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MBA课程essay——战略营销管理:Study on the marketing action plan of Pep

时间:2019-07-12 10:37:53 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:未知 点击:5
1.0 Introduction介绍
百事可乐是世界上最成功的公司之一,在许多国家都取得了成功(George和Miloyan,2017年)。然而,百事可乐尚未在印度取得预期的成功,印度是世界上人口最多、潜力最大的国家之一(Yamada等人,2014年)。百事可乐有必要调整其在印度的营销策略。本报告将涵盖百事可乐在未来六个月内如何制定和实施其营销策略。本报告首先对印度市场环境进行分析,然后对百事在印度的营销目标和定位策略进行描述,以提出百事在印度的营销行动计划的细节。
Pepsi, one of the most successful companies in the world, has achieved success in many countries (George and Miloyan, 2017). However, Pepsi has not achieved the expected success in India, one of the most populous and potential countries in the world (Yamada et al., 2014). It is necessary for Pepsi to adjust its marketing strategy in India. This report will cover how Pepsi will develop and implement its marketing strategy in the next six months. This report begins with an analysis of the Indian market environment, followed by a description of Pepsi's marketing goals and positioning strategy in India, so as to bring forward details of Pepsi's marketing action plan in India.

2.0 External audit外部审计
2.1 PESTLE analysisPESTLE分析
This report uses PESTLE model to analyze India's macro environment.本报告使用PESTLE模型分析印度的宏观环境。
 •政治
印度的政治局​​势是三大支柱的基本格局,即印度人民党,国会和印度共产党(MA),由左翼党派代表(Iyer和Shrivastava,2018年)。当总统选举到来时,政治动荡通常会发生,导致经济政策发生重大变化,同时,印度政府的腐败现象相对普遍,这已成为限制其投资环境的主要因素之一( Lehne,Shapiro和Eynde,2018年)。然而,印度政府对外国直接投资(FDI)更加开放,许多行业允许100%的外国所有权(Gille,2017)。印度政府对印度的外商独资企业或合资企业实行国民待遇,对外资企业的利润控制和汇款限制较少(Saravanan,2018)。
•经济
印度是世界上增长最快的国家之一。在过去几年中,印度的经济增长率达到了6-7%(Kumari和Sharma,2017年)。在最近五年中,印度的通货膨胀率一直保持在5%左右(Ohlan,2017)。印度是世界上经济发展潜力最大的国家。印度目前是第11大消费市场,预计到2030年将成为第五大消费市场(艾哈迈德和阿拉姆,2018年)。印度的银行业运作接近世界标准,政府对海外投资的支持使其在印度的融资变得容易(Chandran和Nathan,2015)。
 •Political
India's political situation is the basic pattern of three pillars, namely, the Indian People's Party, Congress and the Indian Communist Party (MA), represented by the leftist party (Iyer and Shrivastava, 2018). When the presidential election comes, political turmoil usually takes place, leading to major changes in economic policies, at the same time, the corruption in the government of India is relatively common, which has become one of the main factors that restrict its investment environment (Lehne, Shapiro and Eynde, 2018). However, the Indian government is more open to Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and 100% foreign ownership is allowed in many industries (Gille, 2017). The government of India imposes national treatment on wholly foreign-owned or joint-venture enterprises in India, with less restriction on the profit control and remittance to foreign-funded enterprises (Saravanan, 2018). 
•Economic
India is one of the fastest growing countries in the world. In the past few years, India's economic growth rate reached 6-7% (Kumari and Sharma, 2017). In the recent five years, India's inflation rate has been maintained at about 5% (Ohlan, 2017). India is the country with the greatest potential for economic development in the world. India currently ranks as the 11th largest consumer market and it is expected to become the 5th largest consumer market by 2030 (Ahmad and Alam, 2018). India's banking sector is operating close to world standards, and the government's support for overseas investment makes it easy to finance in India (Chandran and Nathan, 2015).
•Social
Although abolishing the caste system, it still has a large impact on Indians. Indian people have a strong religious awareness, and all kinds of religions are in parallel (Gille, 2017). There are more than 100 kinds of religions (Iyer and Shrivastava, 2018). India's ethnic, religious and caste issues have some impact on the social and political stability (Gille, 2017). However, in general, Indian people are not exclusive to foreign enterprises and foreigners. India is the most populous country in the world, among them, the number of young laborers exceeds 500 million, there are about 382 Indian universities, there are so many graduates each year that they are familiar with English, multinational corporations can recruit enough cheap talents and labor in India (Kumari and Sharma, 2017).
•Technological
India's high-tech industry is more developed, in the past 20 years, the Indian government has supported high-tech industries in the three fields of information, biology and materials. India's success in the field of information technology is well known, Indian software and information-driven services grew at an average annual rate of more than 28% over the past five years, and India's success in the field of information technology has played an important role in significantly attracting multinational R & D centers to invest in India (Aklin, Cheng and Urpelainen, 2018).
•Legal
India's legal system has the characteristics of English law, it has emphasis on the protection of personal property and rights, safeguarding the interests of intellectual property and investors (Peña Neira, 2017). At the same time, Indian law has strict legislation on commercial monopoly and environmental pollution, enterprises that violate the law will likely be severely punished (Menezes, Monteiro and Krishna, 2016).
•Ethical and Environment
India is located in the South Asian monsoon region, its climate type is tropical monsoon climate, the main feature is the annual high temperature, the annual average temperature is above 22 ℃ (Sarkar et al., 2016). At the same time, its climate is divided into drought and rainy seasons, usually from June to September, it is the rainy season and from October to May of the following year, it is the dry season; from April to May every year, the weather is very hot, the maximum temperature is often up to 40 ℃ above (Sun, Ma and Xu, 2018). In the rainy season, rainfall often causes floods. All in all, the weather in India has been hot all the year round, and the demand for beverages is relatively high, which is suitable for promotion of Pepsi in India.
In short, although India has unfavorable factors for Pepsi's investment in the Indian market in terms of political stability, clean government, religion and caste conflicts, India has great potential for development. The government and people are kind to foreign investment, there are sufficient capital and labor support. The law is more perfect and friendly, these are all reasons for attracting Pepsi to invest in India.

3.0 Stakeholder analysis
Stakeholder analysis is used to analyze all individuals (and organizations) that are relevant to business interests to help enterprises to differentiate the strategic impact of major stakeholders on their strategic development.
Pepsi's stakeholders are mainly shareholders, the Indian government, consumers, retail terminals, competitors, and so on. From a shareholder's point of view, India is a very promising market and Pepsi's choice of India as a market may bring some risks, but it is likely to generate huge returns for shareholder.
From the perspective of the Indian government, on the one hand, India welcomes foreign companies like Pepsi to invest in India. On the other hand, the Indian government hopes that foreign-funded enterprises can bring employment opportunities to local people to promote local economic development.
From the Indian consumers’ point of view, they want to know more about the world and get the products that make them feel excited, yet the products should not undermine their traditions and religious beliefs.
As retail outlets, they want to sell products that consumers love and can generate sales revenue, and they want that production enterprises are able to offer some help in terms of sales techniques and management.
From competitors’ point of view, especially Coca-Cola, although there is also some competition, but Pepsi and Coca-Cola also have a common goal, namely, to enable Indian consumers to accept carbonated beverages more.
The marketing action plan will take into account the interests of stakeholders, as much as possible to promote the interests of all stakeholders to be met or valued.

4.0 Marketing objectives
Based on SMART principles (S=Specific, M=Measurable, A=Attainable, R=Relevant, T=Time-bound), this report sets the following goals for Pepsi's marketing action plan in India:
-Within March-September, 2018, Pepsi's market visibility in India will increase by 10% over the same period last year;
-Within March-September, 2018, Pepsi’s sales revenue in the Indian market will increase 10% over the same period last year.
-Within March-September, 2018, Pepsi's market share in India will increase by 10% over the same period last year.#p#分页标题#e#

5.0 STP
5.1 Market segmentation
Market segmentation refers to that an enterprise is in accordance with certain standards to divide customers in a market into several customer groups, each customer group constitutes a sub-market, there is a clear difference between the needs of different sub-markets (Yi, 2018). Market segmentation is the basis for selecting a target market (Kannisto, 2016).
Indian consumers can be divided into three segments by age, consumers who are below 40, consumers of 40-60, consumers who are over 60.
Consumers who are more than 60 years old insist on their traditions, modern beverages are very hard to impress these consumers to change their habit of drinking beverages.
Consumers aged 40-60 also insist on drinking traditional Indian beverages, but they are also willing to accept modern drinks, they hope that beverages can be good for health, they are also willing to pay more money for good drinks.
Indian consumers who are under 40 like young people in other countries, they are fond of fashion, sport and music, they are willing to accept new things, so they are more willing to accept modern drinks, they are willing to accept drinks of various flavors, fashionable and popular drinks are easier to impress them, limited by their own income, they may pay less for drink.
5.2 Targeted market
As the world's leading carbonated drinks company, Pepsi’s product image is young, stylish, dynamic, and its product features include cool taste, stylish packaging, friendly price, it is loved by young people in various countries in the world (George and Miloyan, 2017), therefore, Pepsi will takes India's consumers who are below 40 years old as the target consumers, which is appropriate. 
First, from a product price point of view, Pepsi is positioned as a price-friendly drink at a price of around $ 2 (Hillman, 2009), which is consistent with the price positioning of Pepsi in other countries and the spending power of young people in India. Second, from the perspective of brand positioning, when consumers choose a brand, they not only select the brand, but also adopt a cultural identity and lifestyle advocated and represented by the brand (Yamada et al., 2014). In response to the preference of young Indian consumers, Pepsi's product positioning can be stylish, sporty, and dynamic drinks. It is very popular and fashionable for young Indian consumers to learn that drinking Pepsi is very popular and trendy, when they enjoy music or have sports, choosing a can of Pepsi is a very happy thing.

6.0 Marketing mix
6.1 Product strategy
Due to India's vast territory and large population, young consumers in different regions have some differences in the tastes of beverages. Pepsi’s marketing efforts in India should focus on product mix strategies. In addition to promoting their carbonated beverages, they should also enrich their product lines by launching other sub-brands and products, including Mirinda, Gatorade and Fruit Fun. Mirinda is an orange flavored drink, Gatorade is a sports drink, Fruit Fun belongs to the category of fruit juice. Pepsi can launch such a product portfolio to help to meet the tastes of different young Indian consumers and increase their choices while helping to increase its market share and revenue.
6.2 Price strategy
In the marketing action plan, Pepsi can take satisfied pricing tactics. Satisfied pricing tactics mean that product sales take stabilizing prices and expected sales growth as the goal, it strives to set the price at a moderate level, the tactics are mainly used for mass production, mass sales product. Advantages of Satisfied pricing tactics lie in that it avoids the risk posed by the high-priced strategy and prevents the trouble for producers and operators from taking a low-cost strategy. Pepsi can price the products in its portfolio based on costs, local consumption level, and product positioning, for instance, US $ 0.45 for Pepsi’s carbonated drinks of 500 ml, US $ 0.45 for Mirinda of 500 ml, US $ 0.8 for Gatorade of 500 ml, US $ 0.55 for Fruit Fun of 500 ml.
6.3 Place strategy
Data show that those occupying the majority of Indian retail market share are the traditional retailers named "Kirana", there are about 12 million stores located in all parts of India, affecting consumers up to about 1 billion (Grosso, Castaldo and Grewal, 2018). The place strategy of Pepsi's marketing action plan will focus on the sales channels of these terminals, by minimizing the communication distance between Pepsi and these retail stores to flatten the channels, and Pepsi will work hard with these traditional retailers by providing comprehensive consultancy services to establish long-term relationship with the retail stores. For example, Pepsi can bring traditional retailers suggestions for display of Pepsi products, help traditional retailers with the purchase of freezers, emphasize communication with retail stores, and so on.
6.4 Promotion strategy
6.4.1 TV advertisement
Television advertising can truly convince consumers of products through language and images (Hussin, Yusoff and Yusof, 2015). Televisions have become popular in India, watching TV shows has become an integral part of Indian life, and television commercials can affect more audiences (Kumari and Sharma, 2017). The marketing action plan will design a 20-second television commercial about Pepsi, a young Indian celebrity will be invited to show the energetic, stylish and cool features represented by Pepsi. The TV commercials will be broadcasted at 20-23 pm prime time in the evening, a time per hour for 15 weeks. The TV commercials are played through the Doordarshan India, because it is one of the most popular TV channels in India today.
6.4.2 Radio advertising
Advantages of radio advertising lie in that it affects many areas and large population, while the cost of radio advertising is relatively low (Martín-Santana et al., 2015). The marketing action plan will produce a 15-second radio commercial featuring an Indian young star to introduce Pepsi to the audience and broadcast Pepsi's advertising words: Ask For More. The ad's airing time will be 20: 30-23 pm for prime time viewing in the evening, 3 times an hour for 15 weeks in total. The ad will be broadcasted through All India Radio, because it has influence in most areas of India and it is also one of the most watched radio stations in India.
6.4.3 Outdoor advertising
Outdoor advertising has the advantage that it can be put in a crowded place, and it is more easily seen by target population, while outdoor advertising exists 24-hour every day, the publicity lasts for a long time, in addition, outdoor advertising can be updated easily and cost less (Lichtenthal, Yadav and Donthu, 2006), it can be adjusted according to what Pepsi needs at any time. The marketing action plan will produce 50 pieces of outdoor advertising for publicity for Pepsi. The specific steps include, first of all, five versions of advertising will be designed, each version of the advertising will be 10 pieces. The advertising should be able to vividly display the brand image of Pepsi, and with Pepsi’s advertising message. Second, it will choose right places to place outdoor advertising, such as large shopping malls around Mumbai, where there is a large flow of people. Third, the outdoor advertising will be conducted for a total of 15 weeks, updated every 3 weeks, 10 pieces will be updated each time.
6.4.5 Banner advertising 
Banner advertising is one of the most popular online marketing methods. Its advantage lies in the the use of Java, Javascript and other languages to achieve the interaction between manufacturers and consumers, banner ads can be image files created by GIF, Flash and other formats to perfectly demonstrate product images, while consumers can click banner ads to browse links for more information about products. The banner advertising will be posted on Indians’ favorite websites, such as Microsoft, Google, Yahoo and other websites. The banner consists of a product image and slogan. When consumers click banners, it can be directly linked to Pepsi's home page to facilitate consumers to understand the product information and watch the video, and Pepsi can respond promptly for consumers’ message leaved on the network (Aslam and Karjaluoto, 2017). The banner advertising will be implemented for about 15 weeks. 
6.4.6 Social media marketing
Social media refers to websites that allow people to write, share, evaluate, discuss, and communicate with each other, marketing with social media makes it easier to get accurate marketing, word of mouth, easier interaction between manufacturers and consumers, more loyalty to customers (Iankova et al., 2018). The marketing action plan will select Facebook and Instagram as the marketing channels for social media. The advertisement consists of a product picture and slogan, and the advertisement will be uploaded to the official account of Pepsi and the advertising actor’s account. At the same time, a topic that can trigger young people’s online discussion about Pepsi will be issued weekly and Pepsi will answer questions from consumers about products in a timely manner. The social media marketing will last about 15 weeks. 
6.5 Assessment
The effectiveness of this marketing action plan will be measured and tested by the following three methods.
First, the marketing action plan will use Google AdWords to investigate the IP of those who visit the ads and the website, visitor sources, how long the visitors browse the ads and the website, and what the visitors browse to see how many customers focus on Pepsi, who focus on Pepsi, and to what extent they are concerned about, etc. #p#分页标题#e#
Second, attention should also be paid to the statistical information that Pepsi's official website or its social media has been retrieved from search engines. Such as the keywords that users use to visit Pepsi's website, such keywords can provide a powerful reference for Pepsi to deal with search engine optimization, do a good job of search engine optimization can bring more traffic to Pepsi’s website. 
Finally, it will look into the number of viewers of TV ads, radio ads and the number of people affected by the ads, as well as consumer satisfaction with Pepsi ads.

7.0 Conclusion
India is a huge potential market. As a world-class big company, it is necessary for Pepsi to explore the Indian market. Pepsi's target customers in India are young consumers who are less than 40 years old, its own brand positioning is young, stylish, dynamic, and its product features include taste cool, stylish packaging, friendly price. In this report, it designs a marketing action plan which includes four parts for Pepsi's marketing action plan in India, the product strategy is to take a multi-product strategy; the price strategy is to take satisfied pricing tactics; the place strategy is to take a flat marketing   place strategy taking terminal retailers as the center; the promotion strategy includes TV advertisement, radio advertisement, outdoor advertisement, banner advertisement, and social media advertisement.
 
References
Ahmad, F. and Alam, M. S. (2018). Economic and ecological aspects for microgrids deployment in India. Sustainable Cities and Society, 37(2), 407-419.
Aklin, M., Cheng, C. and Urpelainen, J. (2018). Social acceptance of new energy technology in developing countries: a framing experiment in rural India. Energy Policy, 113(2), 466-477.
Aslam, B. and Karjaluoto, H. (2017). Digital advertising around paid spaces, E-advertising industry’s revenue engine: a review and research agenda. Telematics and Informatics, 34(8), 1650-1662.
Chandran, S. D. and Nathan, K.S. (2015). Malaysia-India economic cooperation: fixing the Jigsaw Puzzle. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 172(27), 359-366.
Doorn, G. V. and Miloyan, B. (2017). The Pepsi paradox: a review. Food Quality and Preference, In press, corrected proof, 23(11), 215-222. 
Gille, V. (2017). Applying for social programs in India: Roles of local politics and caste networks in affirmative action. Journal of Comparative Economics, 5(12), 102-115. 
Grosso, M., Castaldo, S. and Grewal, A. (2018). How store attributes impact shoppers’ loyalty in emerging countries: An investigation in the Indian retail sector. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 40(1), 117-124.
Hillman, B. J. (2009). Coke vs Pepsi. Journal of the American College of Radiology, 6(10), 666.
Hussin, R., Yusoff, S. H. and Yusof, S. N. M. (2015). Islamic representation in television advertising and its impact on modern Malay Muslim women. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 211(25), 890-895.
Iankova, S. et al. (2018). A comparison of social media marketing between B2B, B2C and mixed business models.. Industrial Marketing Management, 20(1), 210-221.
Iyer, S, and Shrivastava, A. (2018). Religious riots and electoral politics in India. Journal of Development Economics, 131(3), 104-122.
Kannisto, P. (2016). “I'M NOT A TARGET MARKET”: power asymmetries in market segmentation. Tourism Management Perspectives, 20(10), 174-180.
Kumari, A. and Sharma, A.K. (2017). Physical & social infrastructure in India & its relationship with economic development. World Development Perspectives, 5(3), 30-33.
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Lichtenthal, J. D., Yadav, V. and Donthu, N. (2006). Outdoor advertising for business markets. Industrial Marketing Management, 35(2), 236-247.
Martín-Santana, J. D. et al. (2015). Effectiveness of radio spokesperson's gender, vocal pitch and accent and the use of music in radio advertising. BRQ Business Research Quarterly, 18(3), 143-160.
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Ohlan, R. (2017). The relationship between tourism, financial development and economic growth in India. Future Business Journal, 3(1), 9-22.
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Yamada, A. et al. (2014). The effect of an analytical appreciation of colas on consumer beverage choice. Food Quality and Preference, 34(6), 1-4.
Yi, Z. (2018). Chapter four: market segmentation, targeting, and positioning. Marketing Services and Resources in Information Organizations, 39-48.
 


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