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Innovation-MBA课程ESSAY

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-08-14 10:23:12 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
Executive summary 执行摘要
管理创新的引入和实施,直接受到教育界接受的管理者、大型组织和高水平竞争的影响。专业化、功能差异、外部沟通、决策集中等因素与管理创新的引入有关,技术变革也是影响管理创新的重要因素。因此,加大技术创新投入,也可以促进组织管理创新。可见,管理创新的影响因素是多维度的。
The introduction and implementation of management innovation is directly influenced by the managers, large organizations and high-level competition that have been accepted by education. The factors such as specialization, functional difference, external communication and decision-making centralization are related to the introduction of management innovation; Technological change is also an important factor affecting management innovation. Therefore, increasing investment in technological innovation can also promote organizational management innovation. It can be seen that the influencing factors of management innovation are multidimensional.
 
Introduction 介绍
管理创新的最终目的是提高经营效率,提高组织绩效。虽然有学者否定了管理创新的作用,但大多数学者支持管理创新对组织绩效管理创新的积极影响,管理创新是提高竞争力的重要途径,有两个原因:(1)由于管理创新的成功,使企业的管理创新成为企业的竞争优势。技术产品创新和工艺创新在很大程度上取决于组织结构的调整和适应,以及内部的操作程序,因此管理创新是有效实施技术产品和工艺创新和助推器的前提;因为管理创新对生产力、订单到交付时间、质量和灵活性的重要影响,是组织竞争优势的直接来源。通过一系列的故意行为,管理创新得以实施,并成为组织整体能力的一部分,逐步演变为组织实践(Leavengood、Anderson和Daim,2014)。
The ultimate aim of management innovation is to improve the operation efficiency and improve organizational performance. Although some scholars deny the role of management innovation, but the majority of scholars support the positive influence to the organization performance management innovation, management innovation is the important way to enhance competitiveness, there are two reasons: (1) due to the success of technical product innovation and process innovation depends largely on the organization structure adjustment and adaptation, and internal operating procedures so that management innovation is prerequisite to effectively implement technology product and process innovation and booster; Due to the important influence of management innovation on productivity, order to delivery time, quality and flexibility, it represents the direct source of organizational competitive advantage. Through a series of intentional actions, management innovation is implemented and becomes part of the organization's overall capability, which gradually evolves into organizational practice (Leavengood, Anderson, & Daim, 2014).
 
Theories 理论
管理创新实施与组织绩效呈线性关系。管理创新通过改变组织的日常行为或行动来提高效率、质量和生产力,对组织产生积极影响。管理创新的强度越大,组织绩效的提高越大。管理创新实施与组织绩效呈非线性关系。管理创新力度不足会削弱对组织绩效的影响,因为在管理创新中,在不完全内化的条件下,组织的日常活动程度或根本性变化不会发生,而过度需要付出巨大的成本管理。NT创新,包括员工培训、过程协调、对组织绩效的负面影响。过度实施管理创新可能会破坏组织工作的连续性,增加工作的复杂性,并导致增加个人工作量和对非生产性工作的投资。发现企业组织中普遍存在着ISO9000质量标准的过度实施,导致组织官僚化障碍,降低了组织的灵活性,从而使组织绩效恶化。
Management innovation implementation is linearly related to organizational performance. Management innovation has a positive impact on the organization by changing the organization's daily behaviors or actions to improve efficiency, quality, and productivity. The greater the intensity of management innovation, the greater the increase of organizational performance. It is a non-linear relationship between management innovation implementation and organizational performance. Management innovation insufficient strength will weaken the influence on organizational performance, because in management innovation under the condition of not fully internalized, degree of organizational routines or fundamental change doesn't happen, but excessive need to pay a huge cost management innovation, including staff training, process coordination, negative effects on the organization performance. Excessive implementation of management innovation can disrupt the continuity of organizational work, increase the complexity of the work, and lead to increased personal workload and investment in non-productive efforts. It is found that excessive implementation of ISO9000 quality standard is prevalent in enterprise organizations, resulting in organizational bureaucratic obstacles, reducing organizational flexibility, and thus worsening organizational performance.
From the perspective of lack of management innovation or deficiency, it is believed that management innovation is not enough to improve organizational performance, but it does not arouse enough attention to the problem of excessive implementation. The reasons for the organization of the management innovation are organizational inertia, time delay and reverse causality, and the management innovation level and organizational performance are obtained.
There is an inverted u-shaped relationship. From the performance perspective, lack of management innovation and organizational performance are likely to get worse, but only to select the appropriate management practices and invest, in management innovation can positively promote the role of organization performance (Scarbrough, Robertson, & Swan, 2015).
Introduce or produce is the starting point of management innovation, and its influence factors or mechanism is the primary problem to solve, including institutional factors, cultural factors, rational, and human resources factors, such as: (1) researchers in institutional factors from the macro level USES the comparison system and social economic conditions on the formation of the new management thought and practice, importance practice verifies the 7 groups of institutional factors on the influence of the new management ideas and skills into; The influence of institutional factors on the introduction of human resource management innovation. Research and exploration of organizational culture factors.
The effect of personal concept and attitude on the introduction and implementation of management innovation, and the result of management innovation is to strengthen the status quo. Some researches are based on the role of organizational culture in management innovation decision-making, while others start from the innovation process. Cognitive once established both agree on is that the tissue can be difficult to change, organization management innovation is not only top managers will, as a result, not only reflect the intention of managers, or the needs of the organization culture as a whole. The study of rational factors emphasizes the role of key managers in the organization and believes that managers propose and implement management innovation.
It is  to improve the efficiency of the organization. Key managers in the organization put forward innovative methods or measures to solve the specific problems faced by the organization and then support its implementation and application process. Across the macro and micro levels, the role of key individuals in organizations and the environment is highlighted. Research on human resource factors to explore the influence of internal staff factors on management innovation and diffusion. Employee training is the main factor that influences management innovation, especially human resource innovation, which is accepted by employees and can spread smoothly within the organization. Employees with more autonomy and responsibility are more likely to accept new management practices such as human resource management innovation projects, total quality management or teamwork. In addition, many scholars study the influence of the degree to which employees accept innovation union, thought to have trade union organizations of enterprises, employees can accept more innovation, and pour their hearts out for trade union organizations to provide them with the channel, and ensure the employee's employment. (Thomas, Cicmil, & George, 2012).
The whole. The introduction and implementation of management innovation is directly influenced by the managers, large organizations and high-level competition that have been accepted by education. The factors such as specialization, functional difference, external communication and decision-making centralization are related to the introduction of management innovation; Technological change is also an important factor affecting management innovation. Therefore, increasing investment in technological innovation can also promote organizational management innovation. It can be seen that the influencing factors of management innovation are multidimensional (Call for Applications: 2018 Safety Management Innovation Award, 2018).
Manage the innovation process.
The innovation process research focuses on the whole process of management innovation realization, aiming at revealing the endogenous mechanism of management innovation, summarizing and refining the common law of different management innovation processes. Based on the typical management innovation practices or methods such as m-type organization, total quality management, balanced scorecard and modern integrated production line, London business school.#p#分页标题#e#
Members of the school management innovation laboratory, first put forward management innovation process model 4 phases: from dissatisfaction with the status quo, to other sources of innovation motivation, to invent new practice, further from the Angle of horizontal and vertical two build management innovation process model, the transverse process on behalf of the management innovation of four stages: does motivation does invention does theoretical and identification; Vertical represents the actions taken by internal facilitators and external promoters at various stages (Palm, Lilja, & Wiklund, 2016).
Solutions 
The characteristics of management innovation are embodied in the following five aspects:
(1) the results of the management innovation has the fuzziness and uncertainty of technology innovation results is clear, some even are tangible and vulnerable to patent protection, and management innovation results are difficult to define, it is difficult to protected by patents. With technology innovation and management innovation results difficult to other organizational performance, therefore, management innovation highlight descriptive, contains more personal subjective factors, the process, and thus increasing the difficulty of management innovation performance measurement.
(2) the management innovation is a long and gradual process most of the management innovation of the implementation of the process have to undergo a long period of time, a few years to several decades, sometimes even unable to define the information of management innovation. Technological innovation, which is composed of physical processes or products, is relatively easy to copy and belongs to a kind of discrete knowledge asset which is easy to adjust and modify. Management innovation is often only for a specific system, the system made up of different factors and relations and with high complexity, therefore, prove the rationality of the management innovation before implementation difficulty bigger, even the introduction of innovation, the results also difficult to accurately assess and predict.
(3) most of the organization in management innovation, lack of professional knowledge or ready-made experience a large organization may employ a large number of experts have technological innovation skills, but in addition to individual management consultants to assist companies look for ways to system promote the overall effectiveness of the organization and ensure the healthy development of the organization, there is almost no other with management innovation skills, and more depends on the personal experience of administrators, social capital and cognition, etc. The lack of management innovation expertise greatly increases the uncertainty of management innovation.
(4) the need for management innovation for external innovation promoters and the stronger external innovation promoters include academic experts, consultants and management elites. They provide initial ideas, bases, and even solutions for management innovation, and help to create and legitimize innovation. External agents may not participate in the innovation process, but provide a lot of critical inputs for the innovation process. Internal and external facilitators build a bridge between concept and practice through interaction, and management innovation is the result of interaction between the two (Aminbeidokhti, Jamshidi, & Hoseini, 2016).
(5) management innovation policy makers are greatly influenced by the innovation of fuzziness and uncertainty management innovation is a systemic risk project, concerning the interests of the whole enterprise and the future development, there are similar to the elaborating management innovation practice to catch up with Toyota, through its strong competitors such as gm and ford, leading European and American market prosperity; There are a large number of domestic enterprises for the implementation of business process reengineering management practices such as troubled embarrassing situation: it is this uncertainty makes policymakers has raised concerns about the results of innovation, therefore, reduce the fuzziness and uncertainty is managers face a difficult task, also highlighted the core role of the manager. In short, the risk of management innovation is a system engineering, requirements to fundamental changes in the organization's practices or gene, in addition to the high risk, it is difficult also tend to be more than the general organizational change and technological innovation, and management innovation and organization situation closely, and organization inside and outside environment difference between added to find an effective and general innovation the difficulty of the way or ways; At the same time, management innovation is a major decision concerning the future of the organization, and the overall impact on the organization is more than the general technical innovation. In view of this, it is of great significance both in theory and practice to conduct research independently of technological innovation or specially for management innovation.
How to measure management innovation effectively? How do organizational managers make management innovation decisions? What factors influence organizational management innovation and how? How to change the low efficiency of organizational management innovation in practice? How to improve the management innovation performance?
 
(1) to develop effective management innovation performance measurement system of effective management innovation performance is the foundation of the whole management innovation research fields and key, enhance the innovation of management efficiency, measuring the impact of the management innovation on organizational performance, and organizational learning, the impact on the management innovation must be based on. Technology innovation and product innovation measure basically has formed a unified standard, namely from two aspects of efficiency and effectiveness, but due to the management innovation and technological innovation in terms of performance improvement effect of separability, lag of impact on the performance and management innovation performance, has not been an effective measurement system.
(2) uncover management innovation decision-making innovation of management decision as a "black box" concerns the important decisions made by the organization's future destiny, which undoubtedly is a core enterprise managers is crucial, and policy makers in their management innovation is the most direct stakeholders. When there is a difference between perceived organizational performance and potential performance, or when the perception organization is running in the future, the core managers of the enterprise actively seek solutions. Such managers have obvious entrepreneurial characteristics, namely, "actively integrate with innovation, take risks and take proactive actions to attack competitors", and show entrepreneurial orientation. The management innovation decision-making process includes two aspects: the acquisition of management innovation knowledge; In combination with the existing resources and conditions of enterprises, it makes reasonable judgment and evaluation on management innovation, which is to perceive its risks. Social network and social capital theory can explain knowledge acquisition in decision-making process, and cognitive theory reveals managers' inner psychological activity process. In view of this, combined with management as the core social capital theory and cognitive theory, and combining the internal situation factors build management innovation decision model has strong theoretical significance and practical significance.
(3) deepening the research on management innovation mechanism of the impact on the organization performance to truly achieve the goal of improving organizational performance to obtain competitive advantage, performance perspective study can not only stay in the discussion stage, and the need to refine, deepen and combined with empirical research, such as the degree of the influence of different management innovation activities on the organization performance, management innovation, respectively, of the impact of various performance indicators, the frequency of the competitive advantages and management innovation, how to stimulate the other innovation and management innovation practice activity, etc (Lin, 2015).
(4) develop and perfect the mechanism of promoting management innovation performance research management innovation begins with the perception of the environment change and the enterprise internal problems, therefore, awareness is the first ability of promoting management innovation, namely, by scanning, seek and explore and adapt to the way, feel the change of the environment, and respond to opportunities and threats brought by the changes in the environment. In the face of organizational problems, managers try to acquire relevant knowledge through knowledge search, so it is very important for organizations to have the ability to evaluate, digest and apply external management innovation knowledge. At the same time, management innovation performance also depends on the ability of the organization to create new ideas or solutions that are valuable and suitable for situational needs. In addition, the sustained and implementation of management innovation requires constant access to resources, so it is necessary according to the scheme of management innovation, to reconstruct the existing resources in the organization system or reconfigure, discard worthless resources, core resources to form a new system, the performance of integrated coordination organization. It can be seen that in addition to organizational learning, the way to improve management innovation performance is pluralistic and needs to be further improved.
 
Conclusion 
It should not ignore six Suggestions to promote the management innovation process: to improve the consciousness of innovation; Establishing a problem-solving culture; Look for examples and comparisons from other organizations; Improving the ability of small range tests; Make full use of external agents to develop new ideas; Continuous innovation, etc. At the same time, we can set up a special management innovation institution within the enterprise to raise the importance of management innovation and realize its specialized process. Improve the diffusion efficiency of innovation, so that more organizations can get new ideas and ideas; Improve the management innovation system within the organization; Eliminate employees' resistance to management innovation.#p#分页标题#e#
Reference list 
Aminbeidokhti, A., Jamshidi, L., & Hoseini, A. M. (2016). The effect of the total quality management on organizational innovation in higher education mediated by organizational learning. Studies In Higher Education, 41(7), 1153-1166. doi:10.1080/03075079.2014.966667
Call for Applications: 2018 Safety Management Innovation Award. (2018). Professional Safety, 63(1), 12.
Leavengood, S., Anderson, T. R., & Daim, T. U. (2014). Exploring linkage of quality management to innovation. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 25(9/10), 1126-1140. doi:10.1080/14783363.2012.738492
Lin, L. (2015). Innovation performance of Taiwanese information firms: an acquisition–learning–innovation framework. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 26(1/2), 29-45. doi:10.1080/14783363.2012.756747
Palm, K., Lilja, J., & Wiklund, H. (2016). The challenge of integrating innovation and quality management practice. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 27(1/2), 34-47. doi:10.1080/14783363.2014.939841
Scarbrough, H., Robertson, M., & Swan, J. (2015). Diffusion in the Face of Failure: The Evolution of a Management Innovation.British Journal Of Management, 26(3), 365-387. doi:10.1111/1467-8551.12093
Thomas, J. L., Cicmil, S., & George, S. (2012). Learning From Project Management Implementation by Applying a Management Innovation Lens. Project Management Journal, 43(6), 70-87. doi:10.1002/pmj.21308
 
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