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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY范文-怎么写RESEARCH METHODOLOGY?

时间:2012-03-31 11:54来源:RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 作者:RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 点击:
WHAT IS RESEARCH?提供RESEARCH METHODOLOGY范文-告诉您怎么写RESEARCH METHODOLOGY?In this manuscript various components of research are listed and briefly discussed. The topicsconsidered in this write-up cover a part of the research methodolo

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
S. Rajasekar
School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli – 620 024, Tamilnadu, India
P. Philominathan
Department of Physics, Sri AVVM Pushpam College,
Poondi, Thanjavur – 613 503, Tamilnadu, India
V. Chinnathambi
Department of Physics, AKGS Arts College, Srivaikundam – 628 619, Tamilnadu, India
In this manuscript various components of research are listed and briefly discussed. The topicsconsidered in this write-up cover a part of the research methodology paper of Master of Philosophy(M.Phil.) course and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) course. The manuscript is intended for studentsand research scholars of science subjects such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, statistics, biologyand computer science. Various stages of research are discussed in detail. Special care has been takento motivate the young researchers to take up challenging problems. Ten assignment works are given.For the benefit of young researchers a short interview with three eminent scientists is included atthe end of the manuscript.
I. WHAT IS RESEARCH?
Research is a logical and systematic search for newand useful information on a particular topic. It is aninvestigation of finding solutions to scientific and socialproblems through objective and systematic analysis. Itis a search for knowledge, that is, a discovery of hiddentruths. Here knowledge means information about matters.
The information might be collected from differentsources like experience, human beings, books, journals,nature, etc. A research can lead to new contributions to
the existing knowledge. Only through research is it possibleto make progress in a field. Research is done with the
help of study, experiment, observation, analysis, comparisonand reasoning. Research is in fact ubiquitous. Forexample, we know that cigarette smoking is injurious to
health; heroine is addictive; cow dung is a useful sourceof biogas; malaria is due to the virus protozoan plasmodium;
AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) isdue to the virus HIV (Human Immuno deficiency Virus).How did we know all these? We became aware of allthese information only through research. More precisely,it seeks predictions of events and explanations, relationshipsand theories for them.
A. What are the Objectives of
Research?
The prime objectives of research are
(1) to discover new facts
(2) to verify and test important facts
Electronic address: rajasekar@physics.bdu.ac.in
(3) to analyse an event or process or phenomenon to
identify the cause and effect relationship
(4) to develop new scientific tools, concepts and theories
to solve and understand scientific and nonscientific
problems
(5) to find solutions to scientific, nonscientific and social
problems and
(6) to overcome or solve the problems occurring in our
every day life.
B. What Makes People do Research?
This is a fundamentally important question. No person
would like to do research unless there are some motivating
factors. Some of the motivations are the following:
(1) to get a research degree (Doctor of Philosophy
(Ph.D.)) along with its benefits like better employment,
promotion, increment in salary, etc.
(2) to get a research degree and then to get a teaching
position in a college or university or become a
scientist in a research institution
(3) to get a research position in countries like U.S.A.,
Canada, Germany, England, Japan, Australia, etc.
and settle there
(4) to solve the unsolved and challenging problems
(5) to get joy of doing some creative work
(6) to acquire respectability
(7) to get recognition
(8) curiosity to find out the unknown facts of an event
2
(9) curiosity to find new things
(10) to serve the society by solving social problems.
Some students undertake research without any aim possibly
because of not being able to think of anything else
to do. Such students can also become good researchers
by motivating themselves toward a respectable goal.
In the words of Prof.P.Balaram [Current Science,
87(2004)1319] Ph.D. degree is a passport to a research career.
The Ph.D. period often influence a research scholar
to make or to break in a scientific career.
C. Importance of Research
Research is important both in scientific and nonscientific
fields. In our life new problems, events, phenomena
and processes occur every day. Practically implementable
solutions and suggestions are required for tackling
new problems that arise. Scientists have to undertake
research on them and find their causes, solutions,
explanations and applications. Precisely, research assists
us to understand nature and natural phenomena.
Some important avenues for research are:
(1) A research problem refers to a difficulty which a researcher
or a scientific community or an industry or
a government organization or a society experiences.
It may be a theoretical or a practical situation. It
calls for a thorough understanding and possible solution.
(2) Research on existing theories and concepts help us
identify the range and applications of them.
(3) It is the fountain of knowledge and provide guidelines
for solving problems.
(4) Research provides basis for many government policies.
For example, research on the needs and desires
of the people and on the availability of revenues to
meet the needs helps a government to prepare a
budget.
(5) It is important in industry and business for higher
gain and productivity and to improve the quality
of products.
(6) Mathematical and logical research on business and
industry optimizes the problems in them.
(7) It leads to the identification and characterization
of new materials, new living things, new stars, etc.
(8) Only through research can inventions be made; for
example, new and novel phenomena and processes
such as superconductivity and cloning have been
discovered only through research.
(9) Social research helps find answers to social problems.
They explain social phenomena and seek solution
to social problems.
(10) Research leads to a new style of life and makes it
delightful and glorious .
Emphasizing the importance of research Louis Pasteur
said “I beseech you to take interest in these sacred domains
called laboratories. Ask that there be more and
that they be adorned for these are the temples of the
future, wealth and well-being. It is here that humanity
will learn to read progress and individual harmony
in the works of nature, while humanity’s own works are
all too often those of babarism, fanaticism and destruction.”
(Louis Paster – article by S.Mahanti, Dream 2047,
p.29–34 (May 2003)).
In order to know what it means to do research one may
read scientific autobiographies like Richard Feynmann’s
“Surely you are joking, Mr.Feynmann!”, Jim Watson’s
“The double helix”, “Science as a way of life – A biography
of C.N.R. Rao” by Mohan Sundararajan, etc.
II. RESEARCH METHODS AND RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
Is there any difference between research methods and
research methodology?
Research methods are the various procedures,
schemes, algorithms, etc. used in research. All the
methods used by a researcher during a research study
are termed as research methods. They are essentially
planned, scientific and value-neutral. They include
theoretical procedures, experimental studies, numerical
schemes, statistical approaches, etc. Research methods
help us collect samples, data and find a solution to a
problem. Particularly, scientific research methods call
for explanations based on collected facts, measurements
and observations and not on reasoning alone. They accept
only those explanations which can be verified by
experiments.
Research methodology is a systematic way to solve
a problem. It is a science of studying how research is
to be carried out. Essentially, the procedures by which
researchers go about their work of describing, explaining
and predicting phenomena are called research methodology.
It is also defined as the study of methods by which
knowledge is gained. Its aim is to give the work plan of
research.
A. Importance of Research Methodology
3
in Research Study
It is necessary for a researcher to design a methodology
for the problem chosen. One should note that even
if the method considered in two problems are same the
methodology may be different. It is important for the researcher
to know not only the researchmethods necessary
for the research under taken but also the methodology.
For example, a researcher not only needs to know how to
calculate mean, variance and distribution function for a
set of data, how to find a solution of a physical system
described by mathematical model, how to determine the
roots of algebraic equations and how to apply a particular
method but also need to know (i) which is a suitable
method for the chosen problem?, (ii) what is the order
of accuracy of the result of a method?, (iii) what is the
efficiency of the method? and so on. Consideration of
these aspects constitute a research methodology.
To understand the difference between research methods
and methodology let us consider the problem of finding
the roots of the quadratic equation



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