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留学生Essay参考文献引用格式说明 哈佛参考文献引用格式

论文价格: 免费 时间:2012-10-19 00:14:12 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

Essay参考文献引用标注格式说明 哈佛参考文献引用格式 The Harvard Referencing system
 
References 参考文献

在学术写作中,学生往往被要求不要脱离阅读的主题。参考文献引用是一个证明,证明了学生做了合适的和足够的的阅读。这是必要的,以引用二手资料(从其他人的作品获取信息)作为一个礼貌的做法,以及避免抄袭(引用的想法或研究其他人的观点作为自己的看法),以验证思想的来源,以充实论据 In academic writing students are expected to read around the subject. Referencing is a way of demonstrating that appropriate and adequate reading has taken place. It is necessary to reference secondary sources (information taken from other people’s writing) as a courtesy to the originator and to avoid http://www.ukassignment.org/essaygs/ PLAGIARISM (the act of presenting the ideas or discoveries of another person as your own), to verify the source of ideas, to substantiate arguments and to enable readers to follow-up source material.

PLAGIARISM is a very serious issue which is not dealt with in detail in this handout. ‘Students who attempt to gain an unfair advantage in this way will be punished appropriately’ Prof. Richard MURRAY – Dean of Hollings Faculty

Reference list 参考文献引用表

A list of references must be provided at end of all coursework, including projects and dissertations. This reference list contains details of all of the works used (cited either: (i) directly with quotation marks and page numbers or (ii) indirectly – paraphrased or summarised) to produce text of your work so that the source/author of all of ‘your’ submission may be identified. Page numbers are compulsory for direct quotations. Works are listed in alphabetical order by author; surname first followed by initials. If there is more than one work by the same author they are placed in date (chronological) order, earliest first.  There is no need to separate books, journals and other sources; simply list all references in alphabetical order using the system outlined blow.

Note: If an author is cited more than once, chronological order is used. If the author has two or more references from the same year differentiate this by year followed by a letter, for example, 2003a, 2003b, 2003c etc. 
 
Bibliography 参考书目
 
A bibliography may be requested in addition to references or in place of references as part of the coursework assignment – check with your tutor.

A bibliography is a complete list of all the works you have consulted in preparing the coursework or dissertation. Usually, it includes works that you have read but not actually cited in the text. If there is no reference list, the bibliography may also include references. The bibliography should comprise only items that you considered to have been important in forming your views.

INDEX
                    Page
  
 1. Book          23
a. One author         23
 b. Two authors           23 
 c. Three or more authors          23 
 d. Anonymous/no author          23
 e. Two or more texts by different authors        23
f. More than one work by the same author     23
g. Secondary sources        23
 
 2. Chapter in book         24
 
 3. Journal article         24
 a. One author            24
 b. Two or more authors         24
 c. Anonymous           24 
 
 4. Government publication         24 

5. Newspaper article          24

6. Thesis or dissertation        24

7. Illustration           25

8. Published music          25

9. Patent          25

10. Personal communication         25
(such as letter, conversation, and interview)

11. Electronic Sources        25
a. Internet source        25
b. Electronic book (e-book)       25
  c. Electronic (journal) article (e.g. from Emerald database)  25
  d. Journal articles from CD-ROM      26
e. Film, Video recording or TV broadcast     26
f. Electronic discussion list       26
g. Personal electronic communication     26
 
 12.  Tables, figures and diagrams      26
 
 13. Quotations and plagiarism       26
 
 Examples

Methods employed for:
(i)  direct quotations (copying words form a secondary source);
(ii)  paraphrased information (use of ideas but with rearrangement or synthesis of words from one or more sources); and
(iii)  listing references are exemplified:
 
 1. Book
The information required for referencing a book is:

author/s and/or editors (or the organisation/association if no author is listed or the title if no author or organisation is listed) - year of publication - title (in italics) - edition, volume number and translation (if applicable) - publisher - place (city) of publication

Take the title and author's name from the title page, not the cover.

The details of publication (publisher's name, place of publication and year of publication) can usually be found on the reverse of the title page. Sometimes there might be more than one year given. In that case, look for the word ‘edition’, or abbreviation ‘edn’. Use the latest year associated with this. If a book lacks details, it may be referenced using n.d. meaning no date and/or, n.p., no place.

a. One author
(i) “copy words from book within quotation marks and then cite author, date and page number” (Brown, 2000, p.33).
(ii) Brown (2000) maintained that ...  or
 …..management had limited responsibility (Brown, 2000).
(iii) Brown, W. L. (2000). Consumer Behaviour, Wiley & Sons, New York.
 
 b. Two authors
(i) “copy words from book within quotation marks and then cite author, date and page number” (Black and White, 2001, p.33).
(ii) Black and White (2001) maintained that ...  or
 …..management were innovative but not autonomous (Black and White, 2001).
 (iii) Black, C. and White, Z. (2001). Psychology, 2nd. edn., Harper & Row, New York.
 
 c. Three or more authors
(i) “copy words from book within quotation marks and then cite author, date and page number” (Brown, Black, White and Grey, 2002, p.33)
(ii) Brown, Black, White and Grey (2002) maintained that ...  or
 …..management had limited responsibility (Brown, Black, White and Grey, 2000)
and then for (i) and (ii) use (Brown et al., 2002) subsequently to replace full list of names.
 (iii) Brown, W.L., Black, C., White, Z. and Grey, K. (2002). Managers, Addison Wesley, Wokingham. 

 d. Anonymous/no author
If no specific author is given but an organisation is named, use organisation name, for example.  (Mintel, 1999). When no identification is possible, use either (Anon. 2003) or the title - (Management Styles, 2003) – if it is not too long.
 
 e. Two or more texts by different authors
Separate text author(s)/dates with a semicolon and list either in:
(i) chronological order
e.g. (Brown, 2000; Black and White, 2001; Black, White and Grey, 2002) or alphabetical order
e.g. (Black and White, 2001; Black, White and Grey, 2002; Brown, 2000)

f. More than one work by the same author
(i) e.g. (Brown, 2000; 2001a; 2001b)
if Brown’s ideas have been summarised from three works written in 2000 and 2001.

g. Secondary sources
Secondary sources refer to the work of one author from within that of another being cited. It is preferable to consult and cite the parent source. However, if it is necessary to refer to a secondary source, both/all authors’ names should be provided. For example:
(i) ‘management by objectives was outdated’ (Violet, cited by Brown, 2000, p.23).
(ii) Violet (cited by Brown, 2000) maintained that…. 
(iii) Violet, X. (2000). Management in the future. In R. Brown (ed.) Management paradigms, Blackwell, Oxford, p.108.#p#分页标题#e#
  
NOTE: Secondary references or reference abstracts should be used only if the original text cannot be located / obtained. The use of too many secondary sources reduces the credibility of the writing.
 
 2. Chapter in book
As for books but record both author(s) of chapter and author(s)/editor(s) of book and page numbers in
(i) or (iii), as appropriate.
(i) “copy words from book within quotation marks and then cite author, date and page number” (Grey, 2001, p.33)
(ii) summarised by Grey (2001)   or
 …..management had limited responsibility (Grey, 2001)
(iii) Grey, K. (2001). The management contract. In P. Blue and S. Pink (eds.) The Way Forward, Blackwell, Oxford, pp.31-42.
 
 3. Journal article
The information required for referencing a journal article is:

author(s) - year of publication - title of article - name/title of journal - volume and issue number of the journal (if applicable) - page numbers

Publication details for journals are usually found on the front cover. If there is nothing there, see the title or contents page.

 a. One author
(i) “copy words from journal article within quotation marks and then cite author, date and page number” (Gold, 1998, p.162).
(ii) Gold (1998) maintained that ...  or
 …..management did not take responsibility for their actions (Gold, 1998).
(iii) Gold, D. (1998). Humour, Management Studies, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp.161-167.
 
 b. Two or more authors
As for books but with journal title in italics, i.e. format as above

 c. Anonymous
(i)  Cite journal name and date - (Management Today, 1999) or (Anon., 1999) if journal name is very long
(ii) Cite journal name, date and page number (Management Today, 1999, p.42) or (Anon., 1999, p.42) if journal name is very long
(iii) Management Perspectives (1998). The untouchables, Sept., p.3.
 
 4. Government publication
As for books but, normally, no author is listed. If there is an author, then place his/her name first, if not cite the name of the compiler/commissioning organisation:

5. Newspaper article
The information required for referencing a newspaper article is:
 
author(s) - year of publication - title of the article - name of newspaper - day/month of publication - page number(s).

If there is no author simply begin with the title of the article. Use the full name of the newspaper as shown on the masthead on the front page.
(i) and (ii)  as for books
(iii)  Not again! (2002). The Guardian, 4 December, p3.
     or
  Brickred, J.P. (2002). The service domain, The Guardian, 5 December, p.A10.

6. Thesis or dissertation
The information required for referencing a thesis or dissertation is:
 
author - year of completion - title - page number(s) for direct quotation - nature of work – parent department/school - institution of study, location. 
(i) and (ii) as for books
(iii)   Mustard, J.L. (1998). Managing international events, Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of International Tourism, Wyefield University, Lessiter.

7. Illustration
The information required for referencing an illustration is:
 
originator (e.g. artist or sculptor) - year - title - medium (e.g. aquarelle, stone) - location - place - section/department - register number.
(i) and (ii) as for books but with artist (for example) replacing author
(iii) Crimson, N.N. (2001). The man, Whitstable Gallery, Lowchester, Department of Fine Art, Register number 2002-88-14.

8. Published music
The information required for referencing published music is:
 
author - year - title – subsidiary originator – publisher – place,
(i) and (ii) as for books
(iii)  Lemon, Q. (2001). Twelve rounds, J. B. Sage (ed.), London, Foxall Music.

9. Patent
The information required for referencing a patent is:
 
inventor(s) - year – assignee - title - patent number.
(i) and (ii) as for books but with inventor(s) replacing author(s)
(iii)  Salmon, A. (2002). FC airlines. Biodegradable in-flight service tray UK Pat. 9,999,999.

10. Personal communication (such as a letter, conversation, interview)
The information required for referencing a personal communication is:
 
author/speaker - date - nature of communication - month and day.
(i) and (ii) Either as for books or insert (Sandy Teal, personal communication, 29th July, 2003) in the text and do not include any further information in the final list of references
(iii)  Teal, S.I. (2003). Personal letter, 29 July or see above

11. Electronic Sources
Electronic sources vary widely in type. They may be defined as any information sources that require an electronic machine to play or display them. They encompass www addresses, computer accessible databases, audio and videotapes, laser disks and computer programmes. The information required for referencing an electronic source is generally:

author - title [on-line] - source - type of medium - availability (date and site (URL) of access)

URL is defined as: Uniform Resource Locator (such as address of page on the internet)

PLEASE NOTE: There is no consensus regarding the method of citation of electronic sources.
 
ALL INFORMATION (URLs etc.) USED BELOW IS MERELY ILLUSTRATIVE

a. Internet source
Include elements which are available from:

author(s) - year of publication - title of the study [on-line] - location - place - URL - date of access - page numbers if applicable. 
(i) and (ii) as for books
(iii) Lavender, L. (1999). Role play [on-line]. Royal University, London. Available from: / [accessed 27 July 2003].

b. Electronic book (e-book)

The elements required for referencing an electronic book are those which are available from:

author(s) - year of publication - title [on-line] - location - place - URL - date of access - page numbers if applicable. 
 (i) and (ii) as for books
(iii) Silver, T. (1995). Management innovations [on-line]. Olive University, Coral Bay. Available from:
 http://www.ukassignment.org/ [accessed 24 July 2003].
 
 c. Electronic (journal) article (e.g. from Emerald database)

The elements required for referencing an electronic journal article are those which are available from:

author(s) - year of publication - title of the study - title of journal if applicable [on-line] - volume and issue number of the journal (if applicable) - page numbers - URL - date of access. 
(i) and (ii) as for journals
(iii)       Plum, P. (1998). How to get ahead, Management in organisations [on-line]. Available from:
[accessed 23 July 2003].

 d. Journal articles from CD-ROM

The information required for referencing a CD-ROM article is:

author(s) - year of publication - title of the study - name of journal [CD-ROM] - volume or month of publication (if applicable) - issue number (if applicable) - page numbers - company/database - item number
 (i) and (ii) as for journal articles
(iii)      Heather, M. (1994). Management ‘knowhow', Information [CD- ROM], August, pp.1-2.
Available from VIOLET database, Item: 94-222007.

e. Film, Video recording or TV broadcast

The information required for referencing a film, video recording or TV programme is:
 
title - year - material designation - subsidiary originator (preferably director - details of production - organisation - place.
(i) “report words from video recording within quotation marks and then cite title and date” (Yellow Moon, 1999).
(ii) In the video recording, Yellow Moon (1999), it was implied by Rosemary Rose that ...  or
….. many incentives were associated with pecuniary rewards (Yellow Moon [video recording], 1999).
(iii) Yellow moon (1999). [Video recording], directed by Amber Ruby, Warner Brothers, USA.

f. Electronic discussion list

The information required for referencing an e-mail discussion list:
 
author - year - subject of message - discussion list [on line] - available from (list of e-mail addresses) - [accessed month and date].
(i) and (ii) as for books
(iii)    Orange, V. (2003). Re: Managing the workforce. Workmail-link [on-line], available from:
           [accessed on 1 August].

g. Personal electronic communication

The information required for referencing a personal electronic communication is:
 
author - e-mail address of author - date, including year - title of e-mail - name and e-mail address of recipient
(i) and (ii) as for books
(iii)  Buff, R.K. (), 7 July, 2002. Re: Matters of concern, e-mail to Y. Marine 

 12. Tables, figures and diagrams

All tables, figures, diagrams et al. should be referred to/discussed in the text. They should not be included and just left for the reader to interpret/evaluate. If they are taken directly, or adapted, from other people’s work (e.g. from books or journals), they should be sourced (either above or below the table etc. in brackets, as for similar citations within the body of the text) and then the source should be included in the list of references.#p#分页标题#e#

The information required for referencing a table from a book with one author, for example, is:
 
author/s and/or editors (or the organisation/association if no author is listed or the title if no author or organisation is listed) - year of publication - title (in italics) - edition, volume number and translation (if applicable) - publisher - place (city) of publication
(i) insert table and cite using (Brown, 2000, p.33) above or below table.
(ii) insert adapted table and cite using (adapted from Brown, 2000, p.33) above or below the table.
(iii) Brown, W. L. (2000). Consumer Behaviour, Wiley & Sons, New York.

 13. Quotations and plagiarism

Correct quotations

If you quote the exact words from somebody else's work are quoted, the author must be acknowledged otherwise the offence of plagiarism has been committed. Below are some acceptable examples:
 (i) A direct citation is shown by enclosing the words in quotation marks:
       “Not to do so is plagiarism” (Peach, p.42).
(ii) If only part of a sentence or phrase is employed, dots are used to show that something is missing:
       “Not ... is plagiarism.” or “... to do so ...” (Peach, p.42).
(iii) If anything is added within a quote, it must be enclosed within square brackets:
       “Not to do so [acknowledge other people's work] is plagiarism” (Peach, p.42).
(iv) Long quotes may be indented and/or italicised and/or single spaced:
“If you use the exact words from somebody else's work, you are quoting them and you must acknowledge that you have done so. Not to do so is plagiarism” (Peach, p.42).

Having completed the quote, revert to the previous method of spacing.

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