代写 TAG标签
网站地图
case study literature review Research Proposal Summary范文Reference格式 presentation report格式 PEST分析法
返回首页

Guide to Bibliographic Referencing书目参考指南

时间:2015-09-06 10:41来源:未知 作者:代写留学作业 点击:

Guide to Bibliographic Referencing 书目参考指南

Introduction & General Points  简介              2
Why Do We Need To Reference? 我们为什么需要文献?       2
Why Use The Harvard Reference System?如何使用哈弗文献系统?    2

Setting Out Citations出处                     4
Books书                  4
Parts of Books书               5
Reprints再版书                 5
Journals and Journal Articles 期刊以及期刊文章         5
Foreign Books and Journals外文书以及期刊          5
Translations翻译                6
Reports报告                 6
Patents专利                  6
Government Publications (Non-Parliamentary)政府出版书(新)   6
Government Publications (Parliamentary)政府出版书(旧)     7
Acts of Parliament徒议会              7

Statutory Instruments法定条例            7
Command Papers命令文件             7
Law Reports法律报告                 8
Conference Proceedings           8
Conference Papers             8
Theses                  8
Newspapers                9
Reference/Multi-volume Works         9
Computer Software             9
Abstracts From Online or CD-ROM       9
Full Text Articles From Online or CD-ROM     10
Personal Electronic Mail Correspondence     10
Mailing Lists and Bulletin Boards        10
Usenet Correspondence           10
World Wide Web              11

Linking Bibliographical References to the Accompanying Text     11
Making References/Quotations in the Text     11
Listing References at the End of the Text     12

Further Information                     13
 
Introduction and General Points

Why Do We Need To Reference?

When submitting a piece of research you need to provide information on all the sources (both printed and electronic) that you have used during its compilation.  Information about each individual source is known as a reference.  The collective list of references is known as a bibliography.  The bibliography appears at the end of your work.  It serves the following purposes:

1. to show the research your work is based on
2. to enable others to easily identify books or articles you have referred to
3. to ensure you give credit to the authors of the sources you have consulted
It is essential to be consistent and accurate when citing references as bibliographies are examined very carefully.  It is good practice to make a bibliographic reference for each important source at the time of its use.  This may save a time-consuming search after the fact when you may need to retrace sources in order to complete a bibliography – sometimes it can be impossible to track down an item if you don’t have vital information such as title, author, date and publisher.

 This is another reason why referencing is necessary.  Researchers (and yourself) must be able to trace sources so vital information must be provided.  In order to ensure this there are standardised forms of citing bibliographic references.


Why Use The Harvard Reference System?

 There are several styles of commonly accepted reference systems including British Standard and Harvard.  Sunderland University recommends the Harvard system.  Harvard developed in America and has become the most commonly used system – often being used as the standard style in academic texts.  It is also the most simple and user friendly system to apply.  Make sure that whichever system you choose is used consistently.  This guide will give citation information and examples applied for the Harvard system.

  The guide also offers advice on giving references and/or quotations from the sources within your work and how to list references at the end of the text.  You need to include references within your text for several reasons.  Firstly, it shows you have read the texts and if used correctly can also demonstrate your understanding of them.  Secondly, you can refer to your sources or use word for word quotations from them to support an argument or point of view you are making.  It is important to do this in the correct form especially when using word for word quotations so that you give due credit to the original author.  If you do not do this you may be accused of plagiarism.

  Listing references at the end of the text shows the reader at a glance which sources you have used directly ie referred to and quoted from in your text.  It also ensures you give all the vital information about the source so that it can be identified and traced by a reader of your work.  Listing references is not the same as a bibliography where you would include all important sources even if you have not referred directly to them ie your bibliography would include any books used for background reading or supplementary information.


General Points

• et.al. - meaning ‘and others’ is used where a work has more than three authors.  The citation will give the name of the first listed author followed by et.al.

Example:
Sheng, S. G. et.al. (2000) Doing business with China. Kogan Page.


• ibid. - meaning ‘in the same work’ should be used if more than one reference is from the same work.  It acts as a substitute for repeating the author and title of a publication.

Example:
1. Neveln, B. (2000) Linux assembly language programming. Prentice-Hall, p. 12.
2.  ibid., p. 24.
3.  ibid., p. 66.

• op. cit. - meaning ‘in the work quoted’.  This is used for a further reference to a publication previously cited when it is not the immediately preceding reference.

Example:
1. Neveln, B. (2000) Linux assembly language programming. Prentice-Hall, p. 124.
2.  Sheng, S G. et.al. (2000) Doing business with China. Kogan Page.
3.  Neveln, B. op.cit., p.175.

• Corporate Authors – if the title page indicates that the content of the work is the responsibility of a group or organisation their name should be given in place of an individual author.

• Electronic Information – it may be difficult to get information for a complete reference for electronic sources.  The minimum information acceptable should cover:  •Author (of the content, not the web designer) •Title •Date of publication (date created or last updated) •Medium/type of resource •URL/location •Date accessed.

• Newspaper Articles – when using the Harvard system, references for newspapers are made in the main text or by using footnotes.  It is essential to include the day, month and year of the newspaper.  Also include the page and column numbers if given.  (See the Newspapers example in the section below for how to set out the citation.)

• Quotations - short quotations are enclosed with quotation marks (“ ”) and included in the main text.  Longer quotations are separated from the text, placed in their own paragraph and do not need to be enclosed in quotation marks.  You should avoid long word for word quotes if you can but it is acceptable to include them if they are presented in this way.

• Page Numbers – if you are referring to a particular page/pages of a book you should include the abbreviation p. or pp. followed by the page number or numbers ie (p. 4 or pp. 4-10) at the end of your reference.

• Secondary Referencing – refers to a book, journal article etc which you have read about in another book or journal article but which has made a significant contribution to your research therefore needs referencing.  This makes the work you are reading a secondary source – the original work would be a primary source.  The reference you give a secondary source is therefore a secondary reference.

• Highlighting Styles - you will need to highlight the key part of each citation you list.  Each example given in this guide will demonstrate which part of the citation that is (it may vary according to the source).  There are three accepted ways of highlighting information – bold, underlining and italics.  You may choose any one of these styles and use it consistently ie if you underline your first two citations you must not then use italics for your third.  Please note that it is not acceptable to use all three styles at the same time.


Setting out citations (Harvard system)

Books
Citation order:
Author/Editor (surname followed by initials)(show an editor of a work by adding ed. after the name) •Year of publication (in brackets) •Full title of the work (underline, embolden or italicise the title – you may use any ONE of these techniques but whichever you choose you MUST apply it consistently)(if there is a title and subtitle separate the two with a colon (:)) •Edition number (if it is not the first edition) •Place of publication: •Publisher •If a series, title of series and volume number.

Example:
Saunders, M. (1994). Strategic purchasing and supply chain management. London: Pitman.

Parts of Books
(e.g. chapters, sections, passages, contributions to a collection)
Citation order:
Author of contribution •Year of contribution (in brackets) •Title of contribution, followed by the word In: •Author/editor of whole book •Full title of book (underline or italicise) •Edition number (if it is not the first edition) •Place of publication: •Publisher •If a series, title of series, and volume number in such series •Pagination or chapter/section number.

Example:
Imrie, R. (1994). The new partnership - the local state and the property development industry. In: Ball, R. Industrial property - policy and economic development. London: Routledge, pp. 129-151.


Reprints
Citation order:
Note that for a reprinted book give the date of the first printing of the edition you have used.  Only add the reprinting date if it is of significance.
●Author ●Year ●Reprinted year (in brackets) ●Title ●Edition number ●Place of publication ●Publisher

Example:
Darwin, C.R. (1882, reprinted 1928). Origin of the species. 6th ed. London: Dent


Journals and Articles in Journals
Citation order:
Author (surname followed by initials) •Year of publication (in brackets) •Title of article •Title of journal (underline or italicise) •Volume and part number (with the latter in brackets) •Pagination

Example:
Ventura, J. (1997). Growth and interdependence. Quarterly journal of economics. 112 (1), pp. 57-84.


Foreign Books and Journals
Citation order:
Journal - ●Author ●Date ●Title (either as given or an English translation in square brackets) ●Journal Title ●Edition ●Page Number

Example:
Thurfjell, W. (1975) [Where has our doctor gone?] Lakartidningen. 72. p. 789 (in Swedish)


Book – ●Author ●Date ●Title (either as given or an English translation in square brackets) ●Place of Publication ●Publisher

Example:
Thurfjell, W. (1975) [Where has our doctor gone?] Lakar.


Translations
Citation Order:
●Author ●Date ●Title ●‘Translated from’ give language, ●by Translator ●Place of Publication ●Publisher ●(‘Originally published in’ give year)

Example:
Alberti, L. (1974) Music through the ages. Translated from the Italian, by R. Pierce. London: Cassell. (Originally published in 1968)


Citation order:
Author (surname followed by initials) •Year of publication (in brackets) •Title of report (underline or italicise) •Publisher •Report code and number (in brackets).

Example:

Smith, H. B. (1994). Information needs of students. Oxford University Press. (0011-6552).


Patents
Citation order:
Inventor •Year •Assignee •Title (underline or italicise) •Patent Number

Example:

Faust, R. A. and Kennel, J. C. (1998). International Business Machines Corporation. Externally provided control of an IC2 bus. U.S. Pat. 6,205,504.


Government Publications (Non-Parliamentary)
Citation order:
Author (usually the name of a Government department, committee, or other official body) •Year of publication (in brackets) •Title of the work (underline or italicise) •Edition number •Publisher •If a series, title of series and volume numbers in such series (in brackets)

 
Example:
Note In order to avoid confusion, it is recommended that official publications are qualified by country, e.g. Great Britain. Department of Health.

Great Britain. Department of the Environment (1997). The countryside - environmental quality and economic and social development. Stationery Office. (Planning Policy Guidance Note 7).

Government Publications (Parliamentary)
Citation order:
Great Britain. Parliament. House of Lords/Commons •Year (in brackets) •Title (underline or italicise) •Publisher •Bill or paper number (in brackets)

Example:
Great Britain. Parliament. House of Lords. (1997). Building Societies Bill. Stationery Office. (HL Bill 105).


Acts of Parliament:
Citation order:
Name of Act •Year •Elizabeth II •Chapter number (underlined) •Publisher

Example:
Criminal Justice and Public Order Act .(1994). Elizabeth II.  Chapter 33. HMSO.


Statutory Instruments
Citation order:
Title (underline or italicise) •Statutory Instrument number

Example:

The Crime and Disorder Act 1998 (service of prosecution evidence) regulations 2000. 2000/3305.


Command Papers
Citation order:
Great Britain. •Name of Committee or Royal Commission •Year of Publication •Title (underline or italicise) •Publisher •Paper Number (in round brackets)

Example:

Great Britain. Competition Commission. (2000) Report by the Competition Commission on the proposed acquisition by NTL Incorporated of the Cable Business of Cable and Wireless Communication plc. Stationary Office. (Cmd. 4666).

Law Reports
Citation order:
Case (underline or italicise) •Date •Volume Number •Name of Report Series (in accepted abbreviation ie WLR – Weekly Law Reports) •Page Number

Example:

Monsanto v. Transport and General Workers’ Union [1987] 1 WLR 617


Conference Proceedings
Citation order:
Editor(s) •Year •Title of conference (with number in series if appropriate) •Place and date of conference •Place of publication: •Publisher.

Example:
Francis, T (ed.) (1994) Insider trading in Western Europe current status: annual seminar on international financial law (9th). Rome, May 14th-17th 1992. London: Graham & Trotman.


Conference Papers
Citation order:
A reference to a specific paper included in the proceedings of a conference should include the full details of the paper; i.e. author, title, pagination, in addition to the details of the conference, as follows:

Author of paper •Year of publication •Title of paper In: •Title of conference (underline or italicise) as detailed above •Editor(s) •Place of publication: •Publisher •Pagination for the paper

Example:
Hamada, T. (1996). Tina accounting management architecture. In: Tina ‘96 conference on the convergence of telecommunications and distributed computing technologies. Heidleberg, 3-5 September 1996. Hatton. B. (ed.) London: MacMillan, p. 193-202.


Theses
Citation order:
Author •Year of publication •Title of thesis (underline/italicise) •Degree statement •Degree-awarding body.

Example:
Bell, B. (1995). Trade union decline and the distribution of wages in the UK; evidence from kernel density estimation. Ph.D. thesis. University of Oxford.


Newspapers
Citation order:
Article title or description (ie Editorial) (underline/italicise) •Newspaper •Date (day, month, year) •Column number •Page number

Example:

Police give firms warning over extended Christmas holidays. Independent. 21 December 1999, p. 5.


Reference/Multi-Volume Works
Citation order:
Many reference works are known simply by the title (ie Encyclopedia Britannica) and no author is given.  If this is the case use the title in place of the author and show it in capitals.
Author •Title (underline or italicise) •Publisher •Number of volumes
Example:

Kazdin, A. E. (ed.) (2000). Encyclopedia of psychology. American Psychological Association. Vols 1-8.

or (if no editor’s name is present)

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PSYCHOLOGY. (2000). American Psychological Association. Vols 1-8.


Computer Software
Citation order
Author (if given) •Year of publication (if given) •Title of program (underline or italicise) •Version (in round brackets) •Form; i.e. Computer Program (in square brackets) •Availability; i.e. distributor, address, order number.

Example:
MacConcord, I. (1994). KJC. (Apple Macintosh version 1.2). [Computer Program]. Available distributor: Medina Software, Longwood, Florida. Order no.: 48842-500.


Abstracts From Online or CD-ROM Databases
Citation order
Author (if given) •Year of publication (in brackets) •Title of article •[CD-ROM] or [online] as appropriate •Title of journal/conference/newspaper/report etc. (underline or italicise) •Volume and part number (with the latter in brackets) •Pagination •Abstract entry from: give enough information for someone else to retrieve the entry from the database.

 
Example:
Rowett, G. (1999). The psychology of fandom. [CD-ROM]. British Journal of Psychology. 6 (4), p. 23-29. Abstract from: PsycINFO, abstract number 31543-43.


Full Text Journal Articles from Online or CD-ROM Databases
Citation order
Author (if given) •Year of publication (in brackets) •Title of article •[CD-ROM] or [online] as appropriate •In: •Journal details •[CD-ROM] •CD-ROM title (if different from journal title) •Version •Date

Example:

Brewer, P. C. (1997). International cultural diversity and the design of management accounting systems. [CD-ROM] In: Mid-American Journal of Business. 12 (1), pp. 69-77. PsycINFO. Version 4.0.


Personal Electronic Mail Correspondence
Citation order
Author of message •Date of message (in round brackets) •Subject of the message (underline/italicise) •E-mail to recipient’s name (in square brackets) •[Online] •Available from: recipient’s e-mail address

Example
Latchford, B. (10 May 1997). Stock market fluctuations. [e-mail to Frank Worthington]. [Online]. Available from:


Mailing Lists and Bulletin Boards
Citation order:
Author of message •Date of message (in round brackets) •Subject of message •Mailing list or Bulletin Board (underline or italicise) •[online] •Available from: e-mail address.

Example:
Peters, W.R. (11 August 1995). International finance questions. Business Libraries discussion List. [online]. Available from:


Usenet Correspondence
Citation order
Author •Date (in round brackets) •Subject (underline/italicise) •[Discussion] •[Online] •Available from: USENET Newsgroup: name of the group.

Example:
Hatton, B. (10 June 1997). Accountancy careers. [Discussion]. [Online]. Available from: USENET Newsgroup: uk.net.finance.
World Wide Web
Citation order
Author/editor •Year •Title (underline or italicise) •[online] •Place of publication and publisher (if known) •Available from: URL:•[Accessed date]


Example:
Triesman, D. (1997). AUT’s Dearing submission. [online]. Association of University Teachers. Available from:  [8 July 1997].

Linking bibliographical references to the accompanying text

Making References/Quotations in the Text

It is very important that any information taken from another author’s work is properly cited, giving credit and recognition to the original author.  This not only includes direct quotations but also summaries, paraphrased information, statements and conclusions. Short quotations are enclosed with quotation marks (“ ”) and included in the main text.  Longer quotations are separated from the text, placed in their own paragraph and do not need to be enclosed in quotation marks.  You should avoid long word for word quotes if you can but it is acceptable to include them if they are presented in this way.

If you do not present your quotations or summaries in the correct way you will be accused of plagiarism.  Plagiarism basically means taking another authors work or ideas and presenting them as your own.  This can be done by using very long quotations, by not presenting quotations in an acceptable format or by using unacceptable paraphrasing.  Paraphrasing is not changing one or two words so that the information sounds slightly different.  The aim of paraphrasing is to convey the same accurate information using your own words and phrases and to give credit to the original author.

The Harvard system requires the author’s surname and year of publication to be stated plus any other relevant document information ie page numbers to be included in brackets.  Page number(s) should be given after the date, separated from it by a comma. You should include the abbreviation p. or pp. followed by the page number or numbers ie (p. 4 or pp. 4-10) at the end of your reference.  The following is a list of examples:

• If the author’s name would be naturally included in the sentence the date follows in brackets ie In a recent paper, Ndlovu (1996, pp. 24-29) suggested that...

• If the author’s name would not normally be included in the sentence all information in given in brackets ie In a recent study (Ndlovu 1996, p.2429) it was argued that...

• For publications by two authors, both names are given ie In a recent study (Francis and Adebola 1996) it was argued that...

• For publications with more than two others supply the main author’s name only followed by the abbreviation et al (meaning ‘and others’) ie Ndlovu et al. (1996)

• For anonymous publications or articles where no author is given (ie newspapers) the abbreviation ‘Anon’ is acceptable ie In a recent study (Anon 1996) suggested that… Alternatively, in the case of a newspaper article you can also use the name of the newspaper ie The Guardian (1996) stated that….

• Two or more publications by one author in the same year are distinguished by adding lower case letters to the year ie Furlong (1995a) disagreed and in a later study Furlong (1995b) suggested that....


Listing References at the end of the Text

Listing references at the end of the text shows the reader at a glance which sources you have used directly ie referred to and quoted from in your text.  It also ensures you give all the vital information about the source so that it can be identified and traced by a reader of your work.  Listing references is not the same as a bibliography where you would include all important sources even if you have not referred directly to them ie your bibliography would include any books used for background reading or supplementary information.

Entries are listed at the end of the text in alphabetical order of author’s names.  If no author name is given the work should be listed by title.  Where more than one work by an author is cited, list them in chronological order.  If citing more than one work from the same year use a letter (1995a, 1995b etc.) ie

It was suggested by Ndlovu (1995) and Furlong (1996a) that this was true but Furlong (1996b) later retracted this statement.  This meant the theory was put on hold until Ventura (1997) conducted new research which claimed….

would create the following list:

Ndlovu, R. S. (1995) Stress in the work place. Management Review, 12 (1), pp. 1-24.
Furlong, J. (1996a) Psychology in management. American Psychological Review, 14, pp. 24-29.

Furlong, J. (1996b) Changing dimensions of corporate management. Prentice Hall.

Ventura, J. (1997). Growth and interdependence. Quarterly journal of management. 112 (1), pp. 57-84.


Further Information

Further information about referencing can be found at:

 

• The British Standard numeric referencing style is set out in detail in British Standard 1629:1978 (available at the Hutton library).

• Li, X. and Crane, N. B. (1996) Electronic styles: an expanded guide for citing electronic information. 2nd ed. Information Today.  15.99. 1573870277.

• Hunchliffe, E. (1993) Chicago manual of style, 14th ed. University of Chicago Press.  28.50. 0226103897.


If you require further help please ask at the library enquiry desk.

In preparing this guide acknowledgement is made to:

Cite it Right – the University of Northumbria at Newcastle’s bibliographic guide.  (See above for on-line access details.)
 



推荐内容
  • 英国作业
  • 美国作业
  • 加拿大作业
  • 英国essay
  • 澳洲essay
  • 美国essay
  • 加拿大essay
  • MBA Essay
  • Essay格式范文
  • 澳洲代写assignment
  • 代写英国assignment
  • Assignment格式
  • 如何写assignment
  • case study
  • literature review
  • Research Proposal
  • Summary范文
  • Reference格式
  • presentation
  • report格式
  • PEST分析法
  • Admission Essay
  • Personal Statement
  • Motivation Letter
  • Application Letter
  • recommendation letter