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新西兰本科作业:How realistic is free trade in the real word?

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-08-26 09:51:25 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
自由贸易主张在国际市场上实行无限制的自由竞争和国家不干预对外贸易的政策。从理论上看,这些政策和职能主要包括以下几个方面:一是自由贸易政策可以形成有利的分工。它可以提高各国专业的特殊生产技能,提高生产效率,实现生产要素的优化配置。它可以扩大人民的实际收入。第二,在自由贸易环境下,一个国家发展自己最先进的部门,劳动生产率较高,成本相对较低。第三,可以进口廉价商品,减少国家支出。自由贸易可以防止垄断的形成,加强竞争。它有助于提高经济效率。四是提高盈利能力,促进资本积累。目前,自由贸易政策和保护贸易政策已成为发达国家在不同经济发展条件下交替使用的两个坟墓的对外贸易政策,保护贸易是国家利用其政治权力和关税。这是一项保护国内市场、防止外国商品竞争的政策(吴,2015)。其要点是国家采取各种措施限制进口,保护国内市场不受外国货物影响。并给予国内出口商优惠待遇和补贴,鼓励出口。贸易政策保护是发达国家在经济发展遇到困难时采取的对外贸易政策。目前,一些发展中国家大多采取了保护贸易的政策。其目的是保护民族工业的发展,扩大对外贸易。自由贸易给发展中国家带来了各种风险,同时也带来了机遇。
Free trade advocates the implementation of unrestricted free competition in the international market and the state's policy of not intervening in foreign trade. From the theoretical point of view, such policies and functions mainly include the following aspects: First, free trade policies can form a favorable division of labor. It can enhance the special production skills of various countries' specialties, increase production efficiency, and achieve optimal allocation of production factors. It can expand the real income of the people. Second, under the free trade environment, a country develops its own most advanced sector, with higher labor productivity and relatively lower costs. Third, it can import cheap goods and reduce national expenditures. Free trade can prevent monopoly formation and strengthen competition. It helps improve economic efficiency. Fourth, it can increase profitability and promote capital accumulation. At present, the free trade policy and the protection trade policy have become the foreign trade policies of the two tombs used alternately by developed countries under different economic development conditions.Protection of trade is the use of its political power and tariffs by the state. It is a policy used to protect the domestic market and prevent the competition of foreign goods (Wu, 2015). Its main point is that the state adopts various measures to restrict imports to protect its domestic market from the impact of foreign goods. And, it gives preferential treatment and subsidies to exporters in the country to encourage exports. The protection of trade policy is a foreign trade policy adopted by developed countries in the face of difficulties in economic development. At present, some developing countries have mostly adopted the policy of protecting trade. Their purpose is to protect the development of national industry and expand foreign trade. While free trade brings various risks to developing countries, it also brings opportunities.
 
There are two positive aspects of free trade to developing countries. 对发展中国家的自由贸易有两个积极方面。
首先,发展中国家在国际贸易中的地位不断提高,将有助于发展中国家以更强有力的姿态参与国际贸易。发展中国家可以对发达国家在国际贸易中的不公平待遇作出更大的回应。20世纪80年代中期以后,发展中国家贸易额占国际贸易总额的比例基本呈上升趋势。特别是进入21世纪以来,发展中国家在国际贸易中的地位越来越重要。其中,中国对外贸易的发展尤为引人注目。2009年,中国超过德国成为世界上最大的出口国,仅次于美国的世界第二大贸易国(van hoa,2008年)。
Firstly, the rising status of developing countries in international trade will help developing countries to participate in international trade with a stronger stance. Developing countries can respond with greater voice to the unfair treatment from developed countries in international trade. After the mid-80s of the 20th century, the proportion of the trade volume of developing countries in the total volume of international trade basically showed a rising trend. Especially since entering the 21st century, developing countries have become increasingly important in international trade. Among them, the development of China's foreign trade is particularly eye-catching. In 2009, China surpassed Germany as the world’s largest exporter, second only to the United States’ world’s second largest trading nation (van Hoa, 2008). Trade liberalization is an important feature of current international trade and world economic development, and is a manifestation of economic globalization in the field of trade. It is premised on the promotion of a market economy in the global context, with the improvement of the degree of socialization of production as the background, with the broad implementation of market access and national treatment as the main content, the weakening of the national government’s administrative intervention, and the international economic and trade Rapid development as a symbol, it is a process of continuous advancement and evolution. Under the general trend of economic globalization, trade liberalization not only affects the scale and speed of international trade, but also affects the effective allocation of world resources. The rapid growth of international trade has promoted the deepening and expansion of the international division of labor and required that all kinds of commodities and elements be free to flow around the world to obtain a more rational and effective allocation. In this dynamic process, countries need to gradually eliminate trade fish and discriminatory treatment to meet the needs of economic globalization. At the same time, they need to establish a freer trade environment to promote their own industrial development and sustained economic growth.
Secondly, free trade brings opportunities for industrial upgrading to developing countries. If you do not promote free trade and actively participate in international trade, the domestic industries of developing countries will lose the opportunity to increase efficiency in the fierce international market competition, lose opportunities for technological innovation and technological advancement, lose the opportunity to upgrade the industrial structure, and lose the realization of economies of scale. Opportunities, and so on. Although free trade is not a sufficient condition for the formation and enhancement of industrial international competitiveness, it is an indispensable and important condition. The upgrading of the industrial structure and the enhancement of the international competitiveness of the industry are important signs of industrial development (LOHMAN, 2017). The industrial development of developing countries is inseparable from the world market. Only through international trade can comparative advantage be brought into play and upgraded, international competitiveness can be formed, and the industry can be better developed. Free trade provides opportunities and possibilities for the upgrading of the industrial structure of developing countries and the enhancement of international competitiveness of industries (Khoonming& Lewis, 2013). It also brings difficulties and challenges to the maintenance of industrial safety. Theoretically, the international competitiveness of an industry represents the relationship between the same industry and its various industrial fields. The competitiveness of different countries in the international competition of the same industry is obviously different. The international competitiveness of an industry depends on the comparison of the competitiveness of the same industry among countries. The industrial structure reflects the relationship between the production value of different industries and the composition of production factors. Therefore, the industrial international competitiveness and industrial structure belong to different fields (van Hoa, 2008). However, under the conditions of free trade, the industrial structure of a country and the international competitiveness of the industry will have an important influence and form a close interaction. A country that lacks the ability to upgrade and adjust its industrial structure will not be able to adapt to changes in the international market demand structure, and its international competitiveness will inevitably be weakened. At the same time, participation in international trade has enabled a country's more competitive products to gain greater market development potential, while products with weaker competitiveness are in a disadvantageous position, and the scale of the industry is relatively narrow. The practice of free trade in various countries shows that the changing trend of international competitiveness of industries is consistent with the trend of industrial restructuring. However, like the industrial structure, the factors affecting the international competitiveness of the industry are numerous and complex. Among them, the industry's ability to absorb knowledge and technological innovation is a decisive factor at the core. Free trade in developing countries may play a positive role in enhancing the international competitiveness of domestic industries, and may also have negative effects. In the academia, there has been controversy over whether it can improve the level of industrial development by taking advantage of its comparative advantage in international trade. Lin Yifu and other scholars believe that developing countries should establish and adjust their industrial structure based on their comparative advantages (Yong, Lili &Yihua, 2016). Using comparative advantages to develop foreign trade can promote the sustained and rapid development of the industry and economy.#p#分页标题#e#
 
However, with the deepening of trade liberalization and openness of the market, the hidden dangers are revealed gradually on the following three aspects. 
Firstly, the industrial security in developing countries have become increasingly prominent, bringing severe challenges to the development of national economy and national security (Haichao, Yao Amber &Yeaple, 2015). The effects of trade liberalization on developed countries and developing countries are not the same, and the benefits obtained are far from the same. Developed countries, as advocates and promoters of economic globalization and trade liberalization, can rely on their strong economic strength and favorable political status to formulate international rules, strengthen their own advantages, and lead the international economic and trade order. For developing countries, although trade liberalization provides them with the conditions for expanding the scale of foreign trade, exerting comparative advantages, accelerating industrial upgrading and structural adjustment, due to the low level of long-term economic development, it is in the international division of labor and trade. Disadvantages, lack of the right to speak, coupled with the large number of exotic trade wall fish that have emerged in international trade in recent years have greatly limited the export potential of developing countries, and their national industries are often subject to fierce competition from abroad. Deprived of good opportunities for development, industrial safety is a serious threat. Trade liberalization in developing countries is premised on the market-oriented reform of the economic system. With the continuous opening of the import and export trade, the economic system environment of developing countries will inevitably change. The market-oriented reform of the economic system means the reshaping of the national economic order. This is an extremely complicated process and faces many major economic risks, which may affect the country’s industrial safety and even economic security. While the economic system is undergoing changes, it is accompanied by convergence with the international economy, which will further exacerbate the pressure of industrial security. In general, the security of the industry depends on the following factors: First, the country's ability to resist and resolve risks; Second, the stability of the national economic system; Third, the industry and the company's ability to handle risks. Among them, the ability of a country to resist and mitigate risks is determined by the effectiveness of the country’s economic system. The stability of the national economic system is determined by the degree of development of the country’s market economy, and the ability of the industry and the company’s own risk management is determined by industry and The vitality of the enterprise system is determined. Therefore, the stability of the economic institutional environment is the fundamental guarantee of industrial safety. It reflects the degree of integration of the international economic system that the industry is facing with the domestic counterpart system, or the economic system, laws, and policies of the country, and that of international economic organizations (Tongyu, 2017). The degree of system integration. When the institutional environment undergoes major changes, if a country’s economic system is not efficient, the market economy is not mature enough, the industrial and corporate systems are not perfect, and the controllability of economic risks is poor, the industry is often in an unsafe state, In crisis. At present, some transitional countries, including China, have deeper contradictions and problems in the economy. Institutional and structural obstacles still exist. The negative impact of the imperfect market system and non-standard market order on industrial safety cannot be ignored. Taking the opening of the financial industry in the service industry as an example, the opening of the financial industry is not only the opening of banking services, but also the liberalization of the market system, which will inevitably cause institutional shocks and changes.
Secondly, the widespread application of technical trade barriers by developed countries has caused serious damage to the safety of related industries in developing countries. Due to the huge gap between developed countries and the developed countries in the level of science and technology, it is difficult to reach the technical standards of developed countries from traditional products to high-tech products. Developed countries have strengthened their membership by establishing various integrated organizations (Haacke, 2016). Liberalization of trade, combined with joint economic strength and common foreign trade policies to counter external trade competition and retaliation and protect the internal market of all members, this strategic choice has become an important part of the foreign trade policy of developed countries. The strengthening of the trend of regional economic integration makes trade protectionism no longer based on national trade barriers, but tends to regional trade barriers, that is, the evolution from national trade protection to regional trade protection (Jiang, 2008). In addition to trade, the developed countries also cooperated in regional economic integration organizations in investment, intellectual property, and technology research and development. Judging from the current trends in international trade and the trade policies of developed countries, most developing countries are facing more complex and severe external trade environments (Tongyu, 2017). Technical trade wall fish refers to a country or region that formulates some complex, engraved and often based on the grounds of maintaining national or regional security, safeguarding people's health, protecting the health and safety of animals and plants, protecting the environment, preventing fraud, and ensuring product quality. Changes in technical standards, health and quarantine, and product packaging and labeling regulations will increase technical requirements for products, increase the difficulty of import, and eventually achieve the goal of restricting the entry of foreign goods and protecting domestic markets. Because of its hidden nature, flexibility, and pertinence, technical trade barriers have increasingly become the most important protection method in international trade. According to statistics, international trade barriers are technical trade barriers. Developed countries rely on their technological superiority to set up various technical standards and regulations, which is the main force of using technical trade wall fish, and developing countries are undoubtedly the biggest victims (Guo, 2013).
Thirdly, the intellectual property trade wall constructed by developed countries may all inhibit the efforts of developing countries to enhance independent innovation capabilities through technology import, and enable developing countries to form long-term technical dependence on developed countries. Taking the patent right as an example, the expansion of the scope of patent protection is conducive to spurring research and development in related fields and foreign direct investment in new technologies (Dawei, 2008). However, if the developing countries lack a basis and capability for innovation in related fields, then only The insurmountable obstacles to the development of new technologies in the country have consolidated the advantages of foreign countries and widened the technological gap at home and abroad. As the World Bank pointed out in a report: “The increasingly strengthened international intellectual property protection may threaten to further expand the knowledge gap between developed and developing countries, and affect the improvement and autonomy of developing countries in technology. The cultivation of innovation ability." Therefore, if the traditional trade wall fish strikes against the industries that have comparative advantages in developing countries, only the immediate interests will be lost, and intellectual property trade barriers may cause the developing countries to lose hope and future, and not only damage the industry. Security is also national security and strategic interests. Although the intellectual property rights trade wall has a negative impact on the trade interests and industrial security of developing countries, developing countries should also recognize their own deficiencies in intellectual property protection. Observance of the established rules and standards and the strengthening of the protection of intellectual property are all obligations of developing members. Only relying on imitation will never become a real power. Therefore, developing countries should actively improve the level of science and technology, and strive to narrow the gap with the developed countries, and only in this way can provide a fundamental guarantee for the country's industrial safety.
 
Under the background of economic globalization, actively participating in international trade and expanding market opening are inevitable choices for developing countries to integrate into the world economy and achieve sustainable development of the national economy. Moreover, trade liberalization also provides opportunities for the industry to take advantage of comparative advantages and accelerate structural upgrading, and creates conditions for the enhancement of the international competitiveness of the industry (Wu, 2015). The developing countries in the economic transition period should establish a market economy system as soon as possible, further improve the financial, fiscal, taxation, and foreign exchange management systems, and promote the link between the national economic system and the global economic system, especially the interconnection of rules and practices, and the adjustment of industrial structure. Trade policies and foreign investment policies are closely integrated. At the same time, however, developing country industries are also faced with problems such as trade protection and unfair competition, especially when the overall industrial competitiveness is weak, they are more vulnerable to external factors. Strong impact caused by strong impact. #p#分页标题#e#
According to the classical free trade theory, without the intervention of the government, each country can find its place in the world economic system, and countries with better conditions will be richer than other countries. Therefore, reducing the supervision of import and export restrictions will be more conducive to free trade (Zeng, 2010). The free trade policy is to support any construction that is conducive to a free market. For example, remove tariffs on imported products, reduce taxes on exports, and any legislation that can obstruct labor productivity. Free trade treaties and changes have a significant impact on New Zealand's agricultural development. New Zealand is a small agricultural exporter that follows the rules of the free market and is currently the most open agricultural market in the world. Fully opposed to the standpoint of protectionism New Zealand's agricultural industry is one of the biggest beneficiaries of free trade policies. For example, in 2005 it established a close economic partnership with Thailand and a free trade agreement with Chile, Brunei, Singapore, Malaysia and China. Since the first free trade agreement signed between the New Zealand government and Australia in 1983, regional and bilateral free trade agreements have become the main strategies for successfully diversifying New Zealand's agricultural industry products and markets (Van Kerckhoven&Luyten, 2014). The free trade treaty and its changes have a significant influence on the development of New Zealand's agriculture. The trade policies that support the export of agricultural products have not made the agricultural sector the target of high agricultural subsidies for the New Zealand government. Instead, it has made the agricultural sector the largest source of export revenue for New Zealand. This point can fully demonstrate that the removal of agricultural subsidies and the promotion of free trade in market mechanisms have enabled New Zealand’s agriculture to develop rapidly.
Therefore, developing countries industries must maintain steady and healthy development in the fierce international market competition. The key to effective industrial security protection is to seize the opportunities, cooperate with appropriate policy guidelines and institutional arrangements, and rapidly increase the international competitiveness of the industry.
 
References 
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