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MBA Essay作业:Advantages and Disadvantages of the SERVQUAL Model

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-01-12 09:29:02 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是MBA专业的留学生Essay范例,题目是“Advantages and Disadvantages of the SERVQUAL Model(SERVQUAL模型的优缺点)”,本章概述了SERVQUAL模型及其优缺点;其次是构成模型的变量(自变量和因变量);最后以结论结束。

Introduction 介绍

This chapter provides an overview regarding the SERVQUAL model, his advantages and disadvantages; followed by the variables (independent and dependent variables) that constitute the model; and finalizing with a conclusion.

MBAEssay范文 

Knowing the customer(s) is the key to a successful customer service as the idea is to create, deliver and communicate superior value. The service and/or products offer should answer to the needs and demands. Customers are the most important people for any organization. They are the resources upon which the success of the business depends. Understanding customers are necessary not only because of their effect on marketing decisions but because customersactivities influence the entire organization. When thinking about the importance of customers its useful to remember the following points (Christ, 2009):

 

Repeat business is the backbone of selling. It helps to provide revenue and certainty for the business;

 

Organizations are dependent upon their customers. If they do not develop customer loyalty and satisfaction, they could lose their customers;

 

Without customers the organization would not exist;

The purpose of the organization is to fulfill the needs of the customers;

The customer makes it possible to achieve business aims.

Customer demands and preferences of different products and services is a subject of concern for many business areas. For the security service industries it means providing a variety of products and services that customers wants. However, these customerspreferences and choices are not similar from one customer to another. These differences make it hard for the security services companies as for other businesses to meet diverse demands. Thus, the knowledge of customerspreferences and their choices of products and services provided is one of the most significant characteristic for meeting customersexpectations and exceeding their perceptions.

 

Based on the abovementioned nothing would benefit companies more than an accurate and valid measure of service quality that helps them in measuring their performance. Such a measure would help them in evaluating their performance and taking corrective actions wherever required in order achieve their mission (Guar & Agrawal, 2006).

 

Service Quality (SERVQUAL) 服务质量(SERVQUAL)

History

As early as 1985 the authors Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry identified ten components of service quality namely Reliability, Responsiveness, Competence, Access, Courtesy, Communication, Credibility, Security, Understanding/Knowing the customer, and Tangibles. These ten components were later (1988) merged into five dimensions namely Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy and Responsiveness. Of the original ten components only three components remain Reliability, tangible and Responsiveness remained distinct, while the remaining seven components merged into two aggregate dimensions of Assurance and Empathy. SERVQUAL was developed by measuring service quality across service environment (Guar & Agrawal, 2006). Measurement allows for comparison before and after changes, for the location of quality related problems and for the establishment of clear standards for service delivery (Shahin, 2006)

历史

早在1985年,作者ParasuramanZeithamlBerry就确定了服务质量的十个组成部分,即可靠性、响应性、能力、访问性、礼貌性、沟通性、可信度、安全性、理解/了解客户和有形物。这十个要素后来(1988)合并为五个维度,即可靠性、保证性、有形物、移情和响应性。在最初的十个要素中,只有三个要素仍然存在——可靠性、有形性和响应性仍然是不同的,而剩下的七个要素合并为保证和移情这两个总体维度。SERVQUAL是通过测量跨服务环境的服务质量而开发的(Guar & Agrawal, 2006)。测量允许在变更前后进行比较,用于质量相关问题的位置,并为提供服务建立明确的标准(Shahin, 2006)

 

The SERVQUAL model SERVQUAL模型

Service quality is linked to the concept of perceptions and expectations. Customers evaluate service quality by comparing what they expect with how a service provider actually performs. Thus, service quality can be defined as the difference between customersexpectations of service and their perception of actual service performance; formally the degree and direction of discrepancy between customersservice perceptions and expectations. Service quality is a measure of how well the service level delivered matches customer expectations. Delivering quality service means conforming to customersexpectations on a consistent basis. Customersperceptions of service quality result from a comparison of their before-service expectations with their actual-service experience. The service will be considered excellent, if the perception exceed expectations; it will be regarded as good or adequate, if only equals the perceptions; the service will be classed as bad, poor or deficient, if it does not meet them. Based on this the authors developed a scale for measuring service quality, which is mostly popular known as SERVQUAL. This scale operationalizes service quality by calculating the difference between expectations and perceptions, evaluating both in relation to 22 items that represent the 5 service quality dimensions knows as Tangibles, Reliability, Responsiveness, assurance and Empathy (Zeithaml & Parasuraman, 2004).

服务质量与感知和期望的概念有关。客户通过比较他们的期望和服务提供者的实际执行情况来评估服务质量。因此,服务质量可以定义为顾客对服务的期望与他们对实际服务绩效的感知之间的差异;形式上是指顾客对服务的感知和期望之间差异的程度和方向。“服务质量是衡量提供的服务水平如何满足顾客的期望。提供优质服务意味着始终如一地满足顾客的期望。”顾客对服务质量的感知来自于他们服务前的期望与实际服务体验的比较。如顾客对服务的印象超过预期,则会被认为是优质服务;它只要与知觉相等,就会被认为是善的或适足的;如果服务不符合要求,就会被归类为差、差或有缺陷。在此基础上,作者开发了一种度量服务质量的量表,它最流行的名称是SERVQUAL。该量表通过计算期望和感知之间的差异来实现服务质量的运行,并通过22个项目来评估服务质量,这些项目代表了5个服务质量维度,即有形、可靠、响应、保证和移情(zethaml & Parasuraman, 2004)

 

SERVQUAL is the dominant approach to quantitatively assessing service quality. Using a survey approach, SERVQUAL elicits ratings of customers expectations and perceptions on each of the five dimensions described above. Service quality can be also described as closing the gapbetween expectations and perceptions of service. Research has identified four company gapsthat underlie the overall shortfall in customersexpectations/perceptions as developed by Zeithaml, Parasuraman and Berry.

 

In this study of SEVQUAL analysis, 21 questions instead of the original 22 will be used to measure the performance across abovementioned five dimensions, using a five (5) point likert scale measuring both customer expectations and perceptions. After data collection by means of the questionnaires the gap between customer expectations and perceptions will try to be closed.

 

The gaps model positions the key concepts, strategies, and decisions in delivering quality service in a manner that begins with the customer and builds the organizations tasks around what is needed to close the gap (see figure 2-2).

 

The graph illustrates that the central focus (top half) of the gaps model is the customer gap. To close this all-important customer gap, the model suggests that four other gaps-the provider gaps-need to be closed. The numbering of the gaps from 1 to 5 represents the sequence of steps (i.e., market research, design, conformance, communication, and customer satisfaction) that should be followed in new service process design.

 

SERVQUAL Gaps SERVQUAL的差距

Gap 1: Not Knowing What Customers Expect gap 1 is the difference between customer expectations of service and company particularly management, understanding of those expectations. A number of factors have been shown to be responsible for gap 1. First, because marketing research is a key vehicle for understanding consumer expectations and perception of service, the size of gap 1 depends greatly on the amount of marketing research conducted. A second factor is lack of upward communication. Frontline employees often know a great deal about customers but management may not be in contact with frontline employees and may not understand what they know. A third factor is a lack of company strategies to retain customers and strengthen relationships with them. A finally, inadequate attention to service recovery understanding why people complain and what they expect when they complain and how to develop effective strategies for dealing with inevitable service failures.

差距1:不知道客户期望什么-差距1是客户对服务的期望和公司,特别是管理,理解这些期望之间的差异。许多因素已经被证明是造成差距1的原因。首先,因为营销研究是了解消费者期望和服务感知的关键工具,差距1的大小在很大程度上取决于进行的营销研究的数量。第二个因素是缺乏向上沟通。一线员工通常对客户了解很多,但管理层可能不与一线员工接触,可能不了解他们所知道的。第三个因素是公司缺乏留住客户并加强与客户关系的战略。最后,对服务补救的关注不足——理解人们为什么抱怨,他们在抱怨时期望什么,以及如何制定有效的策略来处理不可避免的服务失败。

 

Gap 2: Not Selecting the Right Service Design and Standards a recurring challenge in service companies is the difficulty of translating customersexpectations into service quality specifications. Thus, provider gap 2 reflects the difference between company understanding of customer expectations and development of customer-driven service designs and standards. A number of factors have been shown to be responsible for gap 2. First of all, inadequate commitment to service quality; secondly a perception of unfeasibility, and finally, inadequate task standardization and an absence of goal setting.

 

Gap 3: Not Delivering to Service Standards is the difference between development of customer-driven service standards and actual service performance by company employees. Even when guidelines exist for performing services well and treating customers correctly, high quality service performance is not a certainty. Standard must be backed by appropriate resources (people, systems and technology) and also must be enforced to be effective that is, employees must be measured and compensated on the basis of performance along those standards. Thus, even when standards accurately reflect customersexpectations, if the company fails to provide support for them standards do not good. Factors influencing gap 3 are: poor employee-job fit and poor technology fit, inappropriate supervisory control systems, lack of teamwork and perceived control.

 

Gap 4: Not Matching Performance to Promises advertising, sales force and other communications set the standard against which customers assess a companys service quality. Ensuring that all the companys external messages are aligned with what the company delivers is more difficult in service because what is delivered critically depends on employeesinteractions with customers. This is also a result of inadequate horizontal communication and propensity to over-promise.

 

Gap 5: Not Delivering the Service (perception) as being perceived this is the only gap that can be examined solely on the data from the customer; study of other gaps, while important, would require data collection from companies themselves.

 

Recognition of factors, which influence customers expectations, will help the suppliers applying appropriate procedures to modify customers expectations and to provide customers with the service expected (Rahaman, Abdullah & Rahman, 2011)

 

Zeithaml & Parasuraman mentioned 4 factors in shaping customersexpectations:

 

Word-of Month: the first factor that potentially determine customersexpectations, is the word he or she heard from other costumers;

Personal needs: the second factor that to a certain extent modifies customersexpectations is obtained as a result of a particular situations and requirements;

Prior experience: is the third factor influencing customersexpectations, which indicate the way the customers has experience prior service received;

Advertisement and Personal experience: the fourth factor playing a key role in shaping customersexpectations is called external customers. These communications contain all direct and indirect messages sent from supplying organization to customers.

One of the most important factors which of course belong to suppliers external communication collection is service cost of price. This factor plays a significant role in shaping customers expectations and especially those of organization future customers.

 

Advantages and Disadvantages of SERVQUAL SERVQUAL的优点和缺点

Advantages

In current service literature, there are a number of key instruments available for measuring service quality. Through, the SERVQUAL model has been the major generic model used to measure and manage service quality across different service settings and various cultural backgrounds and is valued by academics and practitioners. Below are some of the main advantages and or reasons to use the SERVQUAL model to measure the level of customer satisfaction with an organization.

优势

在当前的服务文献中,有许多可用于测量服务质量的关键工具。SERVQUAL模型一直是主要的通用模型,用于衡量和管理不同服务设置和不同文化背景下的服务质量,并受到学者和从业人员的重视。下面是使用SERVQUAL模型来衡量客户对组织满意度水平的一些主要优点和原因。

 

It can be used on a regular basis to track customer perceptions of service quality of a particular firm compared to its competitors. Once data have been analyzed they can be visually presented so that it is easy to identify strengths and weaknesses relative to competition.

 

It provides the opportunity for a firm to assess its service quality performance on the basis of each dimension individually as well as the overall dimensions;

 

It allow the firm to classify its customers into different segments based on their individual SERVQUAL scores;

 

SERVQUAL model can be used in various service setting/sectors and provides a basic skeleton that can be adapted to fit the specific attributes of a particular organization. It is applicable across different empirical context and various countries and cultural backgrounds

 

SERVQUAL gap analysis approach seems a logical and straightforward concept and the questionnaire is also pre-described and can be adapted as required;

 

Finally, SERVQUAL is a tried and tested instrument which can be used comparatively for benchmarking purposes. It benefit from being a statistically valid instrument as a result of extensive field testing and refinement (Al Bassam & Al Shawi, 2010).

 

To appreciate more fully all the benefits of using SERVQUAL surveys should be conducted every year, for the following reasons;

 

To allow yearly comparison;

To determine how service improvements have affected customersperceptions and expectations of the service over time and;

To determine the effectiveness of service development and improvement initiatives in targeted dimensions.

Implementing SERVQUAL and measuring customer perception and expectation of service may well result in customer retention, customer loyalty and positive word-of-mouth, increasing opportunity for cross-selling, employee benefits, improved corporate image, profit gains and financial performance. But measuring too often may well result in customers losing their motivation to answer correctly (Shadin, 2006).

 

Disadvantages

However, apart from its wide use, a number of theoretical and operational criticisms of the measurement model have been pointed out.

 

Theoretical

First of all Validity, the validity of the SERVQUAL model as a generic instrument for measuring service quality across different service sector has been raised. And that a simple revision of the SERVQUAL items is not enough for measuring service quality across different service settings;

 

Secondly Gaps Model, there is little evidence that customers access service quality in terms of Perception (P) minus Expectation (E) gaps. This because they found that the dominant contributor to the gap score was the perception score because of a generalized response tendency to rate expectations high ;

 

Process Orientation, SERVQUAL is process oriented it focus on the process of service delivery, not on the outcomes of the service encounter, while process and outcome together is a better predictor of consumers choice than process or outcome alone;

 

In the fourth place Dimensionality, SERVQUAL five dimensions are not universal. Items do not always load on to the factors which one would a priori expect; and there is a high degree of inter correlation between the five dimensions. Meaning that the researcher should have work with the original ten dimensions rather than adopt the revised five;

 MBAEssay怎么写

Finally Model Objections, SERVQUAL is based on an expectation model rather than an attitudinal model besides SERVQUAL fails to draw on establishing economic and psychological theory (fail to draw on the large literature on the psychology of perception).

 

Operational

First of all Expectations, The term expectation is polysemic; consumers use standards other than expectations to evaluate service quality;

 

Secondly Item Composition, SERVQUAL 4 of 5 items cannot capture the variability or the specific context meaning within each service quality dimension, even though authors acknowledge that context specific items can be used to supplement SERVQUAL, but the newitem should be similar in form to the existing SERVQUAL item;

 

In the third place Moment Of Truth (MOT), customers assessment of service quality may vary from MOT to MOT. Services are delivered over several MOT or Encounter between service staff and customers. And evidence shows that customers evaluate service quality by reference to these multiple encounters;

 

Polarity, The reversed polarization (rewording) of items in the scale causes respondent error. Of the 22 items of the SERVQUAL questionnaire, 13 statements pairs are positively worded and nine pairs are negatively worded. The negative are the full set of responsiveness and empathy statements. Item wording creates data quality problems and calls into questions the validity of the instrument

 

Scale Point: the seven -point Likert scale is flawed. The Likert scale has been criticized on several grounds, although none are specific to SERVQUAL, but has an indirect influence. It has been criticized for its lack of verbal labeling for points two to six. This will cause respondents to overuse the extreme ends of the scale;

 

Two administration, two administration of the instrument causes repetitiveness and confusion. Respondents appear to be confused by the two administration of the E and the P versions of the SERVQUAL, which will result in imperil data quality. Besides the timing of the administrations, asking respondents to complete the two questionnaires at the single sitting (Buttle, 2006).

 

SERVQUAL Independent Variables SERVQUAL独立变量

As already indicated in paragraph 2-1 the SERVQUAL model is constructed based on its initial 10 dimensions (Reliability, Responsiveness, Competence, Access, Courtesy, Communication, Credibility, Security, Understanding/Knowing the customer, and Tangibles)

正如在第2-1段中已经指出的,SERVQUAL模型是基于其最初的10个维度(可靠性、响应能力、能力、访问、礼貌、沟通、可信度、安全、了解/了解客户和有形资产)构建的。

 

Reliability: the ability of an organization to accurately achieve in the proper time and according to the promises tit has made to its clients;

Responsiveness: the tendency and willingness of services providers to help clients and satisfy their needs, immediately reply to their inquiries and solve their problems as quickly as possible;

Competence: having adequate skills and knowledge that enable the employees to perform their jobs properly

Accessibility: providing easy access to a service in term of location and through services provided via the telephone, the internet or any other means of communication;

Courtesy: treating clients respectfully in a polite friendly manner, understanding their feelings and answering their phone calls gently;

Communication: this occurs through gentlemanly listening to the client conveying information to them clearly and facilitating external communication with workers;

Credibility: this can be achieved through full trust and confidence in the service provider as well as his honesty and straight forwardness;

Security: this depends on whether the service is free from risks and hazards, defects or doubts so that it provides bodily safety, financial security as well as privacy;

Understanding/knowing the customer: this can be made achievable through the ability to pinpoint the customersneeds as well as understanding their individual problems;

Tangibility: this includes physical aspects connected with service such as instruments and equipment, persons, physical facilities like buildings and nice decoration and other observable service facilities (Mohammad & Alhamadani, 2011).

Later these 10 dimensions were merged into five dimensions namely Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy and Responsiveness (see figure 2-3 below).

Tangibility

Reliabilit

Empathy

Responsiveness

Assurance

 

Tangibles: Appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel, and communication materials. It translate to CSS appearance and conditions of the building interior, (furnitures, equipment) and exterior, uniform of the staff (patrol officers and guards and centralists) companies signs and advertisementsmaterials;

Reliability: Ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately or delivering on its promises. This dimension is critical as all customers want to deal with firms that keep their promises and this is generally implicitly communication to the firmscustomers. For the security industry reliability is interpreted as delivering safety and security immediately as this is required;

Responsiveness: Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service. This dimension is concerned with dealing with the customersrequests, questions and complains promptly and attentively. A firm is consider to be responsive when it communicates to its customers how long it would take to get answers or have their problems dealt with. To be successful companies need to look at responsiveness from the point of view of the customer rather than the companys perspectives;

Assurance: (including competence, courtesy, credibility and security). Knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence (combines original dimensions of competence, courtesy, credibility, and security). Assurance may not be so important relative to other industries where the risk is higher and the outcome of using the service is uncertain (think about for example the medical and healthcare industry);

Empathy: (including access, communication, understanding the customer). Caring, individualized attention the firm provides its customers (Combines original dimensions of access, communication, and understanding the customer). Customers should be treated as they are unique and special. There are several ways that empathy can be provided: knowing the customers name, his preferences and needs. Many small firms use this ability to provide customized services as a competitive advantage over large firms. This dimension is more suitable in industries where building relationships with customers ensures the firms survival. Empathy in security context could mean showing concern in times of service failure and providing service recovery of providing adjustable/suitable (customer specific) services.

And as can be seen in figure 2-4 below, these 5 dimensions influence the quality of service, but also the service delivery process which consequently influence the level of customer satisfaction. These 5 variables are the independent variables, while the quality of service, the service delivery process and the level of customer satisfaction are the dependent ones.

 

SERVQUAL Dependent Variables SERVQUAL因变量

Service Quality

Quality is such an important issue that it is a really significant concept in our real life. Quality comes from the Latin word Qualitaswhich refers to the nature of a person or the nature of an object. It is regarded as a strategic organizational weapon. And the pressing need of developing service organizations and upgrading their services necessitates the measuring of service quality. Service Quality is an approach to manage business in order to ensure full satisfaction of the customers which will help to increase competiveness and effectiveness of the industry. Quality in service is very important especially for the growth and development of service sector business enterprise, resulting into customer satisfaction (Rahaman, Abdullah & Rahman, 2011). With the increase of the importance of service sector in the economy worldwide including Curacao which primary source of income is the service sector, the measurement of service quality becomes more important. Different strategies are formulated to retain the customer and the key of it is to increase the service quality level. Parasuraman and Zeithaml noted that that the key strategy for the success and survival of any business institution is the deliverance of quality services to customers. The quality of service offered will determine customers satisfaction and attitudinal loyalty. Companys competiveness in this post-liberalized era is determined by the way it delivers service. But service quality is a concept that has risen based on the abovementioned considerable interest and debate because of the difficulties in both defining it and measuring it. Firms with high service quality pose a challenge to other firms. Again service quality considered as the difference between customersexpectations of service and perceived service. If expectations are greater than performance, then perceived quality is less than satisfactory and hence customers dissatisfaction occurs (Rahaman, Abdullah & Rahman, 2011).

服务质量

质量是一个非常重要的问题,它在我们的现实生活中是一个非常重要的概念。质量这个词来自拉丁语Qualitas”,指的是一个人或一个物体的性质。它被认为是一种战略组织武器。服务机构发展和服务升级的迫切需要对服务质量进行度量。服务质量是一种管理业务的方法,以确保客户的充分满意,这将有助于提高行业的竞争力和效益。服务质量是非常重要的,特别是对于服务业企业的成长和发展,从而导致客户满意度(Rahaman, Abdullah & Rahman, 2011)。随着服务业在全球经济中重要性的增加,包括库拉索岛,其主要收入来源是服务业,对服务质量的衡量变得越来越重要。为了留住客户,制定了不同的策略,关键是提高服务质量水平。ParasuramanZeithaml指出,任何商业机构成功和生存的关键战略是为客户提供优质服务。所提供的服务质量将决定顾客的满意度和态度忠诚。在这个后自由化时代,公司的竞争力取决于它提供服务的方式。但是,服务质量是一个基于上述相当大的兴趣和争论而产生的概念,因为在定义和衡量它方面都存在困难。高服务质量的公司对其他公司构成了挑战。再一次,服务质量被认为是顾客对服务的期望和感知服务之间的差异。如果期望大于性能,那么感知质量是不满意的,因此客户的不满意发生(Rahaman, Abdullah & Rahman, 2011)

 

Service Delivery Process 服务交付过程

Each and every company who strives to achieve a higher level of customer satisfaction introduces a service delivery process in order to verify if the service is delivered according to those descriptions, this can also be seen on figure 2-4. Thus, any study of the efficiency of service organizations must focus on the role of process design and performance. CSS has also such service delivery procedures and guidelines alarm-opvolgingprocedure. The design and implementation of service delivery processes plays a key role in the overall competitiveness of modern organizations provide clear evidence that process capability and execution are major drivers of performance due to their impact on customer satisfaction and service quality. Traditional efficiency studies measure the performance of a firm by its ability to transform inputs into outputs. However, the actual way in which these inputs are transformed to outputs is often overlooked. That is, each firms operation is conceptualized as a black box: inputs go in and outputs come out; and little analytical attention is paid to the inner workings of the transformation process. Researches argue that the actual design of the transformation process is a critical component in the performance of a firm. The service delivery process should describe how process capabilities and people impact business performance. Their work provides the framework from which we are able to talk about how much inefficiency in process performance is due to the wrong design and how much is due to poor performance. Further the design of the transformation mechanism, or the process design, must be fully studied and integrated into performance analysis in order to provide useful managerial recommendations and achieve a higher level of satisfaction (Frei & Harker, 2008).

每一个努力达到更高客户满意度的公司都引入了一个服务交付过程,以验证服务是否按照这些描述交付,这也可以在图2-4中看到。因此,任何对服务组织效率的研究都必须关注过程设计和性能的作用。CSS也有这样的服务交付程序和指南“警报-请求”程序。服务交付过程的设计和实施在现代组织的整体竞争力中扮演着关键的角色,提供了清晰的证据,过程能力和执行是绩效的主要驱动因素,因为它们对顾客满意度和服务质量的影响。传统的效率研究通过企业将投入转化为产出的能力来衡量企业的绩效。然而,这些投入转化为产出的实际方式常常被忽视。也就是说,每个公司的运作都被概念化为一个黑盒子:输入输入输出输出;而且很少对转换过程的内部工作进行分析。研究认为,转型过程的实际设计是企业绩效的一个关键组成部分。服务交付流程应该描述流程功能和人员如何影响业务性能。他们的工作提供了一个框架,通过这个框架,我们可以讨论流程性能的低效率有多少是由于错误的设计造成的,有多少是由于糟糕的性能造成的。进一步,必须充分研究转型机制的设计,或过程设计,并将其整合到绩效分析中,以便提供有用的管理建议,实现更高水平的满意度(Frei & Harker, 2008)

 

Customer Satisfaction

Satisfaction became a popular topic in marketing during the 1980s and is a debate topic during both business expansions and recessions. Most discussions on customer satisfaction involve customer expectations of the service delivery, actual delivery of the customer experience. But also in this intense competition, the key to sustainable competitive advantages lies in delivering high quality of service that will also turn in customer satisfaction (Mohammad & Alhamadani, 2011). Mixed findings exist regarding the casual direction between service quality and satisfaction. Does customer satisfaction lead to service quality or vise verse. Recent studies have characterized service quality perceptions as an outcome of satisfaction. Customers can evaluate a service (be satisfied or dissatisfied) only after they perceive it. Many authors who studied the relationship between these two variables have shown that service quality determines customer satisfaction (Culiberg & Rojšek, 2010).So can be concluded and what can also be seen in figure 2-4, Service Quality and Service Delivery process both influence the extent of customer satisfaction. Firms that provide superior quality of service have a more satisfied customer base. But also authors report that continuous improvement of service operations in which the actual services experience is assessed (Mohammad & Alhamadani, 2011).

 

Conclusion 结论

Based on the information indicated in this chapter can be concluded that Customer demand and preferences of different products and services is a subject of concern for many business areas including the security service industries. However customerspreferences and choices are not similar from one customer to another. These differences make it hard for the security service industries as for other businesses to meet diverse demands. Thus, the knowledge of customerspreferences and their choices of products and/or services provided by the companies is one of the most significant characteristic for meeting customersdemands. Based on the Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry the SERVQUAL model, customers access service quality along 5 dimensions: Assurance, Empathy, Reliability, Responsiveness and Tangibles. SERVQUAL is the dominant approach to quantitatively assessing service quality, using a survey approach. And based on customers rating (from a scale of 1 to 5) of expectations and perceptions on these 5 dimensions, companies can calculate the extent of satisfaction of the customers with the services provided. Service quality can be also described as closing the gapbetween expectations and perceptions of service This gaps include; Gap 1: Not Knowing What Customers Expect, Gap 2: Not Selecting the Right Service Design and Standards, Gap 3: Not Delivering to Service Standards, Gap 4: Not Matching Performance to Promises, Gap 5: Not delivering the service as being perceived.

根据本章所述的信息可以得出结论,客户对不同产品和服务的需求和偏好是包括保安服务行业在内的许多业务领域所关注的主题。然而,顾客的偏好和选择是不同的。这些差异使得保安服务行业和其他行业一样难以满足多样化的需求。因此,了解客户的偏好以及他们对公司提供的产品和/或服务的选择是满足客户需求的最重要的特征之一。基于ParasuramanZeithaml & BerrySERVQUAL模型,客户通过5个维度获得服务质量:保证、同理心、可靠性、响应性和有形物。SERVQUAL是使用调查方法定量评估服务质量的主要方法。根据顾客对这五个维度的期望和感知的评分(15),公司可以计算出顾客对所提供服务的满意度。服务质量也可以被描述为“缩小服务期望和感知之间的差距”。差距1:不知道客户的期望,差距2:没有选择合适的服务设计和标准,差距3:没有达到服务标准,差距4:没有实现承诺,差距5:没有提供被感知的服务。

 

But all models have their advantages and disadvantages including the SERVQUAL model. Among others SEVQUAL offers the following benefits, it can be used on regular basis, it allow firms to classify its customers into different segments, access companies service quality on basis each dimension individually, it can be used in different service sectors and it provide a basic skeleton in order to be adapted for a particular organization., it can be used for various countries and cultural backgrounds, its a logical and straightforward concept and the questionnaire is pre-described but also its a tested instrument which can be used for benchmarking purposes

 

Some criticisms have also been send in the direction of the model which are divided in theoretical and operational ones.

 

Furthermore can be concluded that the SERVQUAL model consist of dependent and independent variable. SERVQUAL independent variables are Tangibility, Assurance, Empathy, Reliability and Responsiveness. These 5 dimensions influence the quality of service, but also the service delivery process which consequently influence the level of customer satisfaction. These 5 variables are the independent variables, while the quality of service, the service delivery process and the level of customer satisfaction are the dependent ones and are influences by the level/extent of these 5 dimensions related to the organization.

进一步可以得出结论,SERVQUAL模型由因变量和自变量组成。SERVQUAL的独立变量是有形性、保证性、同理心、可靠性和响应性。这五个维度不仅影响服务质量,也影响服务交付过程,从而影响顾客满意度的水平。这5个变量是自变量,而服务质量、服务提供过程和顾客满意度水平是因变量,受这5个维度对组织的影响程度。

 

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