness of the decision because it can guarantee the consistency of idea pf decision makers and implement people. There are two different types of empowerment, one is senior management group make the decision by negotiating, and the other is decision-making is made by ordinary employees which their minds are closely and related to the benefits with all department employees this can ensure the group cohesiveness, exclude unsuitable person from the start. It is clear that empowerment brings advantages to organizations from the above example. (Jane S) 
However, the limitations of empowerment also exist. One of them is empower to the inappropriate employees. Some of them has been forced to get authority and they have a particular passion in other areas rather than interested in what they are empowered for, if in that way, then they will have resistance and fatigue of the work, then the purpose of the empowerment is not successful;  some of them has not meet the requirement of being the person to make a decision, they are lack of professional skills or knowledge and always make wrong suggestions, some organizations cannot find the suitable person in time so those empowered chances are wasted. Therefore, empowerment has to use in the right time and in correct person. The other problem is the power is over authorized. The authorities should be gradually authorized, otherwise employees cannot be sorted out quickly which might result in bad consequences.
Empowerment has both advantages and limitations. As long as empower to the right person and do not over authorize power, as a student, from my perspective,there is no doubt that payment or compensation is a significant factor, but compare to that, feeling valuable and powerful is more important for most of the employees. As a result, increasing empowerment by giving employee authority and responsibility can enhance organizational performance without additional payment.  
 
Part B:
Team represents a group of independent unique entity whomcan interact with each other,  formed a formal groupwhich would like to achieve a mutual goal together, it is constitute with staff and management that can reasonable use everyone’s skills and knowledge to work together, to achieve common goals. A great many cases shows that the success of enterprises is not only depend on its resources, it relies on a team’s work more.(Ferguson P, 2009)
There are three fundamental roles of a team: task facilitating role, relationship building roles and blocking roles. Team work can integrate all kinds of resources and abilities from team members, and can automatically remove all the discord and injustice, cooperation of success or failure depends on the attitude of the members. Task facilitating role can always guide the team and show them where the direction of completing the task is; their responsibilities are looking for information and provide them to employees, elaborating them, inspire staff to work hard on their direction, and during the process of that, monitor and supervise employees doing their work, analyses the problems and difficulties part, enforce and help employees to overcome them,they are always rigorous, rational, calmly, carefully thinking and making judgment in everything, and can make the most accurate judgment. Supervisors are good at analysis and evaluation, and weigh the pros and cons, options, often make team on the critical decisions and to make the right judgments, to lead a team to be successful eventually. They summarize the job until the team has implemented it. These people has a strong sense of responsibility, always make plans with high working efficiency, complete the work according to the requirement of the team, they are loyalty to the organizations, and act as an indispensable role in a team.#p#分页标题#e#
However, sustain the relationship of team members is also an important part, relationship building role cannot be ignored, nobody is capable of everything, on the other hand, we can establish the relationship with others, in order to make up for the inadequacy of ourselves through other peoples’ assistant, friendly and mutual cooperation between partners is extremely essential. Relationship build roles always provide support for task facilitate role, harmonize the environment while there is a conflict. These are called coordinators, usually having good ability of self-control, and play calm and objective, at the same time they are charismatic, can find everyone’s advantages quickly, be good at coordinating complicated relationships, like to solve problems peacefully, It is obvious that people might confront with some stress when people are competing their tasks, this role can help them to get relief from that, also, relationship building role are able to energize task completing people, try to make them feel energetic, at the same time, develop the potential relationships with each other, help to build consensus, empathize them when they encounter something and needed someone to understand them. A team helps us learned tolerance, learned how understanding each other.
On the other hand, blocking role does not help with the development of a team, instead, it block them, they are dominated, would not willing to hear from other’s opinion, insist their idea without considering other’s feeling; some people can analyze a problem correctly, but those ones always act as an over-analyzing role; also, compare to the other two roles, blocking roles are passive, they do not know how to act or do not willing to do things until others ask them; what is more, these people are very critical with other people, sometimes are fault-finding type, they prefer to pick other people’s fault rather than creating their own values; they like to make decisions which the idea was not mature enough, present their own opinions as facts, reject the right idea, and sometimes are stubborn, resist their opinions which is not helpful for task completing. 
Among the roles which mentioned above, I would prefer to act as task completing role to increase my personal and overall performance. Task competing is the prerequisite of a group. I used to be the team leader in a public service group, and our job include: receiving customers, uploading files of those customers after processing, follow up the cases which has problems needed to be solved, and sometimes arrange for human resources work or coordinate with other work teams when they encounter difficulties or when they need assistance. As a team leader, my job at that time was find the exist problems of work, make a basic plan of every work task, share my working experience with other team members to make work go through easier, also inspire and guide them what to do if they meet up with difficulties .(Susan. H 2016)
 
Part C
There are some positive changes of in an organization, there is a tension between business managing and people managing, business managing means vision creation, resources collecting, organization restruction while people managing refers caring about the feeling of people who perform the change and handle with its ramifications day to day. Most managers are capable of dealing with business managing but not good at of managing people, for the purpose of solving this problem; there are positive changes which can be used here. There are several positive changes that can be used to dealing with people management issue, regardless that you are a younger or older team leader, the following methods can all be used. First of all, the younger leader can catalyze change and cope with transition, initiate a change and make the elders do the same thing; find out how do they feel and think of the change and recognize the consequence. Capable leaders have the ability to invent a enthusiasm and optimistic vision result by the change while provide the change that others comes up with questions or being nervous. The fact shows trust and commitment can help with the change; the second way to balance business managing and people managing is create a sense of urgency and show them the realistic patience, which makes the team members feel energetic so that the productivity can be enhanced. At the same time, adept leaders never feel panic, they show enough patience, know when to slow down the process instead of make everything equally, and provide critical feedback. Also, being tough and being empathetic are the two preconditions to lead elder team members. When people face up with challenges and difficulties, the team leader has to be decisive, being firm when meet resistance, simultaneously, understanding others and be sensitive to other’s feelings and experiences are also significant, being empathetic means to stand on other’s sides and consider each one’s values and limitations, this can bring a positive side. In addition, an adept leader plays a vital role in keeping optimism about the changes, they are the one people looking for when people need to find the confidence and energy, the leaders are responsible of providing those, thus, they have to be optimistic and realize the fact and the truth of a work process, and acknowledge the errors, they are good at finding out problems, express the true news, and pays attention to the difficult parts. Another way to balance management is be self-reliant and trust others, being self-reliant means leaders trust themselves and are able to do things independently without other’s help or suggestions, they have being getting used to work alone, but let others to do some task work is also an important element, it means they are allowed to have their vision and skills or knowledge to help a team. Last but not least, capitalize on strength or go against the grain. Most of the leaders are aware of their outstanding merits, clearly know what they are capable of, used to figure out the way to be successful, however, they also have to adapt new method, try new skills, discern their advantages, limitations, weaknesses, preferences, listen to critical opinions about them from their leaders, colleges or friend, they have to keep away from their original comfort zone and have the ability to attempt different ways. (Christina D, 2008)
 
Conclusion
To summarize, this essay show what is empowerment, team, positive change and their impact on organizational performance. Empowerment is a process of providing opportunity for individuals to think independently, authorize them to behave take actions without other’s permission.(Susan H. 2016). It can build confidence for employees who do not used to have related power, meanwhile, it helps them to make decisions by themselves, that means they have the right to think on their own, and also take responsibilities or consequences to their decisions no matter it is a good or bad decision, moreover, they can set up a clear goal or purpose, know what is the next step for them if they have been empowered; besides, empowerment can make feel they are valuable instead of feeling powerless, which also build a sense of security. Employees and organizations can benefit from empowerment as long as the power is not over empowered, and have to empower to the appropriate person, those benefits have been mentioned above shows empowerment can help an organization to improve performance even without additional compensation. Team refers individuals composed of formal groups, which reasonable utilization of each member of the knowledge and skills to solve problems and achieve common goals, the three team roles are task facilitating role, relationship building role and blocking role, task facilitating role helps to collect information and integrate resources and materials, supervise others to complete their tasks and guide them to the right direction, also assists if anybody needed help during task finishing processing. Relationship building role always offer support to task facilitating role, look for the merits of everyone also adjust and harmony the environment, would like to listen to others if someone needs to be understandable.he ways to balance people managing and work managing have plenty of ways, one of the method can help a younger team leader to lead elder team members are: promote change, deal with transitions, also, showing people the urgency of w work and being patient to them is essential; when coping with tasks, being strong and tough, also considering others feeling at the same time; lead team members to an optimistic vision, face up the reality and be open; trust themselves as well as trust others; capitalize on strengths and go against the grain. 
 
References:
1. Dux Raymond (2007). SharePoint Empowerment: Making Document Management and Organizational Collaboration Easier.Retrieved June 17th.
2. Jane Simon,Why Is Employee Empowerment Important?Retrieved June 17th.
3. Ferguson P. (2009) Third edition, chapter 3, teamwork skills
4. Christina D, 2008 
5. Susan H (2016).How to Build a Teamwork Culture, Retrieved June 18th.
6. Susan H (2016).  Empowerment in Action: How to Empower Your Employees.  Retrieved June 17th 2017.
 


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