代写 TAG标签
网站地图
英国essay 澳洲essay美国essay 加拿大essay MBA Essay Essay格式范文
返回首页

机会,障碍,和在美国南部的森林生物能源和生物基产品开发策略

时间:2016-05-18 16:51来源:未知 作者:Chyrel A. Mayfield 点击:
Abstract 摘要
 
OCUS组被用来确定在美国南部森林生物量的利用率提高战略接触障碍的机会。该组是基于在生物基生物能源和产品价值链的七个关键部件,如确定的国际能源机构(IEA)生物能源任务31''从可持续林业生物质生产能源。“”这些组件包括可持续生物质生产,森林可持续经营,产品交付物流,制造业和能源生产,环境的可持续发展,消费需求和农村经济发展。与参加会人包括了各七个部分地区精心挑选的专家。六个共同主题焦点小组应运而生。创造市场,基础设施建设,社区参与,奖励,协作和教育都将生物质产业的成功发展至关重要。森林工业,能源工业,学术界,推广人员和农村社区应一起合作来支持研究,政策问题,以及加强当前森林生物量的运营效率,并促进生物能源利用森林生物量的教育计划。Focus groups were used to identify opportunities, barriers, and strategies for increased utilization of forest biomass in the Southern United States. The groups were based on the seven critical components in the bioenergy and bio-based products value chain, as identified by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 31 ‘‘Biomass Production for Energy from Sustainable Forestry.’’ These components include sustainable biomass production, sustainable forest operations, product delivery logistics, manufacturing and energy production, environmental sustainability, consumer demand, and rural economic development. Participants included handpicked experts from each of the seven component areas. Six common themes emerged from the focus groups. Market creation, infrastructure development, community engagement, incentives, collaboration, and education will all be critical to the successful development of the biomass industry. The forest industry, the energy industry, academia, extension personnel, and rural communities should collaborate together to support research, policy issues, and educational programs that enhance the efficiency of current forest biomass operations and promote the use of forest biomass for bioenergy. r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 
 
1. Introduction 介绍
 
The forests of the Southern United States cover approximately 856,000 km2. Ninety-three percent of this land is classified by the USDA Forest Service as ‘‘timberland’’, or capable of producing a commercially viable timber crop. These forests cover 13 southern states including Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. While individual states have experienced changes in forested acres, the regional total has remained fairly steady over the last 30 years. Approximately 69% of the forest land is controlled by nonindustrial private landowners [1]. Since such a large portion of Southern US forests are privately owned, maintenance of productivity and sustainability of forest operations are very important. Several other factors provide stimuli for utilizing the forest biomass produced in the Southern United States. One such specific reason includes forest health. Natural disasters and pest outbreaks are common occurrences in the South. Hurricanes Rita and Katrina struck the Gulf Coast in 2005. Over 714 Gt (dry) of timber was damaged by just two storms [2,3]. The Southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) also causes significant damage to Southern forests. On average, 1.23 Gt of biomass is killed annually by the beetle in 11 Southern states [4]. While the amount of timber damaged varies greatly, a significant source of nonmerchantable timber is created, which could be used for bioenergy and bio-based products. A second stimulus concerns rural economic development. The Southern United States is largely rural, with over 60% of the South’s counties and parishes considered rural in nature [5]. Forests serve as the economic base for 0961-9534/$ -see front matter r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2007.06.021  
C.A. Mayfield et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 31 (2007) 631–637 many Southern rural areas. In 1997, the value of the Southern forest industry was estimated to be $8.3 . 1010 in total industry output [6]. Downturns in the pulp wood markets are causing many of these communities to struggle economically. A recent study [7] indicated that electricity generation solely from small-diameter trees and logging residue could generate $215 M in value added annually and generate 1340 new jobs in 43 East Texas counties. Development of this potential will help defray the costs of maintaining forest health, creating employment, and diversifying the economic structure of rural communities. While the benefits of utilizing forest biomass for bioenergy and bio-based products are numerous, industrial development has not been rapid. The purpose of the workshop described in this paper was to determine the current state of knowledge, opportunities, barriers, and actions for developing a more significant bioenergy and bio-based products industry in the Southern United States. 
 
2. Methods 方法
 
In December 2004, 55 experts in renewable energy, economic development, forest management, and the forest products industry convened for a workshop in Houston, TX. The workshop was designed to discuss information related to the current state of the production and utilization of forest bioenergy in the Southern United States. Conference participants were handpicked by a steering committee of their peers and included national and regional leaders, industry leaders, and university personnel (Table 1). 
 
3. Critical components in the forest bio-based products value chain 森林生物基产品价值链中的关键组成部分
 
The workshop was developed around the seven critical components in the forest bioenergy and bio-based products value chain as identified by the International Energy Agency Bioenergy Task 31 (Fig. 1) [8]. These seven components include (1) sustainable biomass production, (2) sustainable forest operations, (3) product delivery logistics, (4) manufacturing and energy production, (5) environmental sustainability, (6) consumer demand, and (7) rural economic development. Day one of the conference was dedicated to presentations relating to the seven critical components of the sustainable bioenergy and bio-based products value chain. Table 1 Affiliation of conference participants Affiliation Participants University 14 Forest industry and landowners 11 Energy industry 12 Federal government 12 State government 7 Each speaker was asked to characterize the state of development in their assigned component of the value chain and identify technical and nontechnical barriers limiting deployment of the associated industries. This provided all participants with background material for each component and exposed work currently being done in each field. Following the presentations, participants were divided into focus groups to identify the current state of knowledge, opportunities, barriers, and actions to be taken for each component of the forest bio-based products value chain. The groups were asked to not only focus on their component but also to consider their component and its relationship with the integrated bioenergy value chain. For example, while the sustainable forest operations’ focus group was to discuss operations, the group was also asked to consider how operations relate to consumer demand and vice versa. The concept was to encourage the experts to think ‘‘outside the box’’ and look at their area of expertise from a different vantage point. Results from each of the focus groups were summarized, and are presented in the following section. 
 
4. Results and discussion 结果与讨论
 
4.1. Critical component 1: sustainable biomass production 
Issues related to research and development topped the list of barriers for the Sustainable Biomass Production focus group (Table 2).


The potential relative value of different species to the bioenergy and bio-based products sector was a key barrier identified by the group. Other barriers included feedstock availability and cost competitiveness of forest biomass as a feedstock. The availability of appropriate production technologies, industry consolidation, and potential negative environmental impacts were also identified as barriers. Lack of incentives for landowners, consumers, and business development was another issue identified by the group. Actions included a focus on increased research and development, funding, and collaboration. Research should be conducted relative to cost competitiveness, landowner attitudes, and analysis of existing policy and programs related to bioenergy and bio-based products. In order to facilitate this research, additional funding should be sought under the Healthy Forests Restoration Act of 2003 (http:// www.theorator.com/bills108/hr1904.html), the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/ z?c109:H.R.6.ENR:), and the Farm Security and Reinvestment Act of 2002 (http://www.ers.usda.gov/Features/ FarmBill/2002FarmAct.pdf). This research should be conducted with a spirit of collaboration and should include academic institutions, federal and state government agencies, and the business community. In addition, educational programs should be designed to introduce consumers to the research currently being done and to the possibility of  


推荐内容
  • 英国作业
  • 美国作业
  • 加拿大作业
  • 英国essay
  • 澳洲essay
  • 美国essay
  • 加拿大essay
  • MBA Essay
  • Essay格式范文
  • 澳洲代写assignment
  • 代写英国assignment
  • Assignment格式
  • 如何写assignment
  • case study
  • literature review
  • Research Proposal
  • Summary范文
  • Reference格式
  • presentation
  • report格式
  • PEST分析法
  • Admission Essay
  • Personal Statement
  • Motivation Letter
  • Application Letter
  • recommendation letter