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马来西亚MBA essay:Initial Research Paper

时间:2019-07-08 14:12来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
1.1 Research Background研究背景
企业人力资源流失引起的损失越来越受到重视。首先,人才流失造成的人才培养成本与员工年收入成本大致相同(Guilding、Lamminmaki和McManus,2014年)。其次,员工流失可能导致企业客户流失,从而增加企业相关成本,降低相关盈利水平(Han、Bonn和Cho,2016)。最后,员工流失会导致企业技术、知识、信息的流失,降低企业的核心竞争力(Ongori,2007年)。总之,了解员工流失的原因,采取正确的措施留住员工,对企业的可持续发展至关重要。
The loss arising from the loss of manpower for enterprises has been paid more and more attention. First, the cost for cultivating a more talent caused by the loss of a talent is roughly the same as the cost of yearly income of a staff (Guilding, Lamminmaki and McManus, 2014). Second, the loss of employees may lead to the loss of corporate customers, thereby increasing relevant costs of enterprise and reduce the relevant level of profitability (Han, Bonn and Cho, 2016). Finally, the loss of employees can lead to the loss of business technology, knowledge, information, and reduce the core competitiveness of enterprises (Ongori, 2007). In short, to understand the reasons for the loss of employees to take the right measures to retain employees is very important for the sustainable development of enterprises.
为了留住员工,企业往往采取一系列措施,包括提高工资、提高福利待遇等。然而,这些措施中的许多仍然没有达到预期的效果(Ozolina Ozola,2014),有很多理论可以解释这一现象,包括成就动机理论。麦克莱兰德(1958)认为,有成就感的人需要希望通过提高工作效率来取得更大的成功,从而完美地工作。Urdan(1997)和Singh(2011)发现,具有高成就动机的人不喜欢那种需要很长时间才能看到效果的工作,他们希望立即得到反馈并澄清工作结果。Yazdani、Yaghoubi和Giri(2011)分析了他们想要在一个和谐的工作环境中工作,他们追求的是克服挑战、解决问题、在努力取得成功的过程中挣扎的乐趣,以及成功后的成就感。成功带来的物质回报只是他们价值的一部分。绩效激励理论为企业解决员工流失现象提供了良好的思路。In order to retain employees, enterprises often take a series of measures, including raising wages, improving welfare benefits and so on. However, many of these measures still do not achieve the desired results (Ozolina-Ozola, 2014), there are lots of theories to interpret this phenomenon, including achievement motivation theory. McClelland (1958) believed that people with strong achievement needs hope to work perfectly, through improving work efficiency to achieve greater success. Urdan (1997) and Singh (2011) found that people with high achievement motivation do not like the kind of work that takes a long time to see the effect, they want to get immediate feedback and clarify the results of the work. Yazdani, Yaghoubi and Giri (2011)analyzed that they want to work in a harmonious working environment and what they pursue is the fun of overcoming challenge, solving problems, struggling in the process of striving for success, and sense of achievement after succeeding. The material reward brought by success is only a part of what they value. Achievement motivation theory provides a good idea for enterprises to solve the phenomenon of employee turnover.
1.2 Problem statement问题陈述
Public relations firms are composed of professional public relations experts and various public relations professionals, they are service agencies which specifically provide public relations consulting for social organizations to or are commissioned to carry out public relations activities for customers (Blum and Tremarco, 2008). They involve interpersonal relationships, public communication, communication management, organizational behavior, marketing and many other areas. Public relations firms usually use a project system, the staff work with more intensity, high pressure and get very unstable income (Croft, 2006). Data show that the current employee turnover rate in public relations companies, for example, in SPRG China, in which I work in is more than 20% -30%, and usually the staff turnover rate in companies of other industries is generally between 10-13%, indicating that the employee turnover in public relations companies is very serious (Garcia, 2007), and this situation has brought a very negative impact for improving the enterprises’ competitiveness and lowering their operating costs (Blum and Tremarco, 2008), thus public relations companies need to find the cause of this problem to put forward specific solutions.
1.3 Research objectives
The research objectives of this study are:
Research objective 1: to investigate the reasons for the high turnover rate of employees of public relations firms;
Sub-objective 1: to investigate the employees' satisfaction with current salary management, performance appraisal, employee training and corporate culture of public relations firms; 
Sub-objective 2: to investigate whether there is a statistical correlation between employees’ satisfaction with business management and turnover intention;
Research objective 2: from the perspective of theory of achievement motivation to bring forward solutions for public relations firms about how to solve the problem of high turnover rate of staff.
Sub-objective 3: to understand the needs of employees of public relations firms from the perspective of achievement motivation theory;
Sub-objective: 4: to recommend on improvement of salary management, performance appraisal, staff training and improvement of corporate culture system according to what employees of public relations firms need.
1.4 Research questions
There are mainly four research questions designed for this study. 
Research question 1: What kind of pay system can be better able to meet the needs of employees of public relations firms without excessively increasing the corporate costs?
Research question 2: What kind of performance appraisal system can reasonably reflect the performance of employees of public relations firms?
Research question 3: Can staff training effectively help employees in public relations firms to solve problems at work to reduce employee turnover rate?
Research question 4: Can harmonious corporate culture and increasing employee empowerment improve employee satisfaction to reduce employee turnover rate?
1.5 Research hypothesis
Research hypothesis 1: Fair and transparent pay systems, non-material incentives and employee turnover rate has a significant negative correlation. 
Research hypothesis 2: Paying attention to performance feedback has a significant negative correlation with employee turnover rate. 
Research hypothesis 3: There is a significant negative correlation between high-quality employee training and employee turnover rate. 
Research hypothesis 4: There is a significant negative correlation between harmonious corporate culture and employee turnover rate. 
1.6 Scope of the study
The scope of this study mainly involves an enterprise’s human resource management, including employee motivation, performance appraisal, staff training, corporate culture and so on. This study will be based on the theory of achievement motivation, through empirical research, from employee motivation, performance appraisal, staff training and corporate culture to understand the needs of employees of public relations firms and analyze the reasons for their departure, thus recommending on how public relations firms improve from the following aspects: employee motivation, performance appraisal, staff training and corporate culture to better retain employees.
This research would be carried out within a public relations firm 's human resources management
The data in this study will come from first-hand research.
1.7 Significance of research
The significance of this study is mainly embodied in three aspects: First of all, it will make use of primary research, through conducting a questionnaire survey towards employees of public relations firms to understand and analyze their reasons for employee turnover. The survey results will provide valuable information and data for the understanding and settlement of problems of employee turnover in public relations firms. Then, it will be based on achievement motivation theory to explore the problem of employee turnover, which involves employee motivation, performance appraisal, employee training and corporate culture. The theory provides a good theoretical framework for analyzing employee turnover problems, what McClelland (1958) put forward helps to carry out a comprehensive analysis on reasons for employee turnover of public relations firms. Finally, as the characteristics of employee turnover in public relations firms has its particularity (Croft, 2006), there is not much research on employees turnover in public relations firms, the conclusions of this study will provide a valuable reference for how public relations companies solve the problem of employee turnover in future.
1.8 Operational definition
Employee turnover rate: is the proportion that employees who resign account for in the average number of all employees (Ozolina-Ozola, 2014).
Fair and transparent remuneration system: to let employees get the wages matching with their own performance, and let employees clearly understand the company's pay system, so that employees can clearly understand whether their pay is reasonable, and what they will be rewarded in the company in the future (Blum and Tremarco, 2008).


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