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如何杜绝中式英语

论文价格: 免费 时间:2014-05-26 09:06:01 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
摘 要:中式英语是中国的英语学习者在特有的环境下形成的一种畸形的语言现象,也可以称为具有汉语特色的英语。它的产生有一定的必然性,也给广大的中国人学习英语造成诸多不便。它是中国人在学习英语、使用英语时的必经阶段,有自身的内在性和规律。本文试图通过对中式英语形成的原因,包括母语影响、思维定势、对原文的误解等原因作出浅显的分析,同时提出一些可行的回避策略和方法,包括了解差异、改变思维方式、创建语言环境等,供学习者参考及借鉴。在这篇论文中将着重介绍英语学习中汉语式英语产生的原因,并提出一些避免汉语式英语的建议。当汉语式英语得到有效避免的时候,不但英语写作水平会随之提升,而且英语教学和英语学习的质量和效率都会得到提高。

Abstract: Chinglish is a kind of deformed language phenomenon formed by the Chinese English learners in the unique environment, and it can also be known as the English with Chinese characteristics. Its emergence must have certain inevitability and it has caused a lot of inconvenience to the English learning of the majority of Chinese people. It is an essential phase for Chinese people to learn  and use English, and it has its own internality and law. This paper tries to make a simple analysis of the reasons for Chinglish, including the influences of mother language, thinking set and the misunderstanding of the original text and other reasons, and at the meantime, put forward some feasible avoidance strategies and methods for learners to refer to and draw lessons from, including understanding the differences, changing the way of thinking and creating a language environment and so on. In this paper, it will focus on introducing the reasons for the Chinglish of English learners and putting forward some suggestions to avoid Chinglish. When Chinglish is effectively avoided, not only the English writing level will be improved accordingly, but the quality and efficiency of English teaching and English learning will both be improved.
 
关键词:中式英语,原因,对策, 文化, 母语,
Key words: Chinglish, reasons, countermeasure, culture, mother language,
   
Outline
 
Introduction
1    What is Chinglish
 
1. 1 Definitions of Chinglish
 
1. 2 History of Chinglish
 
1. 3 Status in quo of Chinglish
 
1. 4 Chinglish and China English
 
2  Forms of Chinglish
 
2. 1 Pronunciation
 
2. 2 Vocabulary
2.2.1 Chinglish names
 
2.2.2 Lexical deficiency
 
2. 3 Overextension of analogy
 
2. 4 Grammar
3      Reasons for Chinglish
 
3.1.1 Way of thinking
 
3.1.2 Word usage
 
3.1.3 Different culture
 
3. 2 Mother language interference
 
3.2.1 Language transfer
 
3.2.2 Language comparison
 
3. 3 Impersonal causes
 
4.      Countermeasures for Chinglish
 
4. 1 Substitution
 
4. 2 Subject
 
4. 3 Subordination
 
Conclusion
 
Notes
 
Bibliography
  
Analysis of how to root out Chinglish
  
Introduction

 As society develops, English has become a necessary tool in today’s competitive world. Therefore, more and more people are engaged in English learning. However, with an impressive command of English vocabulary and good mastery of grammar as well as phonetics, which, to some extent, are even beyond the native speakers’ capacity, they are confronted with quite a few problems when they are talking with native speakers or writing in English. They usually make the foreigners confused by their speech or writing. No matter how they rephrase or paraphrase, the native speakers’ action will remain the same—they either shrug or shake their heads. Finally both of them have to end embarrassingly. What had happened to the Chinese speakers? Why the language they use sounds alien to the foreigners? To retrace the cause, I find that most of the Chinese learners’ mistakes are not made due to their lack of grammar or vocabulary knowledge but a “new” language they use—Chinglish, an excrescence of Standard English. Chinglish refers to the irregular language form created by English language learners in China due to the influence of mother tongue and culture [1]. We can sense that Chinglish is everywhere, and has an absolute negative influence on cross-cultural communication. What’s worse, Chinglish will never disappear by itself. Chinglish, a hybrid English form with Chinese characteristics, deteriorates translation in its accuracy and expressiveness. As an interlanguage and with its own features, Chinglish is objective and unavoidable for Chinese learners of English in certain period [2]. By contrastive analysis, we can conclude that thought pattern discrepancies and mother tongue interference are the basic reasons of Chinglish, and we can see the forms of Chinglish clearly. Since Chinglish seriously affects the translation quality, we must reduce or avoid it as much as possible. Therefore, both teachers and students should be well aware of this irregular language and try hard to correct it as much as possible so that they can speak and write in an English way. In order to make the English learners become more efficient in conveying their points of view both in speech and writing without being affected by Chinglish, I write this thesis tries to probe into its cause, mistakes of various levels and finally, I will come up with some possible suggestions.
  
1  What is Chinglish
 
Chinglish is a common phenomenon that exists in Chinese-English translation. The major cause of Chinglish is the differences between the Chinese and English languages. Though English is being popularized in China, not many people are really proficient in it, and that is why Chinglish becomes a serious problem that hampers intercultural communication.
 
1. 1 Definitions of Chinglish
 
Chinglish is a portmanteau of the words Chinese and English and refers to spoken or written English which is influenced by Chinese. There are an estimated 300 to 500 million learners in china. Somebody explained that Chinglish refers to the irregular language form created by English language learners in China due to the influence of mother tongue and culture. It has the character of China and also is called Malformation of English.[3] This is a kind of prevalent phenomenon appeared in English learning. Although it is temporary, it also is inevitable. With English becoming more and more popular in China, more and more linguistic expressions arise. In the early of mid-20th century, Chinglish is known as “pidgin” English.
 
1. 2 History of Chinglish
 
    English first arrived in China in the 1630s, when British traders arrived in South China. Chinese Pidgin English was spoken first in the areas of Macao and Guangzhou, later spreading north to Shanghai by the 1830s.[4] "Yangjing Bang English" in Chinese derives from the name of a former creek in Shanghai near the Bund where local workers communicated with English-speaking foreigners in pidgin.
 
Chinese Pidgin English began to decline in the late 19th century as standard English began to be taught in the country's education system. English language teaching has been widespread throughout modern Chinese history, it was became the country's main foreign language in 1982.[5]
 
1. 3 Status in quo of Chinglish
 
 I believed every Chinese have not forgotten the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games in Beijing, in preparation for the 2008 Olympics, the city authorities clamped down on the usage of Chinglish and replaced it with Standard English. But in fact not everyone can speak Standard English, some people say Chinglish let foreigner can not understand very well all the same. This is the first time we communicate with foreigner without distance, at the same time; it makes opportunity for checking our English. However, we can see Chinglish in every place, for example, in public place, hotel, travel industry sites, museum and so on. We can also say where there is road, where there is Chnglish.
 
In the Beijing International Airport, we can see a sign in emergency export “No entry on peacetime”. We translate it into Chinese, that is “和平时期不能入内”。In fact it means that we can not enter it usually.
 
Peacetime and usual time are two different concept, if we meet some stubborn foreigner, they will think that means they can enter there when war occurred. What is more, the striking sign in a bookshop in Beijing “welcome again’’ That is to say you can get an opportunity to welcome, but now we give you another opportunity to welcome you again. But in fact, they want to say that you are welcome to come back again. When we walk in the street, we can see so many signs at which we don’t know whether we should laugh or cry. For example,“欢迎你到” Chinese say “welcome you to …..”, but foreigner say “welcome to….” “.非常喜欢”,we say “very like…”, but foreigner say “like…….very much”. “永远记住你”,we say “remember you forever”, but foreigner say “always remember you”. Because no one can live forever.“车门”, we say “the door of the car”, but the foreigner say “the car’s door”. Like these examples we can see many in our life.[6]#p#分页标题#e#
 
But it is a shame that we can see Chinglish in our life all the same. Chinglish is very common in Chinese students’ English learning, English writing, and translation and so on. Because the Chinese students are so familiar with their study habit of writing in Chinese practice that they often put it into practice in English writing. This is a big obstacle for Chinese students to learn English well. When Chinese students who lack in a real English environment learn English, they easily tend to ignore the differences between the two languages.
We see an example, some students write a sentence, “Under the help of his teacher, he made great progress”. Most Chinese think that is right, very smooth. However, we should say it like this “With the help of his teacher, he made great progress”. This is according with English expression. As another example, when something is explained, the English learner may respond with “Oh, I know”, while the appropriate response would be “Oh, I see”. This is because “知道 zhidao” is usually translated as “know” regardless of context.
 
1. 4 Chinglish and China English
 
China English is a kind of acceptable English, but it has the character of Chinese culture and in consistence with international English. We know China English is not a kind of transition English while we begin to learn English. It is stabile about its theory and syntax. When the culture of the society is developing, China English is developing also. People begin to accept these developing China English in order to serve for communicating with foreigner. China English is a kind of Chinese flavored English, always used for expressing the Chinese special things, such as Open-door policy, Socialism with Chinese characteristics, Market-oriented economy and so on.[7]
However, Chinglish, that is Chinese English, is a derogatory term. It is not accord with English usage.
There is difference between China English and Chinglish whereas there is similar point between them. They both express the Chinese special things, have Chinese character. But China English have been accepted by people, it becomes wider in using and formation than Chinglish. It is helpful for Chinese culture to enter foreign countries.
  
2  Forms of Chinglish
 
 Since the 1990s, some nondescript English words appeared in china, which may be considered as Chinglish. For example, ML (make love), PK (player kill), WC (water closet). What is more, we can see Chinglish in terms of pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and overextension of analogy.
 
2. 1 Pronunciation
 
Some words are often exchanged or mixed for the same words. This is because the two words have the same pronunciation, such as "temple" and "temper". Sometimes, an English word pronunciation was not correct and it may become Chinglish, for example, English name, such as Allen, Ellen, Aileen, and Shirley, Shelly, Cherry.[8]
 
2. 2 Vocabulary
Vocabulary is the base of language learning. At the same time, Chinglish appeared Due to most people have not varies of English expressions and idioms, a lot of Chinglish appeared in English study. It is difficult to understand for foreigner.
2.2.1 Chinglish names
 
Some Chinese pick non-traditional English names. Such names may be derived from vocabulary they learned in their early English lessons, including names such as Apple, Space, Can, Sea, Moon cake, Magic, Koala, Spider, Thunder, Cloudy, Airy, Rainbow, Table, Bird, Eleven, Hive, Ice, Puppy, Well and other names of animals, plants, weather phenomena, household appliances, and days of the week or months. They might choose products they like as their name, such as Cola or Nautical, or other more advanced words that may be picked for their sound or meaning such as Victory, Nation or even Cemetery and Satan. Often names have a wrong spelling such as Windy as opposed to Wendy and Sherry instead of Cherry.
 
2.2.2 Lexical deficiency
 
    It seems easy to find out that Chinglish often appears in the form of lexical redundancy, which arises when students fail to understand the exact meaning and usage of an English word. [9]Such as:
(1) 书桌(课桌)
 
  Chinglish: a book desk (a writing desk)
 
  Correct: a desk
 
(2) 舞会
 
  Chinglish: a dance party
 
  Correct: a dance
 
  Misunderstanding meaning and usage of a word brings about a kind of unbearable Chinglish. Take a look at the following sentences:
 
(1)我每天都用英语写日记。
 
Chinglish: I write a diary in English everyday.
Correct: I keep a diary in English everyday. 
(2)大雨过后,河流上涨。
 
Chinglish: The river rose after big rains.
 
Correct: The river rose after heavy rains.
(3)这个城市人口很多
 
Chinglish: The population of city is very many.
 
Correct: The population of city is very large.
 
2. 3 Overextension of analogy
 
When one of the sound, spelling, meaning, syntax of English as same as mother language, learner always make mistakes. For example, xiang想,this word often made us confused. Because “xiang” has a lot of specific meaning, such as, “思考,打算,梦想……”Some people think it simply and overextend the meaning of the word. Then say “I think to be an understanding musician.” In fact, we should translate it like this “I want to be an understanding musician.”
 
2. 4 Grammar
Chinglish also was caused by the grammar. Examples include:
 
 (1) using "me is" instead of "I am" (such as "Me is Jack")
 (2) using awkward gerunds (such as "No Noising")
(3) excessive use of "the" when not needed (such as "The China is bigger than the France", "The France is bigger than the Switzerland")
(4) excessive use of "to", the use of "to" with modals, preserving "to" in infinitive f orm even when unnecessary (e.g. "I must to go")
 (5) confusion of -ed and -ing adjectives (e.g. "I am very boring" vs. "I am very bored"; "I was surprising" vs. "I was surprised")
    The above examples reflect the influence of Chinese syntax and grammar; in Chinese, verbs are not conjugated (either for tense or pronoun), and there is no equivalent word for "the." So we should pay more attention to the difference between Chinese and English.
 
3    Reasons for Chinglish
 
In order to know Chinglish better, we should investigate the reasons for Chinglish. We know Chinglish is harmful to our English learning, so realize that reasons for Chinglish are helpful.
 
3. 1 Foreign culture
Because people can not know the background of foreign culture very well when they
use English, they often use it according to Chinese usage. That is always Chinglish.
 
Language is close to culture. Language is a part of culture, and plays a vital role in culture. So some socialists think that language is keystone of culture. No language, no culture. From another side, language is affected by culture and reflectes culture. Broadly speaking, language is the symbol of nation, not only containing the history background of a nation, but also manifesting the nation’s outlook on life, way of thinking and way of life
Foreign language learning requires us not only a mastering of sound, vocabulary, grammar, but also knowledge of social culture, way of thinking, way of life and so on. We should acquire “the language of their mind”. If not, chinglish were produced.
 
3.1.1 Way of thinking
 
 The difference between English and Chinese thinking is the basic reason for Chinglish. Language and thinking are the key factor for people communication. There is close connection between them. Language is the carrier of thinking, it reflects the way of human thinking, psychological characteristics and national culture. Thinking is the soul of language, leading and controlling the use of language.
 
Chinese incline to pursue literary talent and use many flowery words. However, English tend to use simple sentence to express their thinking. They always think that there are redundant words in sentence, not repeated lines in picture, not redundant accessory in machine. For example, we need translate a Chinese sentence, “为了推动中英关系的发展,中国需要进一步了解英国,英国也需要进一步了解中国.” We can translate like these.
 
A: To promote the development of Sino-U.K relations, China needs to know the U.K also needs to know China better.
 
B: To promote Sino-U.K relations, China needs to know the U.K better and vice versa.
 
At sight the two sentences, we know A may be OK from Chinese and English grammar, but this complex sentence was affected by Chinese thinking. Let us look at B, you will find B can contain the Chinese meaning and delete the redundant words making the sentence according with English usage. Another example, when we depict scenery, Chinese will use many modifiers, but English student will use few modifiers. If a Chinese sentence is given, “两岸树木葱茏,鲜花繁茂,芳草萋萋”…… Let us look at the sentence.
 
Trees, flowers and grass, a picture of natural vitality, thrive on both banks.#p#分页标题#e#
 
We will find this sentence is very simple, but can convey the Chinese meaning. Although these modifiers make the sentence very wonderful, if we translate it straight, it will appear Chinglish.
3.1.2 Word usage
 
 Chinese pay more attention to artistic conception, but English take important information. We can see it from the relationship between sentences and sentences. English like using many conjunctions to connect two sentences, but Chinese students using few. In addition, English students usually use many subordinate clause, absolute construction, prepositional phrase, gerund and so on in order to show the subordinate construction. Nevertheless, Chinese student always use coordinate construction and only have few kinds of ways to express.[10] For example, 陕西是中华民族文明的发源地之一,陕西是中国五千年文明的缩影,陕西是所有炎黄子孙的根基. We can translate like these:
 
A: Shanxi is one of the birthplaces of the civilization of the Chinese nation; Shanxi is the miniature of the 5000 years civilization of china; Shanxi is also the root of all people of Chinese descent.
 
B: Shanxi is one of the birthplaces of the civilization of the Chinese nation, the miniature of the 5000 years civilization of china and is also the root of all Chinese descendents.
 
In sentence A three parallel structures and no relative words are used, Chinese student are accustomed to the sentence, but English student can not accept. They will translate the sentence like B.
 It is well known that Chinese thinking is according with the time sequence, the logic sequence. We always record things from first to last, from cause to result, from hypothesis to inference, but English keep the contrast thinking. For example, a Chinese sentence like this:我原先打算七月一号去香港旅行,后来不得不取消,这使我很扫兴。A Chinese student would translate it following the Chinese sequence. “I wanted to go to Hong Kong on July 1st at first; however, I had to cancel making me disappointment”. But we know English student will do it like this: It was keen disappointment that I had to cancel the visit I had intended to pay to Hong Kong on July 1st. It is obvious that English do it better and accord with the English usage.
The difference of thinking process is the direct cause of Chinglish. When we listen to or look at English, the brain will understand the meaning without using the other language; when we want to express our idea, the brain will have the meaning at first, then we can express it using our mouth or our pen, the premise is we can not make use of the other language.
To Chinese, when we hear or see a English word, there are two thinking ways through our brain, the first is straight thinking (English thinking), the process is English words, meaning, understanding; the other is the way of understanding following the Chinese translation (Chinese thinking), the process is English words, Chinese words, meaning, understanding. It is easy to see that Chinese thinking is more complex than English thinking; meantime, Chinese thinking is the key cause of Chinglish.
3.1.3 Different culture
 
English and Chinese reflect their own culture. If we lack the knowledge of the English culture, we will laugh at by many foreigners.
 
We always make mistake for lack the knowledge in English daily life. For example, when we meet our foreign teacher, we will ask him: Have you had your meal? Where are you going? How old are you? These question may because the misunderstanding by our foreign teacher, because inviting somebody to eat or asking their years old are the secret for foreign. If you ask like these, you will be thought you are impolite. Sometime we will make mistake like this:
 
A: Your English is excellent. Really quite fluent.
 
B: No, no. My English is very poor.
 
This answer look nature in Chinese opinion, but English will think you are too humble. The right answer is Thank you.
 
If we lack of the knowledge of English tradition culture, we will misunderstand idiom and analogy that used in English. For example, we always see these phrases appeared in our writing: as timid as a mouse. This is mistake. We should translate like these: chicken hearted or as timid as a hare. Another example, in China, if you want to say that people like drinking, or 牛饮,we always translate it to drink like an ox.[11] In fact, drink like a fish is right. Because England is islands country, fishing and navigation are very flourish, many words and expressions are connect with water, fish. But in China, people live by agriculture and many words have relationship with agriculture.
 
In English, many words have origin from history culture, some from the Bible, some from Greek myths and legends, most of them from literary works; such as Odyssey, Quixotic, and Frankenstein and so on. We can see this example; the Time magazine had depicted the thing that Nixon has been to China. They say Nixon’s Odyssey to China. Many Chinese may be misunderstanding. But Odyssey is originate from Homer's epic, described Odysseus have a long and difficult journey after Troy was occupied by others. American wants to in this trope to express the friendly relationship between America and China after a long process. If we do not know of the history background of Odyssey, we can not understand its meaning very well. So learning a kind of language is equal to studying a kind of new culture.
 
3. 2 Mother language interference
 
Although there are many factors that will cause Chinglish, from the forms of Chinglish above, we can see that linguistic interference is the main cause of Chinglish. And linguistic interference is mainly the negative influence of the mother tongue.
 
3.2.1 Language transfer
 
Language transfer refers to speakers or writers applying knowledge from their native language to a second language. It is most commonly discussed in the context of English language learning and teaching, but it can occur in any situation when someone does not have a native-level command of a language, as when translating into a second language. It contains positive transfer and negative transfer.
When the relevant unit or structure of both languages is the same, linguistic interference can result in correct language production called positive transfer — "correct" meaning in line with most native speakers' notions of acceptability. An example is the use of cognates. Note, however, that language interference is most often discussed as a source of errors known as negative transfer. Negative transfer occurs when speakers and writers transfer items and structures that are not the same in both languages. Within the theory of contrastive analysis (the systematic study of a pair of languages with a view to identifying their structural differences and similarities), the greater the differences between the two languages, the more negative transfer can be expected. Chinese and English have many differences, so Chinglish always appeared in the process of English learning.[12]
 
Let us see two sentences.
A: We must practice economy and reduce unnecessary expenditures.
 
B: We must strive at the station on time and not be late.
 
The two sentences not only contain positive form but also contain negative form. The behind of the sentence have the same meaning with the first part. But if we translate it to English we only choose one. The first sentence we should translate like this: We must practice economy.
3.2.2 Language comparison
 
 English language belongs to the Germanic languages branch of the Indo-European language family. We realize the relationship of grammar by morphological changes. Chinese belongs to Sino-Tibet language family and its grammar take important role in words and sequence. In English learning, we always like to compare English with the mother language.
Some English words can translate the similar meaning but they are suit for different situation or they must connect with other words. We always make mistakes when we are using English words according with the Chinese meaning. For example:
 
A: I want to ask you a problem.
 
B: I want to ask you a question.
 
 ‘Problem’ and ‘question’ have the same Chinese meaning ‘问题’, but they have different implication. The first word inclined to do something when you meet difficulty. We can use the second word in more usual situation than the first word. In English vocabulary, we can find many such cases as same as the two words.
 
In Chinese, we distinguish a sentence from the meaning. However, in English, grammar is very important. I can call it a sentence if it has subject, verbs and object. In this way, we can see many students using the comma from the beginning to the last of writing. For example:
 
A: Zhang Ping is 20, he has a round face and big eyes, he is short and plumb, there is always a smile on his face.
 
B: Zhang Ping is 20. He has a round face and big eyes. He is short and plumb. There is always a smile on his face.
 
 When we see the first sentence, most of student will agree with it. But when we see the second sentence we will realize our mistake. This is a usual problem in our writing. So when we are writing English, we should pay more attention to punctuation.
3. 3 Impersonal causes
 
 Besides these subjective causes for Chinglish, we must know of the impersonal causes.
The impersonal causes include environment, purpose of learning, English teaching and so on.
Because of the open policy, we found English become more and more important in business and political fields. In College Entrance Examination and postgraduate examinations, English is the compulsory subjects. We not only learn English in middle school, but also in primary school from 2001. In order to learn English well, many students go to crash course. So the materials comply with the crash course always have not good quality.#p#分页标题#e#
We have not placed enough emphasis on basic English teaching. Due to the absence of the voice examination in middle school and college entrance examination, teacher always ignore the sound learning. Many countryside teachers can not pass the spoken English test. When some students learn from these teachers, we can imagine the result of learning.

4.  Countermeasures for Chinglish
 
Now that the main cause of Chinglish is linguistic interference, we should avoid this interference. If we think like the native people, then the interference will not exist. So, the most important way is cultivating the habit of English thinking. As a Chinese person, Chinese thinking habit could never be removed. But we can compare the two languages and notice the difference to cultivate this habit. In the comparison between native and foreign language lies the key to ease or difficulty in foreign language learning. We can predict and describe the patterns that will cause difficulty in learning by comparing systematically the native language and the target one. Many people think that the greatest difficulties in the second language learning are neither apparent similarities nor apparent differences, but subtle distinctions. To avoid Chinglish, Chinese students of learning English must be aware that English is, for the most part, logically compact in its structure. English verbs and nouns seldom repeat themselves in the same sentence. That's why conjunctions, pronouns and other substitution or introductory words are more frequently used in English than in Chinese. Anyway, we should pay more attention to substitution, subject and subordination.[13]
 
4. 1 Substitution
 
 There is a major difference between English and Chinese language, that is,English does not like to repeat. If a few words of the sentence are necessary to repeat, we always use the substitution instead of repetition. In China, people use substitution all the same, but when we translate English to Chinese we should avoid using substitution instead of using notional words. [14]For example, we have a Chinese sentence.
 
A: 哈佛是最早接受中国留学生的美国大学之一。中国教育界.科学界.文化界一直同哈佛大学保持着学术交流。
 
B: Harvard is among the first American universities to accept Chinese students. The Chinese educational, scientific and culture communities have all along maintained academic exchanges with this university.
 
 In Chinese sentence we can see ‘Harvard’ two times, but in English sentence we only see ‘Harvard’ one time, in second time we use the substitution ‘this university’. In this way, we not only avoid duplication and but also show the links between the two sentence.
4. 2 Subject
 
 In general, the relationship between subject and predicates in English is closer than in Chinese. For example,
 
鲁镇的酒店的格局,是和别处不同的:都是当街一个曲尺形的大柜台,柜里面预备着热水,可以随时温酒。
 
A: The layout of Luzhen’s taverns is unique. In each, facing you as you enter, is a bar in the shape of a carpenter’s square where hot water is kept ready for warming wine.
 
B: The wine shops in Luzhen are not like those in other parts of China. They all have a right-angled counter facing the street, where hot water is kept ready for warming wine.
 The subject of A is ‘layout’ is according with the Chinese sentence. But this is the beginning of story; the word ‘layout’ makes people feel strange. In English sentence, people don’t like change subject in paragraph.
4. 3 Subordination
 
    Substantial use of English attributive clause, participle phrases, prepositional phrases, etc. is frequently seen. But Chinese have not so many means of expression. In English sentences, there are many relative pronouns or subordinating conjunctions that serve to subordinate clause constituent; while Chinese translation often consists of verb clauses, of which the dependent or subordinate relationship with connectives is not obvious.
  
Conclusion
 
Recent years, English foreign learning is very popular in China. And English, as an international language has become an indispensable tool for Chinese people to communicate with the world. With the reform and opening-up policy of China and economic globalization, Chinese people are communicating with other countries more frequently. English that has developed as a worldwide language has become our main tool to fulfill international communication. However, a phenomenon exists commonly in Chinese- English translation, that is, Chinglish.
 In light of the social culture setting that arises from the language and its society function, Chinglish is phenomenon of a kind of language, a kind of Standard English aberrant, also be language contact and the child with shirt-sleeve language. So cannot entirely is negative phenomenon of this one language, the abnormal English that thinks it is disagreement standard and habit of disagreement English culture. People try to repel Chinglish in process of foreign language education. The manner of correct science should be mix from the contributing factor that studies phenomenon of this kind of language and the different type in actual intercourse process. In process of education of foreign language, English learners should hasten benefit avoids kill, effectively control the proportion that Chinglish holds in classroom education. Then they become adverse to be advantageous, change Negative Transfer to Positive transfer, achieve the active classroom atmosphere, and aim at improving education quality thereby.
 
Notes
 
[1] 庄译传.也谈中式英语[J].中国翻译,2000,(6):7.
 
[2] Nida, Eugene A and Taber Charles, The Theory and Practice of Translation (Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press,2002),15.
 
[3] Kachru Yamuna and Nelson Cecil L, World Englishes in Asian Contexts (Hong Kong University
 
Press, 2006), 19.
 
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