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新组织的特点

时间:2016-03-19 16:54来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

新组织的特点
Characteristics Of New Organization Management Essay

1、介绍

在过去的二十年,各种组织的工作环境已经发生改变,因为外部因素如全球化和信息技术的快速发展。无论员工或经理喜欢与否,它们都将采用这个新环境。这种变化可能并不像它看起来那么简单,所以管理者必须实施不同的策略以适应自己和整个组织不断变化的世界。这意味着管理者必须为学习型组织制定不同于以往的新策略。

除了改变管理者的角色,员工反过来也会实现各种技术将在报告中详细讨论。这种方式,学习型组织是由管理者和员工共同努力提高组织的整体性能,发现学习,并改正错误,从错误中学习。

2、新组织

有两个主要的建议关于什么是一个新的组织。彼得•圣吉是组织学习中的社会成员,提供了以下定义,“学习组织是一个组织,人们不断地扩大自己的能力去创造他们真正渴望的结果,新的和广阔的思维模式,培养集体愿望是释放,人们不断学习看到整体”。此外,另一位知名人物,Mike Pedler,建议另一个版本的相同的概念,学习公司的愿景是可能。这不是带来只需培训个人;它只能发生,由于学习在整个组织的水平。学习公司是一个组织,帮助其成员的学习和不断变换本身。


1、介绍——1. Introduction


In past twenty years the working environment of all kinds of organizations has been changing because of the external factors involved like globalization and rapid development of information technologies. No matter employees or managers like it or not, they all will have to adopt to this new environment. This change would probably not be as easy as it seems to be, so managers will have to implement different strategies in order to accommodate themselves and the entire organization to constantly changing world of today. It means managers will have to formulate new strategies for the learning organization that are different and distinct from the previous ones.

In addition to changes in the roles of managers, employees in turn will also have to implement various techniques that will be discussed in detail in report. This way, learning organization is identified by both managers and employees working together to improve the overall organizations performance by spotting, studying, and correcting errors, and learning from errors.


2、新组织——2. New Organization


There is two major suggestions as to what a new organization is. Peter Senge, a member of Society for Organizational Learning, has offered the following definition, "Learning organizations are organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together". Moreover, another prominent figure, Mike Pedler, has suggested another version of the same concept; The Learning Company is a vision of what might be possible. It is not brought about simply by training individuals; it can only happen as a result of learning at the whole organization level. A Learning Company is an organization that helps the learning of all its members and continuously transforms itself. In other words, an organization becomes a learning organization when all members of the company at all management level cooperatively learn to develop, expand, and improve their abilities and overall performance by the means of openness and continuous learning from previous experience.


3、新组织的特点——3. Characteristics of New Organization


Sandra Kerka has suggested in her book The Learning Organization: Myths and Realities that any learning organization possesses the following characteristics.

use learning to teach their goals

embrace creative tension as a source of energy and renewal

provide continuous learning opportunities

link individual performance with overall organizations performance

foster inquiry and dialogue, making it safe for people to share openly and take risks

are continuously aware of and interact with their environment.

Simply, a learning organization can be recognized by specific relationships between organization members on a horizontal level. They communicate easily, they are sensitive to each others thoughts and ideas, they communicate more often, they are more honest, they are creative in their thoughts, and they literally learn from one another as well as from the other outside circumstances. In learning organization, workers are encouraged to take risks that could results in more opportunities for the organization.


4、经理角色——4. Managers Roles


what does managers ought to formulate new strategies for learning organization mean? First, general and primary managers work must be mentioned, which consists in building and applying new organizational capabilities. Another issue to be considered is that feedback from various operations gives notice to changing environmental factors and changing resources to which the new strategy must be adjusted. And last but not least most importantly, in order for the organization to stay competitive on a particular market, business strategy must change in response to many factors like the evolving information technologies, new demographics, global structures, as well as changes in markets the organization services, skills of its members, and success or failure of the ideas in which the strategy is grounded. Managers in learning organizations would also need to alter their activities and become new organization builders and innovators. This way they will have to ensure that current employee's skills and capabilities are enhanced in one way, and developed in the other way.


5、雇员的角色——5. Employee's roles


Workers inside the organization must contribute much more efforts than managers. They should view the current situation inside the organization from a new and more emancipated perspective. Also, they must cooperate and work in groups or organised teams, and help each other by sharing opinions and thoughts, concerns, and information. To put it efficiently, employees have to work with each other rather than on their own. Peter Senge has suggested several principles in one of his books, which are relevant when developing a learning organization some of which are listed below

Understanding and knowing personal skills and abilities

Testing and quelling personal beliefs

Forming groups or teams, collaboration

Developing the same idea amongst group members

Systems thinking and understanding that each member's actions affect the entire

organizations performance

Learning is simply detection and consecutive correction of an error. Whenever plans are not met, which means that something in the performance of the team has gone wrong, this very team has to find and define the problem and develop new strategies. This approach is called Single loop Learning. With the single loop learning the process will keep going no matter what happens inside or outside the organization. Several organizations are skilled at single loop learning.

Another approach is to question the managerial decisions and study of them. This method is referred to as double loop Learning. Within this concept, the self-questioning ability exists with an auxiliary loop to check for faults. Double loop learning is very limited within organizations because it is hard to do and there are three obstructions to it.listed below:

Bureaucratic structure

Bureaucratic accountability (self protection)

There is a gap between what people say and do


6、外部因素——6. External factors


Prosperous organizations are not forever. Forces and trends external to the learning organization and internal conditions have played a substantial role in transformation of the aspect of management. Here are some examples of what external forces have contributed to a learning organization are listed below.

Rapid industrialization of many developing countries and sharpening of global competition

The development of technologies that make current strategies obsolete

The impact of larger financial markets that facilitated major transfers of corporate control

Growing utilization of different organizational forms including strategic alliances

Development of progressively higher standards for winning and keeping customers

For that reason, in order to stay competitive on the market, organizations have to learn to deal professionally with these external changes. In addition, internal developments can also make a huge influence on organization's performance. Here is a more detailed look at these intrinsic measures and cautions:


7、内部趋势——7.Internal trends


The decision building process, put forward by Herbert A. Simon, explored the relationship between an organization and people decision making. In it he suggest :

People make decisions from incomplete information about possibilities and their consequences.

People make decisions because they can explore only some and not all decision alternatives.

People make decisions because they cannot always attach accurate results to outcomes.

Therefore, they must operate for good relationships rather than a accurate decision. There are some efficient systems for reducing uncertainty; the more uncertainty the greater the need for information processing, and the more this is the case the more the information systems shape the organization.



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