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新西兰本科作业:How realistic is free trade in the real word?

时间:2019-08-26 09:51来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
自由贸易主张在国际市场上实行无限制的自由竞争和国家不干预对外贸易的政策。从理论上看,这些政策和职能主要包括以下几个方面:一是自由贸易政策可以形成有利的分工。它可以提高各国专业的特殊生产技能,提高生产效率,实现生产要素的优化配置。它可以扩大人民的实际收入。第二,在自由贸易环境下,一个国家发展自己最先进的部门,劳动生产率较高,成本相对较低。第三,可以进口廉价商品,减少国家支出。自由贸易可以防止垄断的形成,加强竞争。它有助于提高经济效率。四是提高盈利能力,促进资本积累。目前,自由贸易政策和保护贸易政策已成为发达国家在不同经济发展条件下交替使用的两个坟墓的对外贸易政策,保护贸易是国家利用其政治权力和关税。这是一项保护国内市场、防止外国商品竞争的政策(吴,2015)。其要点是国家采取各种措施限制进口,保护国内市场不受外国货物影响。并给予国内出口商优惠待遇和补贴,鼓励出口。贸易政策保护是发达国家在经济发展遇到困难时采取的对外贸易政策。目前,一些发展中国家大多采取了保护贸易的政策。其目的是保护民族工业的发展,扩大对外贸易。自由贸易给发展中国家带来了各种风险,同时也带来了机遇。
Free trade advocates the implementation of unrestricted free competition in the international market and the state's policy of not intervening in foreign trade. From the theoretical point of view, such policies and functions mainly include the following aspects: First, free trade policies can form a favorable division of labor. It can enhance the special production skills of various countries' specialties, increase production efficiency, and achieve optimal allocation of production factors. It can expand the real income of the people. Second, under the free trade environment, a country develops its own most advanced sector, with higher labor productivity and relatively lower costs. Third, it can import cheap goods and reduce national expenditures. Free trade can prevent monopoly formation and strengthen competition. It helps improve economic efficiency. Fourth, it can increase profitability and promote capital accumulation. At present, the free trade policy and the protection trade policy have become the foreign trade policies of the two tombs used alternately by developed countries under different economic development conditions.Protection of trade is the use of its political power and tariffs by the state. It is a policy used to protect the domestic market and prevent the competition of foreign goods (Wu, 2015). Its main point is that the state adopts various measures to restrict imports to protect its domestic market from the impact of foreign goods. And, it gives preferential treatment and subsidies to exporters in the country to encourage exports. The protection of trade policy is a foreign trade policy adopted by developed countries in the face of difficulties in economic development. At present, some developing countries have mostly adopted the policy of protecting trade. Their purpose is to protect the development of national industry and expand foreign trade. While free trade brings various risks to developing countries, it also brings opportunities.
 
There are two positive aspects of free trade to developing countries. 对发展中国家的自由贸易有两个积极方面。
首先,发展中国家在国际贸易中的地位不断提高,将有助于发展中国家以更强有力的姿态参与国际贸易。发展中国家可以对发达国家在国际贸易中的不公平待遇作出更大的回应。20世纪80年代中期以后,发展中国家贸易额占国际贸易总额的比例基本呈上升趋势。特别是进入21世纪以来,发展中国家在国际贸易中的地位越来越重要。其中,中国对外贸易的发展尤为引人注目。2009年,中国超过德国成为世界上最大的出口国,仅次于美国的世界第二大贸易国(van hoa,2008年)。
Firstly, the rising status of developing countries in international trade will help developing countries to participate in international trade with a stronger stance. Developing countries can respond with greater voice to the unfair treatment from developed countries in international trade. After the mid-80s of the 20th century, the proportion of the trade volume of developing countries in the total volume of international trade basically showed a rising trend. Especially since entering the 21st century, developing countries have become increasingly important in international trade. Among them, the development of China's foreign trade is particularly eye-catching. In 2009, China surpassed Germany as the world’s largest exporter, second only to the United States’ world’s second largest trading nation (van Hoa, 2008). Trade liberalization is an important feature of current international trade and world economic development, and is a manifestation of economic globalization in the field of trade. It is premised on the promotion of a market economy in the global context, with the improvement of the degree of socialization of production as the background, with the broad implementation of market access and national treatment as the main content, the weakening of the national government’s administrative intervention, and the international economic and trade Rapid development as a symbol, it is a process of continuous advancement and evolution. Under the general trend of economic globalization, trade liberalization not only affects the scale and speed of international trade, but also affects the effective allocation of world resources. The rapid growth of international trade has promoted the deepening and expansion of the international division of labor and required that all kinds of commodities and elements be free to flow around the world to obtain a more rational and effective allocation. In this dynamic process, countries need to gradually eliminate trade fish and discriminatory treatment to meet the needs of economic globalization. At the same time, they need to establish a freer trade environment to promote their own industrial development and sustained economic growth.
Secondly, free trade brings opportunities for industrial upgrading to developing countries. If you do not promote free trade and actively participate in international trade, the domestic industries of developing countries will lose the opportunity to increase efficiency in the fierce international market competition, lose opportunities for technological innovation and technological advancement, lose the opportunity to upgrade the industrial structure, and lose the realization of economies of scale. Opportunities, and so on. Although free trade is not a sufficient condition for the formation and enhancement of industrial international competitiveness, it is an indispensable and important condition. The upgrading of the industrial structure and the enhancement of the international competitiveness of the industry are important signs of industrial development (LOHMAN, 2017). The industrial development of developing countries is inseparable from the world market. Only through international trade can comparative advantage be brought into play and upgraded, international competitiveness can be formed, and the industry can be better developed. Free trade provides opportunities and possibilities for the upgrading of the industrial structure of developing countries and the enhancement of international competitiveness of industries (Khoonming& Lewis, 2013). It also brings difficulties and challenges to the maintenance of industrial safety. Theoretically, the international competitiveness of an industry represents the relationship between the same industry and its various industrial fields. The competitiveness of different countries in the international competition of the same industry is obviously different. The international competitiveness of an industry depends on the comparison of the competitiveness of the same industry among countries. The industrial structure reflects the relationship between the production value of different industries and the composition of production factors. Therefore, the industrial international competitiveness and industrial structure belong to different fields (van Hoa, 2008). However, under the conditions of free trade, the industrial structure of a country and the international competitiveness of the industry will have an important influence and form a close interaction. A country that lacks the ability to upgrade and adjust its industrial structure will not be able to adapt to changes in the international market demand structure, and its international competitiveness will inevitably be weakened. At the same time, participation in international trade has enabled a country's more competitive products to gain greater market development potential, while products with weaker competitiveness are in a disadvantageous position, and the scale of the industry is relatively narrow. The practice of free trade in various countries shows that the changing trend of international competitiveness of industries is consistent with the trend of industrial restructuring. However, like the industrial structure, the factors affecting the international competitiveness of the industry are numerous and complex. Among them, the industry's ability to absorb knowledge and technological innovation is a decisive factor at the core. Free trade in developing countries may play a positive role in enhancing the international competitiveness of domestic industries, and may also have negative effects. In the academia, there has been controversy over whether it can improve the level of industrial development by taking advantage of its comparative advantage in international trade. Lin Yifu and other scholars believe that developing countries should establish and adjust their industrial structure based on their comparative advantages (Yong, Lili &Yihua, 2016). Using comparative advantages to develop foreign trade can promote the sustained and rapid development of the industry and economy.


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