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代写美国essay:工作场所的非语言沟通技巧

时间:2018-06-28 08:37来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
本文是美国留学生essay范文,主要内容是讨论当今社会人们交流逐渐减少的情况下,工作场所的非语言沟通技巧。
考虑到当今的技术驱动的通信系统,人们面对面的交流越来越少。因此,至关重要的是要最大限度地发挥它们的影响。戈尔曼博士提供了一个有价值的指导,帮助读者了解谈话中的非语言方面通常比口头表达更多。
众所周知,体态语是指非言语交际方式。在科学分析中,已经发现,不同的沟通方面包括55%个身体动作和姿势,38%个声调,只有7%个单词或言语交际。显然,大约93%的交流是非语言的,很多时候,单词是不够的。这表明,正确使用肢体语言是一种有效的非语言沟通工具,能够说服工作场所的同事、家人和朋友,最终通过自我发展实现整体的组织成功。它进一步促进员工的个人和专业成长,最终使组织受益。因此,本文试图探讨身体语言在成功组织发展中的重要性、模式和有效利用。
 
"Given today's technology-driven communication systems, people have fewer face-to-face interactions. As a result, it is crucial to maximize their impact. Dr. Gorman provides a valuable guide for doing just that by helping the reader understand how the nonverbal aspects of a conversation often say much more than the verbal ones."
 
- Jon Peters, President, The Institute for Management Studies.
 
It is well-known that body language refers to nonverbal mode of communication. On scientific analysis, it has been found that the different aspects of communication comprise 55% bodily movements and gestures, 38% vocal tone and only 7% words or verbal communication. It is thus clear that about 93% of communication is nonverbal, as many times, words are inadequate. This shows that correct use of body language serves as an effective nonverbal communication tool to convince fellow-workers at workplace, as well as family and friends, eventually leading to overall organizational success through self-development. It further leads to personal and professional growth of an employee, ultimately benefiting the organization. An attempt has, therefore, been made in this paper to discuss the importance, modes and effective use of body language in successful organizational development (Rane, 2010).
 
A thorough understanding of the role that body language plays in our day-to-day business activities is vital. Executives, managers, and salespeople who aren't reading the clear signals of others or who don't have a clue how their own nonverbal communication is sabotaging their efforts. At a time when it is widely recognized that professional success is achieved with or through other people, the power of, and the need for, good interpersonal skills couldn't be greater (Gorman, 2008).
 
1. Nonverbal Communication: Definition.
Any form of communication that is not expressed in words. Nonverbal communication is estimated to make up 65-90% of all communication, and understanding, interpreting, and using it are essential skills. Forms of nonverbal communication include actions and behaviour such as silence, failure or slowness to respond to a message, and lateness in arriving for a meeting. Body language is also an important part of nonverbal communication. Nonverbal elements of communication may reinforce or contradict a verbal message (Bloomsbury Business Library - Business & Management Dictionary; 2007, p5154-5154, 1p).
 
Body language is like a computer. Everybody knows what it is, but most of us are never exactly sure how it works. That's because the process of receiving and decoding nonverbal communication is often done without our conscious awareness. It simply happens. Human beings are genetically programmed to look for facial and behavioural cues and to quickly understand their meaning. We see someone gesture and automatically (Gorman, 2008).
 
Everyone knows someone who can walk into a room full of people and within minutes give an accurate description about the relationships between those people and what they are feeling. The ability to read a person's attitudes and thoughts by their behaviour was the original communication system used by humans before spoken language evolved.
 
Before radio was invented, most communication was done in writing through books, letters, and newspapers, which meant that ugly politicians and poor speakers such as Abraham Lincoln could be successful if they persisted long enough and wrote good print copy. The radio era gave openings to people who had a good command of the spoken word, like Winston Churchill, who spoke wonderfully but may have struggled to achieve as much in today's more visual era.
 
Today's politicians understand that politics is about image and appearance, and most high-profile politicians now have personal body-language consultants to help them come across as being sincere, caring, and honest, especially when they're not.
 
It seems almost incredible that, over the thousands of years of our evolution, body language has been actively studied on any scale only since the 1960's and that most of the public has become aware of its existence only since the book Body Language was published in 1978. Yet most people believe that speech is still our main form of communication. Speech has been part of our communication repertoire only in recent times in evolutionary terms, and is mainly used to convey facts and data. Speech probably first developed between two million and five hundred thousand years ago, during which time our brain tripled its size. Before then, body language and sounds made in the throat were the main forms of conveying emotions and feelings, and that is still the case today. But because we focus on the words people speak, most of us are largely uninformed about body language, let alone its importance in our lives (Pease, 2008).
 
Body language is also known as kinesics. A pioneer in the field, Ray Birdwhistell (Ray L. Birdwhistell, Kinesics and Context. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1970, p. 80.), writes, "The isolation of gestures and the attempt to understand them led to the most important findings of kinesic research. This original study of gestures gave the first indication that kinesic structure is parallel to language structure. By the study of gestures in context, it became clear that the kinesic system has forms which are astonishingly like words in language."
 
Researchers have observed people involved in the communication process. They have studied body language and other nonverbal behaviour, and they have then related or identified these actions with actual content of the message being transmitted.
 
2. Relationship Between Verbal and Nonverbal Communication.
There are several ways in which the nonverbal behaviour is seen clearly related to verbal behaviour. This relationship is one of dependence and also of independence. There are nonverbal communicative acts that are easily and accurately translated into words. Several gestures clearly illustrate this relationship. For example, the gesture of folded hands for namaste, the gesture of handshake, a smile, a frown, etc., are generally translatable into words. There is also a class of nonverbal acts that are very much a part of speech and serves the function of emphasis. Examples are head and hand movements that occur more frequently with words, and phrases of emphasis. There are acts which draw pictures of the referents tracing the contour of an object or person referred to verbally. Yet another class of acts is employed for displaying the effects (feelings). Another class refers to acts that help to initiate and terminate the speech of participants in a social situation. These regulators might suggest to a speaker that he keep talking, that he clarify, or that he hurry up and finish (Ekman and Friesen, 1969).
 
There are the ways in which the relationship between verbal and nonverbal communication can be characterized. These are as follows:
 
-The relationship between verbal and nonverbal communication is one of the latter playing a supplementary role to the former. The nonverbal acts that are supplementary to verbal acts may precede or follow or be simultaneous with the verbal acts. For example, in many verbal acts one notices an accompaniment of one or more nonverbal acts, such as gestures, facial expressions, and movement towards or away from the addressee, to illumine the meaning of the former. While for any verbal acts such an accompaniment may only be considered redundant, for several others, such and accompaniment explicitness, clarity, emphasis, discrimination and reinforcement.
 
-The relationship between verbal and nonverbal communication is also one of the former playing a supplementary role to the latter. In many verbal acts, both in children and adults, in normals with all the linguistic organs intact, and normal with some handicap to the linguistic organs, as well as in abnormal individuals, nonverbal acts may take precedence over the verbal acts in several ways. In the normal with all the linguistic organs intact, occasions demand the use of nonverbal acts such as pantomime and gestures for aesthetic purposes, and for purposes of coded (secret) communication. Indulgence in nonverbal acts as primary medium is also necessitated by the distance that separates the parties which can, however, retain visual contact while engaging themselves in communication.
 
-The relationship between verbal and nonverbal communication could be one of correspondence as well. That is, there are several nonverbal acts that can be accurately translated into words in the language of a culture in which such nonverbal acts are performed. A handshake, shaking a fist at someone, a smile, and frown, etc., are all nonverbal acts translatable into verbal medium in a particular language. The functions of these nonverbal acts, context to context, are also codified in aesthetic nonverbal acts, such as dance, sculpture and other arts. The correspondence is sometimes translatable into words, sometimes into phrases and sentences, and several times translatable into compressed episodes involving lengthy language discourses. But the correspondence is there all the same and the import of this correspondence is shared between individuals within a community. There is also yet another correspondence of nonverbal acts in the sense that similar nonverbal acts could mean different things in different cultures.


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