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留学生论文SERVQUAL Model - Summary and Evaluation SERVQUAL模型-总结和评

时间:2017-07-03 13:22来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
本文是留学生论文范文,主要内容是针对客户满意度的相关SERVQUAL模型进行总结及评价的具体写作范文。
服务质量和顾客满意度提供完成最近的考虑。此外,有着越来越多的关注,客户的满意是建立品牌形象的有价值的资产,这是一个非常明显的趋势,所以,对于服务业而言品牌形象是非常重要的,这种元素是影响客户的看法,因此这是他们对公司的忠诚度临界。
西蒙斯指出,品牌形象是服务业的重要作用,由于其强大的品牌形象,说服客户有接受和信任。基于Bloemer等人的研究发现。还指出,服务质量对消费者的感知有直接关系,而这反过来又有助于产品或公司的品牌形象。服务质量直接关系到客户的满意度和忠诚度,从而对品牌形象,影响顾客感知价值(公司的服务质量感知价值,顾客满意,顾客忠诚度,品牌形象)。
首先,在文献综述将有一个简短的解释属于SERVQUAL模型的原理;通过本研究的因变量和自变量进行了详细的探讨,随后从以前的研究得到发现。最后,这篇文献综述将以一个结论结束。
 
1.1 Introduction
Service quality has taken into consideration in providing and accomplishing customers' satisfaction recently (Hishamuddin Fitri Abu Hasan, Azleen Ilias, Rahida Abd Rahman & Mohd Zulkeflee Abd Razak, 2008). Besides, there is a very obvious trend towards a growing concern that customers' satisfaction is one of the valuable assets in building up a brand image (Srivastava et al., 2001), so brand image is very crucial in service industry, by which this element is critical in influencing customers' perceptions and thus their loyalty to a company.
 
Simoes and Dibb (2001) stated that brand image plays an important role in service industry due to the strong brand image persuades customers with a sense of acceptance and trustfulness. Research finding based on Bloemer et al. (1997) and Jones et al. (2002) also pointed out that there is a direct relationship between service quality towards customers' perceptions, which in turn contributes to the brand image of a product or company. Based on the findings from Parasuraman et al. (1994) and Zeithaml et al. (1996), service quality is directly related to customer satisfaction and loyalty and thus on brand image, by affecting customers' perceived value (service quality → perceived value → customers' satisfaction → customers' loyalty → brand image of a company).
 
At first, there will have a brief explanation pertaining to the principle of the SERVQUAL model in this literature review; by which the dependent variable and independent variables of this research will be discussed in detail, followed by the findings from the previous research and studies. Lastly, this literature review will be ended up with a conclusion.
 
1.2 Theory of SERVQUAL Model
Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1985) developed service quality model which is named as SERVQUAL model or PZB model. They had conducted focus group interview in order to develop the first version of SERVQUAL model. They had created ten dimensions of the service quality by determining the similar criteria in the evaluation of customer. The ten dimensions of service quality included tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, competence, access, courtesy, communication, credibility, security and understanding. In this research, Parasuraman et al. (1985) stated that the overlapping among these ten dimensions of service quality maybe occurred and suggested that further research should be conducted. Therefore, SERVQUAL model was further developed and emerging the modified version of SERVQUAL model.
 
In 1988, Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry had conducted an empirical study to measure the service quality towards the customers' perceptions by using the ten dimensions as a basic structure. The results indicated that some variables in these ten dimensions were overlapped with each other. In the ten elements of service quality, tangibility, reliability and responsiveness remain constant while the remaining seven determinants were categorized into the last two dimensions which are assurance and empathy (Parasuraman et al., 1988). As a result, there are five service quality dimensions in the modified version of SERVQUAL model that affect customers' satisfaction and thus brand image:
 
Tangibility is related to the physical environment, facilities and the employees' appearance.
Reliability is the ability to carry out the services consistently and accurately.
Responsiveness is the willingness of the employees in helping the customer to solve the problem.
Assurance is the adequate knowledge that the employees possess and the ability of the employees in entrusting the confidence.
Empathy is associated with the organization provide the caring and individualized attention to their customers.
Buttle (1996) mentioned that SERVQUAL model is been used widely in measuring customers' perceptions towards various types of services. Due to this reason, we are likely to choose SERVQUAL model to measure customers' perceptions on brand image in our study.
1.3 Dependent variable
1.3.1 Brand image
Service quality has significant effect on customers' perceptual toward brand image, due to the statistics shown that strong brand image is needed to distinguish from competitors' brands or products (Boltan and Drew 1991). At the same year of 1991, Schiffman and Kanuk also stated that customer will perceive brand that match and suit their images. As a result, service quality added value to customers by helping them differentiates the brand from competing brands. This means that customers' perception of service quality is be associated brand image and customers are more likely to purchase the brand that provides the superior service quality.
 
Keller (1993) supported the previous findings and stated that brand image is the customers' perception that held in customer memory. Strong brand image is set in customer's mind through their consumption experiences and their perceptions towards service quality provided by the product or company. In the year of 1996, Agarwal and Rao continued the study and mentioned that brand image is based on superior and favorable brand rooted in consumer's memory. In 2003, Keller repeated the theory and reinforced that brand image refers to strong, positive and favorable brand association in memory which result in a positive effect, attitude and overall perceived quality.
 
Holbrook and Batra (1987) stated that the perceive quality affect the brand loyalty and thus also influence the images of a brand. Meanwhile, service quality is clearly defined as the customer's judgment about a brand's excellence or superiority (Zeithaml, 1988; Aaker and Jacobson, 1994). Dobni and Zinkhan, (1990) assumed that brand image is refer to the reasoned and emotional perceptions consumers attach to specific brands. Zeithaml (1988) suggest that brand image is built through consumers' consumption experiences with the excellence or favorable of service being provided. Therefore, the service quality perception is core dimension that help to create a high value of a strong brand image in which directly influences consumers' purchase evaluation. According to Alba and Hutchinson (1987) and Walker et al. (1987), although brand image, brand attitude and service quality act independently, however, under some conditions, three of dimensions are interrelated with each other.
 
Keller (1998) supported the brand image is multidimensional, by which it includes the attitude and behavior according to the brand and the perceived service quality. The process in order to develop a trusted brand image is based on the customer's experiences towards the brand through both direct and indirect interaction with the brand (Keller, 1993 and Krishnan, 1996). Direct contact with brand involves usage; trial and satisfaction in consumption while indirect contact with brand involves advertising, word-of-mouth and brand reputation. In 1996, another researcher Meldan also mentioned the introduction of innovative products and services quality is to improve the positive perception of brand image. She supported the theories which were held by Park, Jaworski, & Macinnis in 1996 and Fatt in 1997, by which they stated the service quality is very important in influence the image of a brand through the level of customer's familiarity, experience and trust of a brand. Based on these theories, Aydin and Ozer (2005) concluded there is reciprocal relationship between both customers' perceptions and brand image.
 
There are five dimensions of brand image being identified by Aaker (1991) which included perceived service quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand asset and customer base. However, perceived of service quality have the most significant impact toward brand image among those five dimensions. Keller (1993) indicated that the service quality may improve brand image by enhancing customers' loyalty and thus increasing the probability of brand choice as well as reducing the competitive marketing. Service quality can affect the brand image of particular products or companies directly and indirectly (Kirmani and Zeithml, 1993). The study held by Kirmani and Zeithml in 1993 shown that the dimensions of service quality - tangibility, reliability and empathy are basic clues for in constructing a strong brand image (Bailey and Ball 2006).
 
1.4 Independent variables
1.4.1 Tangibility
Tangibility is one of the dimensions in the SERVQUAL model. It can be defined as the physical evidence in the service industry (Parasuraman et al., 1988). It is the physical facilities and equipment, employees' appearance, physical representations of services and the physical environment. Wakefield and Blodgett (1999) also mentioned that physical environment will significantly influence the customers' perceptions towards brand image. Same theory goes to the size or the number of facilities and equipment provided by a company in judging customers' perceptions (Umbach, 2002). One of the examples to support the dimension of tangibility can be seen in servicescape, by which it is the physical places where services are delivered (Chua, Mohhiddin Othman, Boo, Muhammad Shahrim Abdul Karim, and Sridar Ramachandran, 2009).


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