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Master of management (MBA课程):The CIIC’s Leadership Style

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-08-08 10:36:53 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
Executive Summary执行摘要
在谈到上述所有预先要求时,CIIC都是第一位的。它是中国最大、排名第一的人力资源公司,为各公司和员工发布各种值得信赖的数据作为参考。因此,公司主体位于CIIC。在那之后,我必须选择三位领导人作为我的研究课题。他们的领导风格必须形成鲜明对比,才能构成我的研究。我开始寻找公司结构图,寻找一些具有独特特征的部门,这就要求领导者拥有独特的领导风格。在选择了三位领导人之后,最困难的部分是获取他们的信息。我向在这些部门工作的朋友寻求帮助,并利用人员关系联系他们的领导和员工。在进行研究时,我的方法仅限于面谈和手工调查。我不能得到官方文件,也不能动用其他资源。但这并没有阻止我去了解他们,我仍然设法通过一个系统的问题列表来提取我需要进行调查的信息。我在网上参考了很多问题,设计了所有这些问题。我研究了过去的案例以及它们是如何实现的。凭借过去的经验和创新的想法,我成功地进入了最后一步,那就是分析我收集的信息。在分析信息时,我使用了大量的教科书理论,并将它们紧密地联系在一起。结果非常令人满意。结果表明,我国的领导方式既有优等领导方式,也有劣等领导方式,只有适合的领导方式和不适合的领导方式。结果表明,在不同部门工作时,最佳、最有效的领导方式也会相应地发生变化。
CIIC comes at the first place when talking about all the pre-requests mentioned above. It is the literally the biggest and No.1 Human Resource Company in China and publish all kinds trustworthy data for various companies and employees as a reference. Therefore, the company subject has been located at CIIC. After that, I have to choose three leaders as my research subjects. And they must have contrasting leadership styles that can make up my research. I started searching for company structure map and looking for thesome departments that have the unique traits, which requires leaders to possess unique leadership styles. After choosing three leaders, the hardest part is to access to their information. I asked my friends who worked in those departments for help and use personnel connections to reach out those leaders and their employees. When conducting the research, my approach is limited to the interviews and manual survey. I cannot get official documents or put my hands on some other resources. But it did not block me from getting to know them, I still managed to extract the information that I need to conduct this survey through a systematic question list. I designed all those questions by referring to lots of questions online. I studied the past cases and how they made it happened. With the past experience and innovative ideas, I successfully moved to the final step that is to analyze the informations I collected. When analyzing information, I used lots of theories from textbooks and bind them closely. The result is very satisfying. It shows that there is superior leadership style or inferior leadership styles, there is only suitable leadership styles and misfits. It shows that when working in different departments, the best and most effective leadership style will change accordingly. 
 
Introduction介绍
Interpretation解释
领导能力因地区而异,因公司而异,因人而异。它会受到公司文化和公司财产的巨大影响。领导方法可能因人而异,而结果是可测量的。很难确定领导方法是否成功,但很容易衡量其结果。在这项任务中,采用了两种领导方法,即品质或特质方法和职能方法。“品质”或“特质”方法假定领导者是天生的而非天生的。领导由某些遗传的特征或人格特征组成,这些特征将领导者与追随者区分开来:所谓的伟大的领导人理论。质量方法关注的是工作中的男人或女人,而不是工作本身。这表明,人们关注的是领导的选拔,而不是领导的培训。而职能方法的重点不是领导的个性,也不是工作中的男人或女人,而是领导的职能。在任何参与任务的小组中,领导总是存在的。职能方法根据领导者的行为如何影响和受追随者群体的影响来看待领导力。这种方法集中在群体、追随者或下属的性质上。它关注的是领导力的内容。通过集中精力做好领导班子的有效工作,可以更加重视领导班子的成功培训和提高领导班子绩效的手段。Leadership varies from region to region, from company to company, from people to people. It can be hugely affected by company culture and company property. The leadership approach may differ case by case, whereas the outcome is measurable. It is hard to define the leadership approach successful or not, nevertheless, it is easy to measure its result. In this assignment, two approaches to leadership are used, which are the qualities or traits approach and the functional approach. The qualities or traits approach assumes that leaders are born and not made. Leadership consists of certain inherited characteristics, or personality traits., which distinguish leaders from their followers: the so-called Great Person theory of leadership. The qualities approach focuses attention on the man or women in the job and not on the job itself. It suggests that attention is given to the selection of leaders rather than to training for leadership. While the functional approach focuses attention not on the personality of the leader, nor on the man or woman in the job, but on the functions of leadership. Leadership is always present in any group engaged in a task. The functional approach views leadership in terms of how the leader’s behavior affects, and is affected by, the group of followers. This approach concentrates on the nature of the group, the followers or subordinates. It focuses on the content of leadership. Greater attention can be given to the successful training of leaders and to the means of improving the leaders’ performance by concentrating on the functions which well lead to effective performance by the work group.
There are some differences between the two theories mentioned above. The functional approach believes that the skills of leadership can be learned, developed and perfected. In contrast to the view of Drucker, Kotter makes the point that successful companies do not wait for leaders to come along. They actively seek out people with leadership potential and expose them to career experiences designed to develop that potential. Indeed, with careful selection, nurturing and encouragement, dozens of people can play important leadership roles in a business organisation.’17 A similar point is made by Whitehead:There has been a dramatic change in how management thinkers regard leadership today. Leaders are not born, they say, but made. And the good news is everyone can do it. You don’t have to be promoted to a management position. You can be a leader whatever job you do. You don’t have to be the boss to be a leader. 
But there are also some limitations of both leadership approaches. As for qualities approach, first, there is bound to be some subjective judgement in determining who is regarded as a ‘good’ or ‘successful’ leader. (This can make for an interesting class discussion.) Second, the lists of possible traits tend to be very long and there is not always agreement on the most important. Third, it ignores the situational factors. As for the functional approach, it significantly ignores the impacts and functions that the managers or the leaders bring about.
Besides, scholars also carried out loads of experiments to demonstrate their theories. There have been many research studies into the common traits of leadership. For example, Bass reports on numerous studies of traits of leadership from 1904 to 1970 including those relating to personal characteristics such as chronological age, physical appearance (including a positive correlation between height and weight), speech, capacity, achievement, participation, responsibility and status. A conclusion, perhaps not surprisingly, suggests that although personality is a factor in differentiating leadership it is not a matter of the mere possession of some combination of traits. Leaders acquire status through a working relationship with members of a group.15 Attempts at identifying common personality, or physical and mental, characteristics of different ‘good’ or ‘successful’ leaders have met with little success.16 Investigations have identified lists of traits that tend to be overlapping, contradictory or with little correlation for most features. It is noticeable that ‘individuality’ or ‘originality’ usually features in the list. This itself suggests that there is little in common between specific personality traits of different leaders. It is perhaps possible therefore to identify general characteristics of leadership ability, such as self-confidence, initiative, intelligence and belief in one’s actions, but research into this area has revealed little more than this. For the functional approach, A general theory on the functional approach is associated with the work of John Adair and his ideas on action-centered leadership which focuses on what leaders actually do.19 The effectiveness of the leader is dependent upon meeting three areas of need within the work group: the need to achieve the common task, the need for team maintenance, and the individual needs of group members. Adair symbolises these needs by three overlapping circles.
In this assignment, three leaders will be listed and their methods to lead and guide teams will be explained. Under each sector, team members and their reaction and response will be described to reflect the influence of their leadership skills. #p#分页标题#e#
 
Scope and Range
This assignment will cover the government own company CIIC and the 
Marketing manager: Alex Wang
Human Resource manager: Linda Xu 
Office Director: Jake Lee 
 
Finished Work
To fully understand the mechanism of leadership, one needs to do a thoroughly dig on company property, department descriptions, leaders’ background, team members’ survey. I did all the research mentioned above. Meanwhile, I applied theories and academic knowledge to the applications to further analyze the mechanism and connections behind those actual applications of leadership. Besides, I discussed the flaws and advantages of my data collections and analysis. Lastly, I summarized my own leadership skills and evaluated accordingly to further enhance specialized spots of my leadership.  
Structure
The structure of the assignment follows the storyline of three leaders. A general company background is given at first place. After this, leaders’ background is presented, and what they did of a reflection of their leadership. Following will be team members’ reactions and the measurement of outcome. The reflection of leadership and further improvement of my leadership skills is summarized at the end of paper. 
 
Key Theories
The theoretical concepts that will be addressed are situational leadership models and transformational leadership model. Applied knowledge also involves the fundamental theories of team and leadership. 
 
Background Context
 
CIIC Company Background
Founded in 1987, China International Intellectech Corporation (CIIC) is one of the state-owned backbone enterprises under the direct management of the Chinese Central Government. Headquartered in Beijing, it has 87 subsidiaries and branches focusing on international cooperation in the fields of economy, technology and talent in China and other 76 countries and regions around the world. Keeping abreast of the latest development of knowledge-powered productivity amid the global economic integration, the mega trends of structural change and transfer of worldwide service sector as well as complete outsourcing especially offshore arrangements, and catering for China’s demands for restructuring of service industry and growing of new economic paradigms, CIIC has been building its core competence in the field of intellectual services, standing out as the leading HR service provider which demonstrates proven competitiveness and influence in talents, resources, networks, scale and experience. Furthermore, it is extending its expertise to new fields like investment and trading services. CIIC has becoming a newly exploring enterprise with its high competence and leading advantages (cited from http://service.ciicbj.com/english/about/our_company.asp). (add to your current description of CIIC, what are the leadership/business/people challenges facing the organization)
 
Methodology
I chose three leaders with very distinctive leadership styles. This can help to explain the application of leadership styles in practice. Each leader is in a very unique niche and their personality and position contribute a lot to their unique leadership styles. The following are three cases. Besides, two leadership approaches, qualities approach and functional approach, are used to evaluate which impacts different leadership characters have on the team management and business operation and whether a manager could perform better after suitable training to respond the effectiveness of functional approach in terms of case study. Leadership is an aspect which is tough to judge by accurate data. The cases below mainly focus on the description of different leaders’ characters and training function and the team relationships and problem encountered under such circumstances. And the methods used to collect relative resources will be illustrated detailly below. 
 
Critical Evaluation
Case 1
 
Marketing manager Alex Wang 
Age: 35 
Marital status:Single 
Subordinate Personnel: 6 
Education Background:Bachelor of International Business University of Sydney
Years of work: 11
Job description :
Alex Wang is responsible for developing, implementing and executing strategic marketing plans for CIIC headquarters in Shanghai, managing and coordinating marketing and creative staff, leading market research efforts to uncover the viability of current and existing products/services, and liaising with mediaorganizations and advertising agencies and developing pricing strategies for products and services.
I will analyze Alex Wang using the quality approach. Alex is in this position for 5 years. Before this he works for a foreign-invested consulting company. 
He possesses an autocratic leadership style, which leaves an impression to his team a strong and powerful image. He does not share too much information with his team nor discuss on an important issue. The communication channel has only been one way. He does not receive nor entertain any suggestions or initiatives form subordinates. This might isolate him with other subordinate and create a not very amicable figure, however he has been very successful running his department and helped CIIC expand its market niche and brand influence. His unique leadership must take some credit on this(CIIC Shanghai Monthly Journal, Episode 48, Page 23)
The quick response is one of those many reasons he has been so successful. He is very alarmed to market change and is able to make a quick decision accordingly. This has everything to do with his dictatorship style, as one leader decides for the whole team and there is no need for each member to participate and offer suggestions, in which occasion it will cost plentiful energy and time. 
Although Alex Wang benefits a lot from the straight and autocratic leadership style, he also suffers from this kind of leadership from the other side. Team member under him with opposite characteristics are unwilling to work with him and some highly skilled people chose to resign, which is not beneficial for the team development. And in some circumstances, the leader-Alex Wang made mistakes either, which could have been avoided if he listened and accepted others’ suggestions.
One of very obvious trait of his leadership style is being straightforward and direct, which can be concluded as directive behavior. He is a more top-down managing style, giving clear and systematic orders to subordinate to follow. Whereas not listening to his team and being too much an autocrat makes him less supportive. In conclusion, he has a directing leadership style and his team shows variable commitment with high competence. The maturity level is at M3 which demonstrate they are experienced and able to do the task but lack the confidence or the willingness to take on responsibility (CIIC Business Big Data in China, Chapter 3, Page 69). 
 
Case 2
 
Human resource manager Linda Xu 
Age: 38 
Marital status:Married  
Subordinate Personnel: 4 
Education Background:Bachelor of Management Fudan University 
Years of work: 16 
Job description :
Linda Xu is responsible for maintaining and enhancing the organization's human resources by planning, implementing, and evaluating employee relations and human resources policies, programs, and practices.
Linda has been working at CIIC for more than 10 years. She is a very loyal employee. Before becoming a HR manager, she was a HR specialist. Currently there are four team members under her instruction. 
She is a people person with an approachable personality. She possesses a transformational leadership style that depends on high levels of communication from management to meet goals. She enjoys a high reputation for being involved in and committed to CIIC. She is good at motivating employees through two-ways communication and enhancing productivity through creating transparent working environment with high visibility. Focusing on the bigger picture as a HR manager, she is also meticulous enough to carry trivial tasks with her team members. She is able to exceed KPI goals each year and achieve the honorable team award within last 3 years. 4 team members have been with her since she became the HR manager. 
Being organized and methodical is her biggest trait. She has to manage to devise the most practical human resources policies to maintain employees. Linda frequently holds team meetings and team buildings in order to further understand her team and what is going on with the other employees. The capability of knowing their current mentality and mindset allows her to devise next step strategy toward current situation (Paul Hersey, The Situational Leader: The Other 59 Minutes). 
But democratic leadership causes issues occasionally as well. It costs much more energy and time to communicate and negotiate with others, which, sometimes, could be avoided by the judgement of Linda herself. So this kind of leadership is likely to be most effective when used with skilled, free-thinking, and experienced subordinates who enjoy the relationships and chaos that result from belonging to a highly effective team. Nevertheless, the democratic process may slow down decision making and may prove too costly. 
Linda listens to all complaints and suggestions from various departments. She provides support and facilitates them. Due to her position limit, Linda is hardly to give too much direct guidance and she has to avoid leak too much information about decision-making from upper divisions. To conclude her leadership style is more of a supporting style with high supportive and low directive behavior. Her team has been with her for a long time. Members are very skillful at relevant working fields.Therefore low directive behavior is not huge barrier for them. Conformity and executive efficiency are in this team’s nature. Their maturity level is at D4, which means that they are experienced at the task, and comfortable with their own ability to do it well. They are able and willing to not only do the task, but to take responsibility for the task (Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory).#p#分页标题#e#
 
Data Collection and Analysis
Data collection
Acquisition involves collecting or adding to the data holdings. There are several methods of acquiring data:collecting new data; using your own previously collected data; reusing someone others data; purchasing data; acquired from Internet (Data Collection, Processing and Analysis).
It is a long and challenging work to collect data from those three cases. Getting to know their position and employee members is an easy step to do. The challenging thing is to get to know their personality and the specific leadership style they are suited. 
There are three common accesses of data collections (Greet Peersman, Data Collection and Analysis Methods in Impact Evaluation): 
1. Retrieving existing documents and data
Formal policy documents, implementation plans and reports 
Official statistics  
Program monitoring data 
Program records
2. Collecting data from individuals or groups
Interviews – key informant, individual, group, focus group discussions, projective techniques
Questionnaires or surveys – email, web, face to face, mobile data
3.  Observation
Structured or non-structured 
Participant or non-participant  
Participatory or non-participatory 
Recorded through notes, photos or video
 
Among all three common accesses, I can only use the second one to collect data from individuals through interview and conducting surveys. 
Strengths
I am a people person and very easy to start a conversation. So I literally found all those members and the leader from a specific department. I start with some easy and friendly questions instead of asking them some direct and bold ones. And I ask them interpersonal questions to get to know them from other people’s talk. The separate information is gradually waved into a bigger picture. And an image of the leader became vivid and systematic. 
Linda is not actually the typical leadership. But she learned and was trained after joining the company several years later. And it proved that she is competent to her position and grows up to a good leader. According to action-centered leadership, she could handle task needs, team maintenance needs and individual needs well. To be more specific, she is able toplan the work, allocate resources, maintain morale and building team spirits and reconcile conflicts between groups and so on.
Limitations
I do not have too much authority as an outsider. So the approaches are very limited to conversation. There is no official document that I can read or refer to. No official officers from CIIC organization would like to offer help. So the conduction of my research is relatively a very resources-limited situation. 
 
Data Analysis
 
Data Analysis involves actions and methods performed on data that help describe facts, detect patterns, develop explanations and test hypotheses. This includes data quality assurance, statistical data analysis, modeling, and interpretation of results.
(Data Collection, Processing and Analysis).
There are two types of data analysis numeric analysis and textual analysis(Greet Peersman, Data Collection and Analysis Methods in Impact Evaluation): 
Numeric analysis analyzes numeric data such as cost, frequency or physical characteristics. Textual analysis analyzes words, either spoken or written, including questionnaire responses, interviews and documents. 
 
Science the nature of my research, I am only able to use textual analysis. 
 
Strengths
I am able to transfer abstract ideas and talk into something measurable. I conducted those research based strictly to situational leadership styles’ criteria. I also can detect people’s perspectives through their tones. My sensitivity make it possible for me to do so. Typical leadership style has been identified and their impacts and problems are also revealed. Two leadership approaches are also used in the two cases.
 
Limitations
All those analysis are strongly based on subjective consciousness, which can sometimes be deviated from the fact. So this is the limitation that I faced when doing my analysis through collected data. Besides this, accurate data are difficult to get and this becomes the main drawback of this analysis.
 
 
Conclusion
This article mainly focuses on leadership, its types and corresponding impacts, problems team or business may face. Two leadership approaches are used to analyze two cases from two team leaders in CIIC company. Details mentioned in the cases above shows that different team leaders have different characteristics, which may beneficial or harmful to the team development. And there is no perfect leadership types. There are good points of a leadership type while drawbacks at the same time. And we also conclude that it is difficult to judge whether a leader’s characteristic is good or not because it is much subjective. Through the case of Linda, we found that through proper leadership training, one could be a competent leader after.
Improvement of Leadership Skills
From the research I conducted, I learned an important lesson from all three leaders and the reason behind why they are so successful and why they are so dedicated in their career. 
Here are some tips that I summarized to improve my leadership skills. 
Effective Listening
One of the most important skills for a leader is listening. Without listening skills, you are not able to get feedback from others and get a sense of what team members like about the projects they work on. I was one who give orders a lot and I told them what exactly what to do and how to do it. But I do not listen too much, which causes a lack of feedback. Feedback is so vital and it is the key to get mutual and effective communication, which is the way to an efficient working environment. (How To Improve Your Leadership Skills Investopedia).
Proper Delegate
"The best executive is the one who has sense enough to pick good men to do what he wants done, and self-restraint to keep from meddling with them while they do it," said Theodore Roosevelt. I used to micromanage, which turned out a bad result. Delegating will make you focus on the target that you want to achieve. It spares you energy and allows you to overseas the whole process of the project. (How To Improve Your Leadership Skills Investopedia).
 
Reference
CIIC Company Introduction 3 edition  
CIIC Business Big Data in China, Chapter 3, Page 69
CIIC Shanghai Monthly Journal, Episode 48, Page 23
Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory
Kenneth H. Blanchard,‎ Paul H. Hersey, Management of Organizational Behavior Leading Human Resources
Paul Hersey, The Situational Leader: The Other 59 Minutes
Data Collection, Processing and Analysis retrieved from 
Greet Peersman, Data Collection and Analysis Methods in Impact Evaluation
How To Improve Your Leadership Skills Investopedia 
Management and Organizational Behaviour,9th Edition chapter 10
Learning Review Summary Appendix
If haven’t learned this course and the core books, we always have confuses between leadership and management, but through learning of this course, I found the most essential difference, the style of leadership and management behavior of mutual influence, mutual constraints, and how to better together, is gives us the focus of this course.
Especially in learning to FIGURE 10.5, we split the influence of leadership to a number of different dimensions and scenario to consider it, this should be a very powerful knowledge, of course I also require repeated digestion and keep study at present.
When I find the root cause of their leadership style, that’s better to grope for their own advantage and progress space, also carry on the analysis to my team members and inventory, find the way to do more scientific structure. For example, help them find their own tasks, and help them find ways to motivate their small team, facing in the future.
I spent around one month on choosing the subject, designing the structure, pace the process, collecting information, analyzing information, summarizing results and writing this paper. The whole process is relatively smooth. When it comes to the subject choosing, I started to use all the sources I have at hand. Comparing possible companies that I know, I have to choose one company with big enough transparent and trustworthy data that I can adopt. That company must be an accessible resource for me.
This paper on the biggest difficulty is the collection of information, may I start a little despise, think there is enough literature can, but we this time is the theme of the people, the information we need to interview and collecting a large number of people and stories, this is literature will not be able to do, so I use in and customer communication meeting, discussed their internal business architecture, at the same time, to understand their relevant personnel management style and leadership style. The power of induction is truly great, and we can develop effective management ideas through the application and analysis of complex situations. Some require more directive behaviors, while other require more supportive behaviors. And many small elements also contribute to the leadership style that is best workable in one situation. In summary, leadership styles are dependent on various factors and the best one is the one that is compatible and effective under the big picture.#p#分页标题#e#
Due to the short time task, of course, there are limitations to the knowledge of the course, so in some of summary and induction may be one-sided or immature, I will continue to complete the next topic.
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