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时间:2019-05-23 15:22来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
Strategic Financial Management Report: Amazon战略财务管理报告:亚马逊 Part 2: External Analysis第2部分:外部分析 PESTEL佩斯特尔 Political政治的 信息时代发展10多年后,各国政府意识到电子商务对经济发展的
Strategic Financial Management Report: Amazon战略财务管理报告:亚马逊
Part 2: External Analysis第2部分:外部分析
•信息时代发展10多年后,各国政府意识到电子商务对经济发展的重要性,出台了一系列促进电子商务发展的政策,为电子商务的发展创造了良好的外部条件,甚至在以下方面提供了支持:人才、资金、科技、税收,希望通过电子商务刺激消费,促进出口。• After the development of the information age for more than 10 years, governments are aware of the importance of e-commerce for their economic development, they have launched a series of policies to promote the development of e-commerce, creating good external conditions for development of e-commerce; and even they provide supports in terms of talent, funds, science, technology, tax, hoping to stimulate consumption through e-commerce, promoting exports as well. 
•为了减少电子商务对国内线下零售业的影响,以及通过电子商务惩罚偷税行为,各国政府还制定了一系列电子商务税法,例如,美国参议院于2013年通过了《市场公平法》,征收网络销售税。2016年,英国采取措施惩罚逃过英国增值税(VAT)销售的海外贸易商。• In order to reduce the impact of e-commerce on the domestic retail offline, as well as punish tax evasion behavior through e-commerce, governments have also developed a series of e-commerce tax law, for example, the United States Senate passed the Marketplace Fairness Act in 2013, levying network sales tax. In 2016, the United Kingdom took measures to penalize overseas traders who had escaped the sale of value-added tax (VAT) in the UK. 
2015年美国国内生产总值约17亿美元,经济增长率1.9%;2015年英国国内生产总值17亿美元,经济增长率1.9%;2015年中国国内生产总值17亿美元,经济增长率1.9%;2015年德国国内生产总值17亿美元,经济增长率1.9%;2015年德国国内生产总值17亿美元,经济增长率1.9%。增长率为1.9%。总的来说,尽管全球经济还不是很好,但没有进一步下滑,而中国、美国、德国、英国等主要经济体都保持了较高的增长率,总体而言,未来世界经济的发展极有可能具有良好的前景。GDP of the United States in 2015 was 1.7 billion US dollars or so, the economic growth rate was 1.9%; GDP of the United Kingdom in 2015 was 1.7 billion US dollars, the economic growth rate was 1.9%; in 2015, GDP of China was 1.7 billion US dollars, the economic growth rate was 1.9% ; GDP of Germany in 2015 was 1.7 billion US dollars, the economic growth rate was 1.9%. In general, despite the global economy is still not very good, but there is no further decline, while China, the United States, Germany, Britain and other major economies have maintained a high rate of increase, on the whole, the world's economic development in the future is very likely to have a good prospect. 
With the increase in freight and labor costs, for e-commerce companies such as Amazon which has millions of distribution staff, the cost of doing business is increasing. 
• At present, there are more than 7 billion people in the world, of which the Internet population is about 3.6 billion, population of purchasing online is about 1.2 billion, consumer spending habits have gradually shifted from an online to an offline way, users’ shopping habits promote the rapid development of e-commerce. 
• Online shopping is involved in fake products, poor after-sales service, payment security and other issues, which makes some consumers have doubts about online shopping, while online shoppers are required to provide credit cards, addresses, phone numbers and other information, which has also increased the risk of personal privacy disclosure. 
• With the rapid development of large data age, the function of cloud computing services has been significantly improved, which can significantly reduce the corporate costs and personal in preservation, management and use of information and data to facilitate marketing, promotion, cross-border payments and other business operations of e-commerce companies, which has played a catalytic role in the development of e-commerce. 
• Mobile technology continues to update, the use of 3G, 4G technology, optimization of WiFi environment, the popularity of smart terminals makes mobile-side penetration increased in the scale of shopping transactions year by year, mobile shopping has continued to increase. 
• Governments have attached importance to the development of e-commerce and developed a series of laws and regulations to promote the healthy development of e-commerce, for instance, the United States promulgated the Mail, Telephone Orders Act and Fair Credit Checkout Act to protect online shoppers’ rights.
• In 2013, the US Federal Aviation Administration revoked the ban on the commercial use of unmanned aerial vehicle systems, it is considering the rational use of unmanned aerial vehicle within a low-altitude range, which makes transport of books and food and other commodities through unmanned aircraft become possible, facilitating the development of e-commerce.
• In 2014, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce (SAIC) in China promulgated the Administrative Measures on Internet Transactions to regulate online commodity trading and related services to protect the legitimate rights and interests of consumers and operators and to promote the sustained and healthy development of the network economy. 
• In 2015, EU Committee adopted two pieces of e-commerce legal advice on the provision of digital content and the sale of goods online. The two proposals aimed at eliminating major barriers to cross-border e-commerce within the Union, such as inconsistency in contract law among member states, and addressing high operating costs and lack of trust in cross-border consumers’ spending. 
Porters Five Forces-SBU: LCC-Europe
Threat of Entry 
• E-commerce industry relies on the Internet, logistics systems, supply chain establishment and maintenance of the database need a strong IT support, so there is a higher threshold in the industry. However, now there are many communities and portals have begun to get involved in e-commerce, with a strong user base to carry out e-commerce. Amazon should also pay an appropriate attention to this aspect. 
Threat of Substitutes 
• E-commerce alternatives are traditional sales industry. Traditional stores bring people the fun of shopping, so Amazon makes efforts to enhance user experience, enhance the interaction with users to bring different consumers a different experience, such as what "My Amazon" provides. 
Supplier Power 
• With the rapid development of e-commerce, suppliers will more and more cooperate with online shopping mall to expand sales. Consumers have higher requirements for the quality of goods and after-sales service, making Amazon also have a high requirement for source of supply quality. Amazon is an international company, its suppliers are relatively stable, and it can buy goods around the world. Apple and other world-renowned companies select Amazon as the designated online retailer, which further shows that the bargaining power of Amazon's suppliers will not be too strong. 
Buyer Power 
• With the development of e-commerce, consumers have more alternative purchase ways and shopping sites, because of this, the price war in e-commerce market is so intense. At present, many people still choose to go shopping in traditional stores. It is necessary to increase market share with lower prices and improved service quality to attract more consumers. 
Competition with competitors 
Amazon has many competitors, such as Wal-Mart e-mall, Taobao, eBay, Tmall and Barnesandnoble, etc., the competition is very intense. 
Market Analysis 
Industry Market Prediction
1. The global total sales volume of B2C in 2015 was US $ 1.7 trillion, up by 17.7%. E-commerce showed a rapid development trend and the development potential of e-commerce was huge. It is estimated that in 2020, the revenue of global B2C will reach 3.4 trillion US dollars. 
•Because of the deepening of global economic trends, trade barriers decline. 
2. A report from global consulting firm Accenture and AliResearch, Alibaba Group’s research arm forecasts that in 2020, the global B2C cross-border e-commerce market will increase to $1 trillion from $230 billion in 2014.  
• With the further development of economic globalization, cross-border b2c transactions will become the main form of future world trade.
SBU Market Prediction Europe
1. A new study by Ecommerce Europe shows that in recent years, E-commerce in Europe has risen sharply, and revenue in 2016 has increased by 12% to € 510 billion. By 2020, although the increase will slow down, the compound growth rate can still be maintained at around 10%. 
2. Comparison results of Europe's top 10 major E-commerce markets show that the British, French and German e-commerce ranked the top three in the European market. In addition to the top three, revenue of other European e-commerce market is much lower. 

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