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产品涉入度,顾客满意度,品牌忠诚度:路径分析法

时间:2016-01-20 09:04来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业网 点击:
Path Analytic Approach  
路径分析法
产品涉入度,顾客满意度,品牌忠诚度:路径分析法
 

第一章
1.1。介绍。
高度的参与是建立强有力的品牌承诺的关键。然而,品牌承诺的理念却存在着模糊性。这是因为它与产品参与概念的关系。由Warrington(2002)等人进行了一项研究结果表明,品牌承诺和产品参与不一定是相关的,并表征不同的概念。该研究数据是由四个不同的消费群体而来,这些群体包括那些低到高程度的产品涉入,以及从弱到强的水平的品牌承诺。品牌承诺和产品参与之间的关联度似乎是受人们对产品认知的意义,产品的属性,和他们所咨询的品牌信息来源的影响。这一发现与以往研究中发现的相反。
Product Involvement, Customer Satisfaction, and Brand Loyalty: A Path Analytic Approach.

Chapter-1

1.1. Introduction.
A high degree of involvement is essential to the creation of strong brand commitment. Nevertheless, there is ambiguity in the idea of brand commitment. This arises because of its relationship with the concept of product involvement. Results of a study conducted by Warrington et al. (2002) showed that brand commitment and product involvement are not necessarily related and characterize different concepts. The study was comprised of data produced by four different consumer groups comprising of members who had low to high degrees of product involvement and insubstantial to strong levels of brand commitment. A lack of association between brand commitment and product involvement appeared to be influenced by people's knowledge of the product, the significance of product attributes to them, and the sources of brand information they consulted. This finding was contrary to what had been found in previous studies.
 
The current research will probe on the relationships among product involvement, satisfaction and brand loyalty. This shall be undertaken using a path analytic approach. The researcher drafted his own framework to establish the linkages among the variables, and intends to validate this through the current research. There are three null hypotheses that shall be tested for the present research, as follows: Ho1: Product involvement is not a significant predictor of customer satisfaction; Ho2: Customer satisfaction is not a significant predictor of brand loyalty; and Ho3: The model culled from Iwasaki and Havitz (1998) and Musa (2005) is not sufficient to capture the interrelationships among product involvement, customer satisfaction, and brand loyalty. To put it succinctly, the introductory chapter provides a quick overview of these variables and what they mean, along with a snapshot of the justification of the research, research problem, and methodology utilised in the study
 
1.2. Background.
1.2.1. Product Involvement.
Product involvement is a versatile concept which is composed of three elements, namely, familiarity, brand loyalty and nominative importance. Thus, brand commitment itself is perceived to be an integral element of product involvement. On the other hand, recent studies present evidence suggesting that product involvement and brand commitment are two different concepts.
 
Some forms of involvement have been shown to directly and positively influence purchase and eventually create brand commitment in a positive and direct way. Ego involvement, specifically in the form of product involvement, has featured in such studies but a significant direct relationship between ego involvement and brand loyalty has not been established. Findings maintain that ego involvement (i.e., product involvement), brand loyalty and purchase involvement are concepts unique from each other. There are also other studies that provide empirical indicating that product involvement indirectly affects brand loyalty through brand-decision involvement. Overall, these studies suggest that product involvement and brand loyalty are distinct concepts.
 
1.2.2. Customer Satisfaction and Product Involvement.
By nature, consumers tend to give higher regard and be more attached to one brand compared to others. Likewise, there are also differences in the level of knowledge a consumer has on various products. This is where product involvement becomes more evident (Kwon, Lee, & Kwon 2008).
 
Product involvement pertains to the inherent needs, values, interest, and enthusiasm of consumers towards various product categories. It is positively associated with brand perception and preference. This implies that involvement with a product can best explain the consumer's brand choice (Chaudhuri & Holbrook 2001). A high involvement in the product will influence the consumer to engage in more active information search while considering a wide array of alternatives in his decision-making. Consequently, low involvement in a product will make the product differentiation relatively weaker between alternatives. In low-involvement products, a lower price will appear to be a critical product attribute and is more likely to influence decisions (Chaudhuri & Holbrook 2001; Kwon et al 2008).
 
The involvement of the customer can be viewed in various ways; consequently, an enormous deal of consideration in literature has concentrated on distinguishing the different meanings of the term. Vastly general, involvement has been defined as an internal condition of arousal composed of three key properties: direction, persistence and intensity (Warrington & Shim 2000). Intensity pertains to the degree of motivation or involvement of an individual. Degree of involvement runs along a continuum starting from low to high. It also differs across situations, products and individuals. Despite the fact that clients individually perceive various degrees of involvement for diverse purchase situations and product classes, a number of these are commonly viewed as more engaging than others (Warrington & Shim 2000).
 
Direction is described as the issue or object upon which a customer is motivated, while persistence pertains to the period of the intensity of involvement. Consumers display different levels of involvement concerning products, marketing communications and/or purchase situations (direction) in comparatively brief to prolonged periods of time (dubbed as persistence) (Warrington & Shim 2000).
 
Involvement is usually regarded as a function of three components: (a) individual attributes such as needs, values, goals and interests of a person; (b) situational aspects such as the purchase event or the perceived threat linked with the purchase judgment; and the (c) attributes of the stimulus or object such as the kind of communication channel or variations in the product class. Results correlated with strong involvement include more effort and time dedicated to search related activities, greater variation in product characteristics, increased probability of creating brand preference, and extensive decision making (Warrington & Shim 2000).
 
Involvement towards a product is hypothetically analogous to ego involvement. Ego involvement exists when an object or issue is associated with a peculiar set of values and attitudes which form the self-concept of a person. Likewise, involvement with a product exists when a merchandise category is associated with an individual's centrally maintained self-concept and values. Product involvement can be classified as being either enduring or situational. An intense, comparatively short-term level of interest in merchandise is regarded as situational involvement, whereas an individual's continuing interest in a merchandise category is pertained to as enduring involvement (Salvador, Caplliure, & Aldas-Manzano 2002).
 
Theoretically, the difference between situational involvement and enduring involvement is specificity. Each type of involvement connects to the client's feelings of self-association or relevance towards a product (Warrington & Shim 2000). Situational involvement is related to utilisation of merchandise in a particular situation, while enduring involvement is founded on the association of the merchandise to the client's essentially held values across all purchases. For the purposes of this research, product involvement is operationalised as the perceived significance of a product category according to the client's intrinsic interests, values and needs (Warrington & Shim 2000).
 
1.2.3. Brand Loyalty.
A customer's choice to purchase a particular brand in a merchandise category is known as brand loyalty. Brand loyalty is manifested among customers because they feel that at a given price level, the brand provides the right product attributes, level of quality, or image that address his needs. This perception eventually turns out to be the foundation for contemporary buying habits (Giddens 2002). Customers will initially make a test purchase of the brand. If the brand ‘passes' the customer's test purchase, the approval will allow the development of purchase habits such that the customer will continue buying the same label after perceived familiarity and safety have been achieved (Giddens 2002).
 
Considered as one of the most significant factors on customer brand choice, brand loyalty has elicited enormous attention among academics, marketing field practitioners, as well as consumers. Companies with a huge base of loyal clients have equally enormous market shares. This fact is crucial since market share has been revealed to be related with higher rates of investment return. Moreover, brand loyalty is supported by positive word of mouth and higher resistance among loyal clients to competitor programmes. Apparently, such findings influence marketers in creating and maintaining loyalty to a brand among customers. When pursuing such a purpose, information on the variables that determine brand loyalty among clients becomes essential (Jensen & Hansen 2006). Once the customer becomes a brand loyalist, he will develop a particular mindset characterised by devotion to the brand and openness to spending more for this brand over others. Brand loyalists are also likely to endorse the brand to others (Giddens 2002).


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