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美国作业代写:管理和组织 Management and organization(2)

时间:2017-04-17 19:56来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
Taking a look at other global projects that may be influenced by political involvement, when it comes to the automotive market, Asia is the worlds number one market for growth. This requires political
 
Taking a look at other global projects that may be influenced by political involvement, when it comes to the automotive market, Asia is the world's number one market for growth. This requires political involvement that will allow the flow of merchandise and the exchange of technology so the companies may advance in a positive way. One may wonder how it will be possible if the world leaders influence their nations by the way they elect the governing bodies of their countries. People that are part of this growing market already have values which influence their purchasing habits. Asian automotive manufacturers will make sure that their governments influence the market in a way that will be profitable to them by controlling such things as regulations, cultural purchase influences, etc… (McClellan, 2002).
 
In the article Global Politics Shift Auto Industry Focus, we realized the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) regions, are becoming more unified through their trade pacts. China has been taken the boldest step, by becoming fully integrated into the global economy through its membership in the World Trade Organization (WHO). Japan, the world's second largest automobile market, is perhaps the worst off of the industrialized nations. In September Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi fired his entire cabinet; some of the people in his country were against him because he had failed to fix the economy as he had promised. According to this article, such moves have done little to inspire consumer confidence. The government in each country has some effect on the policies that govern the global project. In my opinion, governments have to be open to positive ideologies that will improve the development of various global projects. Moves such as these will help enhance the maturity of mankind's relationship on a worldwide level (McClellan, 2002).
 
Closely inter-twined and emanating from culture is the concept of institutions. They consist of informal rules such as sanctions, taboos, customs, traditions, and codes of conduct, and formal rules like constitutions, laws, and property rights. According to North, the major role of institutions in a society is to establish a stable (but not necessarily efficient) structure to be successful globally in projects that involve political, economic and social interaction (North 1990, 1991). Obviously, the basis of these concepts and the difference between culture and institutions is unmistakable and may not always be clear for some.
 
In either the case of large or small global projects there are literally so many factors that may affect the result or outcome of the success of the project. In order to simplify examination these factors can be categorized into various groups such as client related factors, management related factors, and project context and environmental related factors. It can be assumed that there will be an emergence outcome from the cultural and institutional differences from the context for these factors. I will also argue that the outcome and implications to global projects become noticeable if they are studied in specific events in a given project. The effects of politics on global projects are a major issue with the growth of virtual teams. There can often be conflict when people with different backgrounds and belief systems work in the same place, or on the same global project. Political involvement can prevent this from happening at times, and make it worse at others. The influence of politics in the location where the project is been accomplished will affect the outcome of the project in general and the ability of the project members performance in particular.
 
As many of us know, in every project management situation any project can consist of numerous parallel and sequential events. These events can roughly be distinguished according to the different stages of the project. Engwall has described the general project stages in three steps: the outcome formulation, the project execution and the outcome assessment (Engwall, 2002).
 
It is clear that observations from my study illustrate some implications of cultural differences, which are driven by local politics, in many stages of a global project. If this is true, the implications can lead to unclear goals, vague assignments and misunderstandings among participants of the same project. In this last point (misunderstandings among participants), attention must be directed to situations where there may be lack of coordinating by the group, poor scheduling, weak tolerance of failures, problems of emotional integration as well as divisions between trusted allies and foreign partners . Any confusion like this will be easily noticeable and can create a lack of cohesion in the group as well as mismanagement. If local politics are very lacking and it is noticeable, it can lead to an obvious failure of the project. This may lead to different conceptions of work ethics, quality of the work, time management, costs or savings, and success or failure of the project.
 
Consequently, one could argue that effects of politics on global projects lead to cultural and institutional differences - which can impact the full growth of the global project team in many ways. By working together as a member of part of the project without borders or social discriminations, use of diversity as a tool will empower each member without fear of losing face or leadership capacities. By managing project efficiency in a global vision and being able to come out of our comfort zone for the sake of our success, we are able to use the politics of the government or the situation to help us reach our goals.
 
Nevertheless, it is important to notice whether or not and under what kind of circumstances these differences will affect the outcome of our project. It is imperative to have the ability to evaluate the aftermath of these differences in global projects. In general, it might be assumed that in a specific situation the outcome of inter-action between different politics, policies and cultures depends on a focus of power and the capacity to use it. For that reason, it is very important to focus our attention on specific events in any given global project, to differentiate the focus of power between the members in these events as well as the circumstances under which the relevant party is able and motivated to use that power.
 


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