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美国作业代写:管理和组织 Management and organization

时间:2017-04-17 19:56来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
People have been involved in various ways with the management and organization of global projects as far back as when the Egyptians built their great pyramids or when the Mayans built their reputation from their rich history. From Egypt to Southern Mexico and Central America, the politics of the times influenced how to organize the work flow in a successful manner. It is amazing how in the ancient ages global projects were implemented in many large-scale projects which became the foundation that influences many other countries or organizational politics.
Nevertheless global project management has recently become an essential feature of modern and globalized society. In my opinion, global project management seems like a new avenue that is leading us toward something specific. Based on the example of the Egyptians or the Mayans, I would say that political impact on global project management greatly influences my views and opinions in my own project management situations. I can conclude, therefore, that the previously stable and permanent organizational structures that helped the ancient societies in the management of their constructions became more and more temporary and disposable because of the political structure at that time.
Furthermore, the evolution of the new form of projects and its rapid development leads to global links between people, organizations, and nationalities that were not previously possible. The new era of global projects is expandable toward different objectives, partly because of the impact of the project and partly because of global involvement.
So far, there is no solid evidence to justify if the varieties of world view projects have any been affected either positively or negatively in the project process. Based on the virtual work environment that we have in this 21st century, however, I would say that global projects involving a diverse group of people from other countries and cultures makes many projects richer because of the mixture of world views. In project organizations that are fortunate to have this sort of diversity, there is often a more creative approach to the process of problem solving. Putting it simply, diversity increases complexity and diminishes the possibility of uncertainty and suspicion, which is often problematic with regard to group effectiveness in global projects. It is clear that where active global projects exist, political involvement from the countries impact the outcome of the results.
The purpose of this paper is to highlight how the effect of politics on global projects is crucial and how it may influence the outcome of most global projects. Throughout the paper, along with my research, I will attempt to shed more light on how global projects are impacted by political involvement and vice versa. By comparing and contrasting arguments in relation to implications of cultural and institutional differences in a global project context, I will ensure that the reader has a clear understanding of how the differences might contribute to the previously mentioned global project paradoxes.
Bruno Kreisky, chancellor of Austria since 1970, had been imprisoned more than once for his beliefs and by opposition to the totalitarian form of dictatorship. Many years later, in an interview with Richard D. Bartel, the Executive Editor of Challenge, he stated that he was a man that had made a lifelong commitment to social and economic democracy. He was of the opinion that global projects are a main issue that impacts the poverty of many of our third world countries. During the interview about the North-South development project, he made several references about how powerful mankind would be if they would all pool the necessary resources to implement the knowledge that would lead to success (Bartel, 1982).
Kreisky believed that mankind's interaction will not happen in an isolated situation. He wanted us to know that if we want to achieve global projects in a manner that can be successful; we have to know that a major issue is the effect the politics play on projects (Bartel, 1982). As many are aware, human interaction takes place in a social environment where a complex set of formal and informal values, norms, rules, codes of conduct, laws and regulations are the governor. Let's not forget the impact of policies and polities as well as a variety of organizations structures.
The primary role of culture and institutions is to reduce uncertainty and hesitation in everyday human behavior, interaction, and decision-making by providing a framework for situational interpretation and limiting options for appropriate behavior and response (Schein, 1985). Cultural interference in global project would have a positive effect on the outcome rather than a negative one because it allows people to come out of their comfort zones long enough to make decision that will be suitable to the project as a whole entity.
In my humble opinion, let's treat culture as an emergence issue that evolves in part from a social craving for answers to a set of problems common to all groups. This will lead us to the basic assumptions concerning some of the following: relationships between mankind in a socio-economic level or between mankind and nature, the differences or similarities between assumption and reality, situational realities and truths, the nature of humanity or human activity, and nature of relationships between people of the whole world (Schein 1985). It is very important to know that if we have the desire to survive and to be a society, we have to treat each project or group regardless of its size by finding solutions to the above problems. Those solutions then become distinctions that will separate global projects from each other even when there is political involvement.
Kreisky made it clear that without proper planning and a global vision, the world will be a self-centered place and we will never be self-sufficient. Nothing is impossible. According to him, his vision of the global project will be affected by the politics of the USA because he feels they are determined to reconstruct Europe after the Second World War. As a result of US involvement, he was concerned that there would be a lack of commitment from the developed countries when asked to lend a hand to the underprivileged countries. When asked if he thought this project will be realized, he replied, “For the time being, no” (Bartel, 1982).
I believe he said this because he realized that mankind was not mature enough to understand that a commitment of various people from all over the world is necessary in order for global projects to work. When asked how he thinks we could accomplish the vision that he had, he said “… we have to assist the countries of the Third World to achieve our own economic progress - except in a shorter time, without the interruption of wars. I think that there may be no real new order in the world - which is only an expression, of course, a formula - without doing what we have done in Austria, and more widely in Europe and the United States - that is to build up economic infrastructures. ” He went on to say, “I proposed quite a large-scale program for the accelerated development of the infrastructure of developing countries” (Bartel, 1982).
In my cultural awareness class, we have reviewed studies that demonstrate that individuals and groups have a tendency to form cultures that can be gathered and analyzed according to boundaries set by nation-states, culture and diversity. Most companies have politics that are good for them and they implement them to improve productivity, protection of the company assets, regulation of the work place rules, and in some cases the dress code and other attributes that help secure a safe environment. My argument underlines the influence of politics in global project management and its descendant as a real difference between national cultures that exist, and each national culture sets of partly differing solutions to the previously mentioned universal-socio problems. In my opinion, these have evolved over time developing a higher degree of dependability and flexibility.
“Securing food production and increasing energy supply are two of the most important sectors in their infrastructure. They also have transportation problems to be solved. To solve them by air is too expensive; to solve them with cars or trucks requires much skilled labor and oil is very expensive. What we need are railway systems to transport people and goods on the Third World,” said Kreisky (Bartel, 1982). His approach will encourage nations to work together on a multi- lateral way to coordinate global projects, but the politics of each nation may continue to be a barricade to the success of a project of this magnitude.

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