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中美双语教育的阶级差异Bilingualeducation class difference between Chin

时间:2019-08-19 11:05来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
美国有许多教育机构或教育项目的名称,我们通常称之为小学学前班。此外,美国还有许多教育机构或教育项目。
There are many names for education institutions or education programs in the United States, which we usually refer to as preschool classes in primary schools. In addition, there are many education institutions or education projects in the United States.
美国的学前教育统称为幼儿教育。此外,美国有许多教育机构或教育项目。具体阶段有不同的名称,如5-6岁的教育机构称为学前班,4-5岁的称为过渡学前班。在4岁之前,教育机构被称为幼儿园,一些是幼儿园,一些是托儿所,一些是托儿中心,还有一些是日托中心。一些组织甚至参加了9-18个月的幼儿计划,2-3岁的幼儿计划。因此,把美国幼儿园转化为幼儿园是片面的。如果你按照这个翻译去美国,你只能找到小学附设的幼儿园。在这些著名儿童的教育组织中有两个典型的幼儿园(Kremer,2006 p272,)。
The American pre-school education is collectively referred to as the early childhood education. In addition, there are many education institutions or education programs in the United States. The specific stage has different names, such as the education institution between the ages of 5 and 6, known as the preschool class, and the 4-5 years old is called the transition preschool. Before the age of 4, education institutions are called kindergarten, some are nursery schools, some are child care centers, and others are day care centers. Some organizations even enroll the infantprogram of 9-18 months, toddler program between 2 and 3 years old. Therefore, it is one-sided to translate American kindergarten into kindergarten. If you go to the United States in accordance with this translation, you can only find the pre-kindergarten attached to the primary school. There are two typical kindergartens in the education organization of these famous children (Kremer, 2006 P272,).
特别是幼儿园儿童在小学教育项目中,类似于中国的幼儿园,只招收5至6岁的儿童,目的是使儿童的基本社会技能顺利过渡到小学。与美国不同的是,中国的学前班通常设在幼儿园,称为大班或学前班,一些小学也有学前班。美国的学前班设在小学,课程设置在小学和幼儿园之间。时间安排接近幼儿园,学习内容不同。
Especially for Kindergarten children in elementary school education projects, similar to China's preschool, recruits only 5 to 6 years old children, the purpose is to make children's basic social skills in order to smoothly transition to a primary school. Unlike in the United States, the pre-school classes in China are usually located in kindergartens, called large classes or preschool classes, and some elementary schools have preschool classes. The pre-school classes in the United States are located in primary schools, and the curriculum is between primary and kindergarten. The time arrangement is close to the kindergarten, and the learning content is different.
过渡幼儿园,以下简称TK/Pre-K,也附属于小学,又称初级幼儿园。主要针对4岁的幼儿;或即将进入幼儿园的幼儿,仍属于幼儿教育的性质,其目的是教幼儿技能或顺利过渡到幼儿园,为幼儿提供更为规律和教学时间。或者那些可以上学前班但需要额外一年来发展社会和情感发展的孩子。过渡幼儿园介于幼儿园和幼儿园之间。课程设置为幼儿园,节奏相对较慢,内容相对简单。与国内学前班相比,美国学前班有几个明显的特点(Jensen、Brostrom和Hansen,2010年,第248页)。从职位上来说,我愿意把学生的情感交流当成朋友,这样他们就可以处于一个警告的环境中。
Transitional kindergarten, hereinafter referred to as TK/PRE - K, also attached in elementary school, also known as junior kindergarten. Mainly for 4-year-olds; Or will soon in kindergarten children, still belongs to the early childhood education in nature, the purpose is to teach children skills or smooth transition to kindergarten, for young children to provide more regular and teaching time. Or children who can go into preschool but need an extra year to develop social and emotional development. The transition kindergarten is between preschool and kindergarten. The curriculum is a kindergarten setting, the pace is relatively slow, the content is relatively simple. Compared with the domestic preschool class, the American preschool class has several obvious characteristics (Jensen, Brostrom, and Hansen, 2010, P.248). From the position,  I am willing to the emotional communication seem students as friends, so that they could be in a warn environment. 
 
First, there is the difference: kindergarten and TK in the United States are located in primary schools. The preschool classes in China are usually in kindergartens, and some are in primary schools. Some kindergartens have large classes, some are not, so they are not unified, nor compulsory. The pre-school and transition classes in the United States are free education, and the pre-school classes in China are non-free education. 
 
Followed by the class time: Kindergarten and TK majority is half a day in the United States, children can pick up by his parents come back home from school early because they think that children should have enough time with parents. Children can also go to afterschool, the primary school usually has afterschool. Afterschool, the teacher directly takes the children to another classroom or field activity. Afterschool is mainly responsible for children's homework, games and so on. The preschool class in China is usually a quasi-primary school curriculum preparation, the implementation of the whole day system. Although the course does not have the system and difficulty of primary school, but the schedule of work and rest time, teacher and child relation, teaching activity design is very close to the arrangement of primary school, actually already is quasi-primary school. The third is the curriculum: the American kindergarten curriculum is usually just a description of what to do and what not to specify. For example, the syllabus simply states that math, language and art, sharing activities, board games, etc., do not specify the name of the learning content.
 
It can be seen that the syllabus of pre-school and transitional preschool is different. First of all, American kindergartens are half-day, and each activity is shorter. Chinese kindergarten is full - day system, each time period is relatively long. Second, the American kindergarten schedule shows only the activities of each time period, not the specific content. Chinese kindergarten curriculum is more apt to write the specific content. Thirdly, every week, every day and every time period of the American kindergarten curriculum is the activity of -sample. The specific content difference is arranged by the teachers themselves, which greatly increases the flexibility of the course. China's kindergarten curriculum has different contents each week, every day, and every time period, which means that teachers can only take classes according to the curriculum schedule and lack flexibility. Fourthly, the American curriculum provides the possibility for temporary replacement between teachers, and the more specific the curriculum is, the more irreplaceable the curriculum is (Penn, 2011, P35). In both countries, the parent love children as same as their own lives, they are willing to give the best education in the process of the teaching. 
 
In the United States, there are very open to parents to participate in the policy, the parents can understand and participate in the kindergarten activities anytime and anywhere, it can not only alleviate the pressure of the teachers' work, also can make the parents to have a better understanding of the kindergarten work, effective and harmonious home to cooperation. Home cooperation work in China, although the kindergarten to realize the importance of home work, but in practice often do not welcome parents to participate in, probably because the critical or worried parents is to trouble your work. Whatever the reason, it reflects that the kindergarten does not place parents in the position of a partner, and there is a certain distrust between the two parties, which leads to the disadvantage of work. On the one hand, the size of kindergartens in China is too large and teachers are understaffed, which requires parents' participation, but the heart is often rejected. On the other hand, parents want to know about the kindergarten situation, but lack of effective participation and practical action. There is, therefore, a huge gap between home and home cooperation.
 
Bibliography:
Jensen, A., Brostrom, S., and Hansen, O., (2010) ‘Critical Perspectives on Danish Early Education and Care; between the technical and the political,’ Early years, 30(3): 243-254.
Jones, C. and Pound, L. 2008. Leadership and management in the early years: from principles to practice.
Jones, I. 2012. Paulo Freire’s philosophy of education, New York: Continuum.
Kremer, M. (2006) ‘The Politics of Ideals of Care: Danish and Flemish Child Care - Policy Compared’, Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, 13: 261-85.
Lindon, J. and Lindon, L. 2012. Leadership and Early Years Professionalism: Linking Theory and Practice.  Oxon: Hodder Education 
Paige-Smith, A., and Craft, A. (2011) Developing reflective practice in the early years. McGraw-Hill International.
Penn, H. (2011) Quality in Early Education and Care; An International Perspective. Maindenhead. Open University Press/McGraw Hill.


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