代写 TAG标签
网站地图
英国作业美国作业 加拿大作业
返回首页

美国作业:有关枪支管制困境简析A Brief Analysis of the Gun Control Dilemma i

时间:2019-06-26 09:45来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
1  Introduction介绍
在过去的几十年里,美国与枪支有关的暴力事件非常严重,已经成为公众关注的问题。因此,美国人之间就枪支管制问题展开了激烈的辩论。尽管美国还有许多其他争议性问题,但很难找到一个比枪支管制更能激起多年愤怒和刻薄的问题(厄斯金,1972:455-469)。
During the last few decades gun-related violence in the United States has been so serious that it has become a public concern. As a result, there has been an intense debate over gun control among the Americans. Although there are many other controversial issues in the United States, it is hard to find one that provokes more anger and vitriol across years than gun control (Erskine, 1972:455-469).
争论的关键是因果关系问题。这里的逻辑是,如果枪支和暴力之间存在因果关系,美国必须采取更严格的枪支管制法律(Grigsby,2010:15)。鉴于美国的枪支流行率和暴力率都远远高于几乎所有其他工业国家,许多美国人认为,枪支暴力有因果关系。因此,他们呼吁制定枪支管制法律,并被称为枪支管制倡导者(卢埃林,1999:194)。然而,反对者否认这种因果关系。他们认为,美国的高暴力率是由其他因素造成的,而不是枪械流行,如社会异质性和经济不平等。因此,他们认为枪支管制在减少国内暴力犯罪方面是无效的。
At the crux of the controversy is the question of causality. The logic here is that if there is a causal relationship between gun and violence, the United States has to adopt stricter gun control laws (Grigsby, 2010:15). In view of the fact that both gun prevalence and violence rates in the United States are much higher than those of almost all other industrial nations, many Americans believe that there is a gun-violence causality. Therefore, they cry for gun control law making and are known as gun control advocates (Llewellyn, 1999:194). However, opponents deny such a causal relationship. They argue that the high violence rate in the United States is engendered by other factors rather than gun prevalence, such as social heterogeneity and economic inequality. Therefore, they argue that gun control would not be effective in reducing violent crimes in the nation.
另一个主要的争议是,为什么美国没有像其他工业国家一样采用严格的枪支管制法。根据枪支管制反对者的说法,答案在于美国历史和宪法。他们认为,美国历史与枪支所有权和枪支暴力紧密相连,这在美国公民中激起了对枪支的强烈热爱。因此,美国人反对严格的枪支管制。此外,他们认为美国宪法第二修正案保留了公民持有武器的权利,任何关于枪支的规定都是违宪的。然而,这种推理方式遭到了枪支管制倡导者的驳斥,他们认为美国枪支法的松懈是由于枪支管制反对者的激烈和不合理的反对。
Another major controversy is over the reason why the United States does not adopt strict gun control laws as other industrial nations. According to gun control opponents, the answer lies in the US history and the Constitution. They hold that the US history has been closely entwined with gun ownership and gun violence, which has provoked in its citizens an ardent love of firearms. Therefore, the Americans are opposed to strict gun control. Further, they believe that the Second Amendment of the US Constitution preserves the right of the citizens to hold arms and any regulation over guns would be unconstitutional. However, this way of reasoning is refuted by gun control advocates, who argue that the laxity of gun laws in the United States results from the fierce and irrational opposition of gun control opponents.
在过去的几年里,学校枪击案在美国频繁发生。这使全国恐慌,并为枪支辩论增添了更多的燃料。那么辩论的哪一方更接近事实呢?为什么美国不像其他工业国家一样采取严格的枪支管制?这些问题引起了我的兴趣(劳滕伯格,2011:213)。本文是我对枪支辩论的研究成果,旨在回答这两个问题。
During the past few years, school shootings took place in the United States very frequently. This alarmed the nation and added more fuel to the gun debate. Then which side of the debate is nearer to the truth? And why doesn't the United States adopt strict gun regulations as other industrial nations? These questions intrigue me (Lautenberg, 2011:213). This thesis is the result of my study on the gun debate, aiming to answer those two questions.
2  TheAmerican Gun Culture
2.1 The Formation of the American Gun Culture
The United States has a social history that is almost a formula for violence. According to some American historians, violence in this nation seems to fall into two major categories (Gandelman, 2013:73). The first is negative violence including criminal violence, feuds, the violence of prejudice, urban riots, freelance multiple murder, and lynching, political assassination that all seem to be in no direct way connected with any socially or historically constructive development (Hadaegh, 2015:32). But it is the other category of the American violence, namely, the so-called "positive violence" that occupies vaster room in American historical account and is considered more important in the nation's history. After all, the Republic was born only after a revolution which, both in its origin and its progresses, was replete with domestic violence; it was soon afterwards engaged in a war, though unofficially declared, with France between 1798 and 1800, won a "Second War for Independence" against the British in 1812 and seized a large part of southwest territory from Mexico at the heels of an unprovoked war (Smathers, 2012:73). Even the nation's unity got eventually maintained through immense bloodshed, although the descriptions of these efforts attached more emphasis to the salves' newly-obtained freedom and the assured union of nation, which, in contrast, ignored the vast waves of violence engendered afterwards. The very land upon which the great nation rises was reward from wars with Indians that lasted for centuries and the legend of western frontier would have been impossible but for the vigilante violence that made order and stability alive again in the wilderness. Even labor violence, though despised by the majority of the American public, turned to be the only path to recognition and a decent life for industrial workers, hence necessary and indispensable in preserving social harmony. 
Given such history, it is not surprising that the American nation formed a unique gun culture very early on. The formation of this gun culture has several sources, including puritanism, early frontier wars with native Americans, the American revolution, and the westward movement.
2.1.1 The Influence of Puritanism
Theoretically speaking, religion, to be more exact here, Puritanism is one cause--a primitive as well as ever-lasting cause--of violence in that it helps to create a key part of a person's identity. Puritanism effortlessly lends "an aura of concreteness, timelessness and supernatural authority to what is really contingent and fabricated". (Kenen, 2000:16) Hence the identity derived from this belief is envisioned and treated not as a deliberate act of human beings but as "transcendentally authorized", natural and eternal: "In the Bible, the identity of ancient Israel is shored up with the myth that it is God-given."(Luhar, 2012:87) By the same token, the identity of newcomers to the new world, instead of being created by their own painstaking efforts, was given as God's design and will. These Puritans thus viewed themselves as selected by God whereas their survival and later development over the land were considered to be planned and blessed by Him. Anyone who dare pose any obstacle to this survival or development, therefore, becomes the enemy to God, violating God's will and hence deserving God's punishments to be executed by His elects through whatever means (Llenas, 2013:76). 
2.1.2 The Influence of Early Frontier Wars with Native Americans
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, skirmishes between the Native Americans and the white men were frequent and often brutal. In these early wars, weaponry was critical to the outcomes of most battles, and the side which had better and more firearms usually won. According to some chroniclers, the possession and use of this weaponry on the frontier inevitably influenced the American character. "One may see in these circumstances the roots of the Americans' celebrated self-reliance and individualism, but they were equally well to explain some of the less attractive elements of the national character. Through the early years, men habitually carried weapons during every waking hour. They became inured to violence [and] to settling disagreements directly and by force.”(Paulson, 2007:47)
2.1.3 The Influence of the American Revolution
During the battles of the American Revolution, firearms, especially rifles, continued to play an important role as the Americans fought against the Red Coats. The British troops used the Brown Bess, a non-rifled musket that was inaccurate beyond a few dozen yards. In contrast, colonists used the Pennsylvania rifle, with a bored barrel that imparted a tight spin on the bullet and was accurate at a far greater distance. Moreover, it could be reloaded faster. This rifle struck such terror into the hearts of British regulars that George Washington asked his troops to be dressed in the frontiersman's hunting shirt, since the British thought every such person a complete marksman." (Ghitis, 2009:122) According to some historians, "the success [of the rifle] helped to instill in the American mind a conviction of the complete superiority of the armed yeoman to the military professional of Europe." (Shafaee, 2010:99)


推荐内容
  • 英国作业
  • 美国作业
  • 加拿大作业
  • 英国essay
  • 澳洲essay
  • 美国essay
  • 加拿大essay
  • MBA Essay
  • Essay格式范文
  • 澳洲代写assignment
  • 代写英国assignment
  • Assignment格式
  • 如何写assignment
  • case study
  • literature review
  • Research Proposal
  • Summary范文
  • Reference格式
  • presentation
  • report格式
  • PEST分析法
  • Admission Essay
  • Personal Statement
  • Motivation Letter
  • Application Letter
  • recommendation letter