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时间:2017-05-17 16:40来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
The UK food retailing sector is dominated by only a few supermarkets. Tesco, Sainsbury and Asda have been the top three for many years. However, in recent years there have been increasing pressures form the internet. The adoption of this may be seen as a combination of push and pull factors. The ability to increase turnover is an attraction, however, the practice may also be seen as one necessary to remain competitive. To consider the impact that e commerce has had in the UK food retailing Porters Five Forces can be used to consider the structure and performance of the industry prior to the occurrence of internet shopping and how it has changed the industry and also the level of attractiveness.
Existing competition 现有的竞争
The position prior to the induction of e-commerce in the food sector the environment was growing and very competitive. In 1990 the two of the top three supermarkets where the same top three as today, however the market share was very different. Sainsbury's had the dominant position, with an 11% market share in 1990 and increasing to 11.9% in 1992 (Hemple, 2002). Tesco had a market share of 9.7 and Asda had 6.% putting it behind both the C-op with an 8% market share and Safeway with 7.1%.
The situation was very competitive, with little legislation impacting on the way the companies competed apart from he regulations on opening hours and licensing hours that have since been reduced. The companies competed in similar manners, developing own brands, advertising and seeking to increase market share.
When considering that market size has increased from £59.9 billon in 1990 to £99.8 billion in 2000 (Hemple, 2002). The competition also changed, with a greater emphasis being placed on the own brand and increased levels of differentiation being sought.
The position has changed form one of many competitors to a situation that can be seen as an oligopoly. Tesco has become a dominant company with 16.2% market share by 2000, an increase of 9.7%, Sainsbury has fallen and retained second place, however, many changes have been required to hold on to this position (Hemple, 2002).
The competitive strategies used have coincided the use of EDI and the store loyalty cards. This was a tool used very effectively by Tesco, and many other stores followed suit, such as Asda and Safeway, whose cards have since been discontinued as a lack of real benefit as a result of their inability to integrate the information into the value chain to increase loyalty. Sainsbury's have acted differently, their reward card has now been transferred to an external management company; Nectar, where points are given for shopping but also expenditure on a Barclaycard and at BP petrol stations. This may be seen as a reflection of the Tesco expansion of their scheme which includes the recent inclusion n the scheme of Allied carpets.
Asda has increased its position to third with a 9.5% market share (Hemple, 2002). In terms of structure where the top three used to control only 50.6% of the market this is increasing and by December 2000 stood at 59.6% (Hemple, 2002).
The tools used to compete have been innovative advertising, such as the Tesco Chicken advertisements with Dudley Moore looking for the illusive free range chicken,  and for Sainsbury's the use of well known personalities, such as the recent series of advertisements with Jamie Oliver. Increased ranges, such as kitchen wares and more clothes, Asda introduced the George range, and Tesco also followed suit, the entrance of the supermarkets into banking has also demonstrated additional related diversification. Increased opening hours have also seen some stores open twenty four hours a day, mostly the Tesco stores.
The online shopping has been a pull factor, with the attraction of increased sales pulling the supermarkets, for those unwilling it may have been seen not to compete was a risk. The strong position of Tesco has been to strengthen its leadership position with investments of over £35 million n the first five years, followed by Sainsbury's £29 million investment (Hemple, 2002). These two companies appear to be making a success and establishing themselves. The market is currently worth £2.6 billion in e commerce sales, and this is expected to increase to £75 billion by 2008 (Hemple, 2002).
This can be seen as a good reason to enter the market, however the learning curve is steep, and companies such as Waitrose are entering the market slowing, whilst Safeway have attempted and withdrawn from he market (Hemple, 2002). Many companies are focusing on other strategies, such as the opening of more superstores by Safeway, also Morrison's are concentrating on expanding traditional operations with other forms of differentiation.
New Entrants. 新进入者
Ion any industry there is always the threat of new entrants. In recent years there have been no real new entrants, however, it is worth noting the companies such as Farm Food have sprung up. There are also new entrants into geographical areas. For example the expansion of Morrison's has been a company that was predominantly located in the North down to the midlands and south. This has been a new entrant into some areas. Another new entrant may be that of Iceland. Although in the food retail sector it was a specialist food store, the ranges that have been non frozen food based have increased ad with the advent of e-commerce the pull factors has attracted Iceland into offering fresh foods through its internet shopping service (Thomas, 2002). This brings Iceland into more direct competition and a blurring of the different sectors in the industry. This has been undertaken to allow them to compete directly, The head of Iceland's Home Shopping Dept has stated; "It is a great opportunity for us to use e-commerce to compete head-to-head with Tesco and Sainsbury's" (Thomas, 2002).
Power of the Buyers 买方能力
The power of the buyers in this market has also been low. Each individual makes up only a minute proportion of the revenue that is earned by a company. The strength is in the way that the market tends to react to common factors with consumers finding attractions and distractions similar.
The demands of the consumers, as a group, are a major driving force. For example, there has been in increased demand for the provision of organic and environmental friendly products. In the shops these may not have sold as strongly as desired due to the increased costs, it was the option that was demanded, AS the price is seen as the stumbling block, the companies have sought to lower their costs. Iceland was one of the first to respond to his and found that turning totally organic was not financially viable, and had to undertake a U turn.
Other demands have been reflected in the strategies adopted, such as Sunday and late night opening. Tesoc's own loyalty card schemes also targets money off vouchers to the types of products that the customer profile indicates they may prefer and find useful. This indicates the level of important that is attracted to the relationship with the customers as a whole. This can be seen as adding a great deal of value to the value chain. It is also believed that a part of reason behind the rise of the Tesco chain has been as a result of the better customer relationship that Tesco has developed with the customers though the loyalty card scheme. If this is the case, then although individually they may not be significant and hove a low level of power, as a group they must be seen to be very powerful and loyalty can be created in a sectors where it is thought to be very thickle.
Power of Suppliers 供应商能力
The situation of increased market share and increased buying power has also changed relationship with the suppliers. The co-op may have been seen as the ideal trading partner for many framers, although conditions were laid down it was run as a so-operative to sell goods, and as such farmers were getting a fair deal.
As the consumer demands have increased and market share has increased with the more commercialised supermarkets the pressures have been passed onto the suppliers. The suppliers are often smaller, and as supermarkets can buy an entire harvest or producion of a year, or make up a large percentage of the buyers, then the power they hold in the bargaining relationship is very strong.
This has been blamed for the lack of choice regarding varieties of fruit and the way that goods are sold. This has been controversial, and the only way the some issues have been resolved has been though the intervention of the trade association or even outright protests, as seen recently with the pig farmers protests at Asda who were not marking their economy range meat as being from France (Short, 2002).  The supermarkets have the power to dictate terms and conditions as well as price.
There has been an investigation by the government into the way that process are such that there is a higher than average profit in the UK supermarkets when compared to the countries. However, it was found that no price fixing was occurring and that the increased profit was mainly attributable to more expensive overheads and development costs in the UK.

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