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时间:2015-11-03 16:58来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

Budget Approaches Adapted By United Consultancy 


然而从鸟的眼睛视觉来看,预算可以被定义为一个管理工具,把经理控制在过分讲究的健康组织中。预算的目的是衡量组织中的结构。预算是一个工具,由部队管理结构化及客观的方式负责。经理如何管理预算是其价值的关键。预算设施规划和资源分配有助于估计,明细,分析和研究整个组织向客户所提供的产品和服务。(Seer, 2000, p.187).

预算的一个简单过程是巩固预算,并且尽可能地坚持它们(梅特兰,2000)。它是一个将经理的态度,向前展望未来和计划的过程;管理者能够预见并对潜在的问题做出相应的反应。预算流程允许经理关注而不是非象征性的机会。预算系统对组织内的业务流程提供了可持续性的。对管理来说,它是一个至关重要的过程。换句话说,一些研究人员“一些商业计划失败但是其中有很多倒塌而未能实现的计划” (Horngren, C. et al., 2000)预算的目的是为管理提供一个想法,如何使该组织更好地预计收入目标,如何更好地使组织营运资本管理。

Budget can be defined as a qualitative economic plan and as financial blueprint projecting expenditure and revenues granted for period of time. Since 1920's budgeting activities had been the central part of an organisation planning and control system. Budget activities must comprised the allocation of resources, it must expressed in a monetary terms and it has to be a plan and not a hope nor a forecast but an authoritative intention and it must be made within a certain period of time (Haper,1995,p.318).Only plan has such attributes can be described as budget.

However from a bird's- eye view, budget can be defined as a management tools that put the managers in control of a finical health of the organisation. The objective of the budget is to measure of the financial structure of the organisation and budget is a tool that forces management to be accountable in a structured and objective way. How manager manage the budget is key to their value. Budget facilities the planning and resources allocation and help to estimate, itemised, analysis and examined the entire product and service that organisation offers to customer. (Seer, 2000, p.187).

Budgeting is a simple process of consolidating budget and adhere them as closely as possible (Maitland,2000). It is a process turns manager attitudes forward looking to the future and planning; managers are able to anticipate and react accordingly to the potential problem before it arises. Budgeting process allows manager to focus on the opportunities instead of figuratively. The budget system provides sustainability to business process within an organisation. It is an utmost important process to the management. In other word by some researchers "few business plan to fail but many of those that collapsed failed to plan" (Horngren, C. et al., 2000)

The aim of budgeting is to give management an idea how well the organisation is projecting the income goals and how well the organisation managing the working capital. The budgeting exercise should able to increase the profit, reduce inappropriate expenses and it also helps to expand the markets (Thomsett, 1988, p.5). To achieve the budgeting aim, the management needs to build a budgeting system (Viscione , J. 1984).

A budget system varies from organisation to organisation and it is not unitary concept. The fundamental concept of budget system involves estimating future performance of the organisation, comparing the actual performance to the budget and analysis the deviation of actual result against the budget. The factors that determining the type or style of an organisation depend on the type of organisation, the leadership style, the method of preparation and desired result (Cherrington & Cherrington, 1973, p.226)

In general budgeting can be categories into two primary categories (Cohen, J. et al., 1994) which are operational budget and financial budget

Operational budget covers revenues and expenses which involve day to day core business of the organisation which is normal operation activities. The main elements of the organisation operational budget include sales, production, inventory, materials, labours, overheads and R and D budgets.

Financial budget controls the organisation financial aspect of the business. These budgets disclose the influences of the operational budget on the organisation, financial position and potential revenues. Financial budget include cash budget, capital expenditures budget, balance sheet and income statement.

There are many available methods of budgeting are available and it is important for the management to decide the correct methods that suits the organisation. Generally, management choices on how to start preparing budget fall into one of three major approaches (Rasmussen, Eichorn, 2000, p.19) which are: Top-Down, Bottom- up and Top-down/bottom up. Please refer to figure 1 for Top-down and Bottom-up approaches.

Figure 1: Top-down versus Bottom-up approaches

Source: Rasmussen, Eichorn, 2000, p.20-25

主要部分——Main Body

Part A (i)

Budget approaches adapted by United Consultancy

United Consultancy had presently adapted the approach of static budget while preparing the budgeting. Static Budget is also known as fixed budget. Accordingly to Chartered Institute of Management Accountants of England, "a fixed budget is a budget outline to remain unchanged irrespective of level of actual activities attained". A static budget will reflect the expected result or revenues of a budgeting year (Hansen and Mowen, 2011) of a responsibility centre for one level of activities. Normally fixed budget will be prepared in advance before the financial year as the cost classified as fixed and it will not very in direct proportion of the level of activities. Fixed budget approaches are widely adapted by service industry (Reeve and Warren, 2007) and partly by some administrative functions of manufacturing companies such as purchasing, engineering and accounting. Fixed budget is used as an effective tool of cost. If, the level of activities attained are varies from the budgeted activities then fixed budget become ineffective. Comparatively, fixed budget is only suitable for fixed expenses. A fixed budget is appropriate under static condition.

固定预算的优势和劣势——Advantage and disadvantage of Fixed Budget

Small business and service industries needs an overall budget to survive Fixed budget is most widely used by service and small industries as it help to track on control the spending. At the same time fixed budget can cause more problems rather than giving a solution. A fixed budget will capitalised the calculation fixed expenses and help to forecast the bills to be paid by the business. For the variable expenses, fixed budget provides maximise spending limits and it helps to control the finances.

The advantage of fixed budget is to help the business to prioritise the expenses. Fixed budget clearly distinction between the businesses needs and wants by forcing the business to remain consistent, it will also ensure that the bills are paid on time.

The disadvantage of fixed budget as it's operates to one level of activity- the planned activity and it does not account for the business unpredictable activity. The actual always will be captured by a level of activity which is significantly difference from the planned activity. For example, to compare the actual production cost increased at production levels of 1000 units against a standard based on planned activity of 500 units could be misleading. Management will mislead thinking into that the production costs are out of control. An increase in production cost is avoidable as volume increases and it does not means that there is problem on increase cost occurred.

招聘顾问为曼联未来的预算——Hiring Consultant for Future budgeting for United Consultancy

A consultant is who has a position to have a certain level of influences over an individual, a group or an organisation but who has no absolute power to make or to adapt changes into the organisation. It is the employee of the organisation has the power to decide whether to accept and implement the changes into the organisation. The consultant brings specialised skills, knowledge, expertises or accessing certain information into the organisation.

Scott & Hascall (2002) had analysed the advantage and disadvantages of consultants and United Consultancy need to consider before hiring consultants for involving in preparation of future budgets.

咨询公司的优势——Advantage of consultants

The consultants are import and hired to fill competency gap in the organisation. According to Drucker (1979) suggested management consultant is an extraordinary and indeed a unique phenomenon as consultancy has the management skills, techniques, knowledge are best learned through exposures to and experiences with many industries as the typical executives lack of this kind of exposure. As Drucker notes, "The executive works with same organisation or most with very few". Executives lack exposure and cannot gain it nor can be stimulate it. Consultant will able to transform the organisation and gain the exposure at the same time will add significant value by reducing the problem resolution cycle time (Hagedorn, 1982). United Consultancy will be hiring consultant for preparation for future budget as it will bring new Idea, proficiency and impartiality objective (Gattiker and Larwood, 1985).

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