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Summary怎么写?Summary格式范文3例

论文价格: 免费 时间:2020-02-24 13:01:25 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

Summary在本科生和研究生的写作作业中非常普遍,在许多课程中,教授和指导老师会要求我们在完成一些文章阅读后进行文章总结。通过Summary(总结),教授能够了解到我们是否有认真阅读并真正理解了文章内容。

Summary的准备工作:
1.仔细阅读文章,理解文意
2.列出文章大纲和主要内容。
3.不看文章,拟写Summary的草稿。
4.撰写时注意要使用paraphrase(用自己的话来表达),不能照抄原文。仅在引用原文不可替换和必要时我们才能引用原文, 并且要注意引用时在原文短语两边加上“引号”。
5.Summary草稿的长度大约是我们计划或要求长度的四分之一。

Summary的注意事项:
1. 文章一开始交代文章类型,标题,作者和要点,用一般现在时写作。
示例:In the feature article "Four Kinds of Reading," the author, Donald Hall, explains his opinion about different types of reading.
2.将写好的大纲和原文比对,确保覆盖了所有重点。
3.切勿将自己的任何想法,观点或解释写入Summary。谨慎选择适当的单词。
4.使用“ Summarizing Language”。通过在文章多出运用诸如 “the article claims”, “the author suggests”等短语提醒读者,这是一个Summary。(下文有详细介绍)
4.在Summary的头部写下完整的bibliographic citation(著录信息)。 完整的bibliographic citation至少要包含作品名称,作者和出处。 使用APA格式。

summary

以下我们来看具体操作以及2个模板和3个范文:

1. 找出文章主旨 Identify the Main Idea or Topic
The aim of an article is to convey a certain idea or topic through the use of exposition and logic.
In a summary, you want to identify the main idea of the article and put this information into your own words. To do this, you must be willing to read the article several times. On the first reading, try to gain a general notion of what the article is trying to say. Once you've done this write down your initial impression. This is most likely the thesis, or main idea, of the article. Also, be sure to include the author's first and last name and the title of the article in your notation for later reference.
Example: In the article "Why Two Best Friends Doesn't Work," author Cassandra Grimes argues that most teenage girls can't get along in groups of more than two.
When trying to identify the central idea, you should ask yourself, "Why was this essay written and published?" Clues to help determine this include the following.

How to Identify the Main Idea of an Article

  1. Gather information from the title.
  2. Identify the place it was published, as this can help you determine the intended audience.
  3. Determine the date of publication.
  4. Determine the type of essay. (Is it expository, argumentative, literary, scholarly?)
  5. Take note of the tone of the piece.
  6. Identify certain notions or arguments that seem to be repeated throughout.
Applying these methods of identification, let's take a look at the article "Bypass Cure" by James Johnson. We can assume the subject of the article from the title. Upon further examination, it becomes clear that the author is arguing that new research suggests the best cure for diabetes is the surgical solution of a gastric bypass.
Example: "Bypass Cure" by James Johnson records a recent discovery by researchers that people who have bypass surgery for weight control are also instantly cured of diabetes. Since rising diabetic rates and obesity has become a worldwide concern, the article provides a startling but controversial potential solution.
Now that we have identified the main idea of the article, we can move onto the next step.
 
2. 找出主要论点 Identify Important Arguments
At this point in the preparation process, you should read the article again. This time, read more carefully. Look specifically for the supporting arguments. Some tips on how to identify the important arguments of an article are listed below.

How to Identify Important Arguments in an Article
  1. Read on a paper copy or use a computer program that lets you make annotations.
  2. Underline the topic sentence of each paragraph. (If no one sentence tells the main concept, then write a summary of the main point in the margin.)
  3. Write that sentence in your own words on the side of the page or on another piece of paper.
  4. When you finish the article, read all the topic sentences you marked or wrote down.
  5. In your own words, rewrite those main ideas.
  6. Use complete sentences with good transition words.
  7. Be sure you don't use the same words, phrases, or sentence structure as the original.
  8. You may find you need to leave out some of the unimportant details.
  9. Your summary should be as short and concise as possible.
In short, you want to boil the article down to its main, supporting arguments. Let everything else fall away, and what you are left with is an argument or an opinion, and the arguments that support it.

3. 进行写作 Write Your Summary
Your summary should start with the author’s name and the title of the work. Here are several ways to do this correctly:

Introduction Sentence Examples for an Article Summary
In "Cats Don't Dance," John Wood explains ...
John Wood, in "Cats Don't Dance," explains ...
According to John Wood in "Cats Don't Dance" ...
As John Wood vividly elucidates in his ironic story "Cats Don't Dance" ...
John Wood claims in his ironic story "Cats Don't Dance" that ...
Combine the thesis of the article with the title and author into your first sentence of the summary. Reference the following sentence as an example.
In "Cats Don't Dance," John Wood explains that in spite of the fact that cats are popular pets who seem to like us, felines are not really good at any activities that require cooperation with someone else, whether that is dancing or sharing.
If possible, your first sentence should summarize the article. The rest of your summary should cover some of the central concepts used to support the thesis. Be sure to restate these ideas in your own words, and to make your summary as short and concise as possible. Condense sentences and leave out unimportant details and examples. Stick to the important points.

如何引用 How to Quote the Author of an Article
When you refer to the author for the first time, you always use their full name. When you refer to the author after that, you always use their last name. The following examples show how to use the author's name in an article summary after you have already introduced them.
Johnson comments ...
According to Wood's perspective ...
As Jones implies in the story about ...
Toller criticizes...
In conclusion, Kessler elaborates about ...
You don't need to use an author's title (Dr., Professor, or Mr. and Mrs.), but it does help to add their credentials to show they are an authoritative source. The sentences below show ways to do this.
In "Global Warming isn't Real," Steven Collins, a professor at the University of Michigan, claims that ...
New York Times critic Johann Bachman argues in "Global Warming is the Next Best Thing for the Earth" that ...
If you are discussing the ideas of the author, you always need to make it clear that you are reciting their ideas, not your own.

How to Introduce the Ideas of the Author in an Article Summary
  • Use author tags
  • Use mentions of "the article" or "the text"
  • Add the page number that the information is found on in parenthesis at the end of the sentence
引用选词 Using Author Tags
In writing your summary, you need to clearly state the name of the author and the name of the article, essay, book, or other source. The sentence below is a great example of how to do this.
According to Mary Johnson in her essay, "Cats Make Good Pets," the feline domestic companion is far superior to the canine one.
You also need to continue to make it clear to the reader when you are talking about the author's ideas. To do this, use "author tags," which are either the last name of the author or a pronoun (he or she) to show you are still discussing that person's ideas.
Also, try to make use of different verbs and adverbs. Your choice of author tag verbs and adverbs can contribute to the way you analyze the article. Certain words will create a specific tone. See the tables for a selection of different word choices.

如何选动词#p#分页标题#e#List of Author Tags
Says Explains Comments
Persuades Suggests Understands
Argues Reminds Helps us understand
Elucidates Presents Intimates
Concludes Presents the idea Creates the impression
Criticizes Defines Highlights
Concedes Shows States
Thinks Admits Lists
Notes Analyzes Disagrees
Observes Points out Emphasizes
Discusses Identifies Implies
Insists Responds Shows
Proves Rejects Suggests

如何选副词Adverbs to Use With Author Tags
Conclusively Expressively Realistically
Tightly Angrily Radically
Clearly Dutifuly Evenly
Occasionally Quickly Ironically
Honestly Eagerly Elegantly
Sharply Rarely Loosely
Exactly Happily Hastily
Perfectly Sternly Unexpectedly
Sometimes Never Justly
Devotedly Finally Warily
Wearily Completely Fully
Doggedly Iconically Sarcastically
Seriously Carefully Politely

示例 Example Summary Paragraph
The following paragraph is an example of a one-paragraph summary of an article.
In "My Favorite Shoe," Treyvon Jones explains that Nike shoes are the best brand of running shoe for serious track athletes. Jones supports this view by pointing out that Nike shoes are more comfortable, last longer, and provide more cushioning for the feet. He notes that the statistics from sales and scientific evidence of how Nike shoes are better for the feet support his claim. In addition, Jones points out that most professional runners use Nike and he tells his own story of how he won the 100-meter men's competition after switching to Nike shoes.
Below is a template showing the components of a great summary.

大纲Summary Template
Part of Summary Contents
Introduction Sentence In "My Favorite Shoe," Treyvon Jones explains (insert main idea).
Supporting Arguments Jones supports this view by pointing out (insert author's supporting arguments).
Final Point In addition, (insert author's overarching argument and point).

修改和调整 Edit and Revise Your Summary
Before you are officially done, it is important to edit your work. The steps below explain the process of editing and revision.
  1. Re-read the summary and edit out any obvious mistakes.
  2. Read your summary aloud. If anything sounds off, fix it.
  3. Let one of your peers read your summary. Make changes according to their feedback.
With that, your summary should be complete.
 
summary

Template 1:

Grade X ELA-Style Resource 1.8- Academic Summary Template
ACADEMIC SUMMARY TEMPLATE
In the ____________________________(“A” Text Type), ____________________________________,  (title of text) _________________________________ _________________________________ the topic of (Full name of author) (“B” Academic Verb) _______________________________________________. (topic/issue of text) S/he _________________________ (“C” Academic Verb + “that”) _____________________________________________________________________________. (Author’s main argument/belief on the topic/issue) Continue the summary by including the author’s main points or the main events/ideas that support the issue written above.
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Ultimately, what ________________(author) is trying to convey (through) his/her _________________(text type) is _____________________________________________.(main point)
A Types of Texts essay editorial article research paper narrative report letter speech short story vignette memoir poem novel movie drama/play
B Precise Verbs addresses debates discusses disputes examines opposes explores contests considers questions analyzes scrutinizes criticizes comments on elaborates on focuses on reflects on argues for argues against
C Precise “Verbs + that” asserts argues posits maintains claims notes proposes declares concedes states believes suggests implies infers intimates
Connectors in addition furthermore moreover another besides…also further additionally beyond….also ….as well
 
Template 2:
EXAMPLE---Chapter Summary Write Up Template---EXAMPLE
Book name:  (1point)___The Song of Fire and Ice
Chapter:  (1 point)___Samwell
Find a picture from the Internet that is similar to the location that your chapter is talking about.  (3 points) 
Summary: 4-6 sentences explaining the progress of the story.  (5 points)                        In this chapter we follow Samwell into the woods on a cold night.  Sam and his friends are running from the “Others”.  However, Sam is too tired and can’t walk any more.  An “Other” comes out of the cold forest and is going towards sam, when sam gets up to fight he closed his eyes and somehow stabbed the “Other” with a black dagger made of something called “Dragonglass”   #p#分页标题#e#
 
Foreshadowing: 2-3 sentences of what you might think will happen in the next chapter.  (4 points)                                                                                                                           The “others” are hard to kill, so I think sam will try and get more of the “Dragonglass”.  I also hope that he will stop being afraid now because he has killed an “Other”.
 
New vocabulary: 2 “new to you words”- copy the sentence where it is found and tell the page number and tell the meaning of the word in the sentence.  (4 points)                   
Word #1 Sam took the obsidian dagger that John had given him and ran towards the Other.   Obsidian- a black rock that can be as sharp as broken glass
Word #2 Sam’s arm flailed in every direction as he was being raised by the Other as if the Other was picking up a feather. 
 
范文1 Sample 1:
Billy Jones (bjones@cs.washington.edu), CSE 403, Winter 2048 (Instructor: Smith)
Reading Summary #1
In "Rules about Copying and Sharing Java Code," author Josh Smith believes that code copied from others should be cited as such, otherwise it is plagiarism. Another important idea that Smith discusses is that most discussions of plagiarism are with respect to "works in written and spoken language", and hence he wants to discuss how to cite the work of others within computer programs. He supports this latter idea by specifying that "due credit" is given to others by specifying the original author, the source where the code was obtained, and any alterations that the current author is making to the original code. The author provides examples citations whose source is from a textbook, an instructor, the Internet, from multiple sources, and from code that is "common knowledge" in order to show how one can always clearly identify the author of each code unit in a variety of situations. Another important point made by Smith is that code should never be transferred between students electronically, because this would imply unsuitable sharing of work and plagiarism. Smith's target audience is computer science students, as it is likely that either they are unaware of plagiarism in general, or they are aware of plagiarism in other fields but have not considered how it applies specifically when writing code. This material relates to the current course material because it comes after the design process and during the implementation process, when the most code is being written and would be most available for potential copying. Smith's guidelines for copying and reusing code are accurate and useful; however, he forgets that sometimes a great deal can be learned by examining code written by others. It would have been nice if he had left some provision where it was okay to do this under the right circumstances.
 
范文2 Sample 2:
Winterer, Caroline. The Culture of Classicism: Ancient Greece and Rome in American Intellectual Life, 1780-1910. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.
This book looks at the history of classicism in America during the period — mostly the formal study of the classics, but also the wider cultural uses of classical languages and tropes.  
During the period in question Winterer traces a shift from a privileging of Rome to a preference for Greece, and from classical education as a prerequisite for a public or political career to classical education as a means of private self-improvement and a marker of elite status.  Classical studies became increasingly marginalized in the university, but classicists found a way to preserve the viability of their discipline as the beginning of a broader study of “civilizations” and as a cornerstone of “the humanities,” set over against modernist scientism.
In her introduction, Winterer lays out the book’s main “argument,” and then proceeds to describe the book’s narrative arc.  This puzzled me at first — that the book’s “argument” doesn’t consist of a central claim with supporting points, but an unfolding chronology.  How can story be an argument?  However, this seems to me to be an illustration of Mink’s distinction between the “detachable” conclusions of science and the “ingredient” conclusions of history:  “The significant conclusions, one might say, are ingredient in the argument itself, not merely in the sense that they are scattered through the text but in the sense that they are represented by the narrative order itself.  As ingredient conclusions they are exhibited rather than demonstrated” (Mink 39).
In the course of her narrative, Winterer exhibits the importance and then the relative obsolescence of the classics in American life.  They were central to formal education because the aim of the first American universities was to train learned ministers.  Further, the study of the classical languages themselves — grammar and pronunciation — was viewed as an important part of character formation, and a source of virtue.  The shift from “words to worlds,” from philology to literature, began in earnest during the Jacksonian era, when the usefulness of arcane languages was called into question.  As the university became a more open and inclusive institution — more middle and working-class students, more women, more blacks — classical studies became a marker of the intellectual elite.  Women gained access to the classical language in significant numbers just as classicism was waning as a way of thinking about society.
 
范文3 Sample 3:
Winterer, Caroline. The Mirror of Antiquity: American Women and the Classical Tradition, 1750-1900. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007.
In this follow-up to her earlier study, Winterer focuses on the place of classicism in the lives of American women.  The unity or contiguity of this narrative depends, I think, on familiarity with the earlier work.  Without having read Winterer’s first book, I might have found this volume arbitrary and insular.
Winterer begins by describing the place of classicism in the lives of well-educated (for their time) upper-class women of the pre-Revolutionary era.  Classical motifs and a smattering of classical knowledge — not of original languages but of history and literature — were a way to ornament one’s conversation or one’s home, a way to participate at a superficial level in a social discourse with men.
During the Revolutionary era, women appealed to the ideal of the Roman matron to characterize themselves as guardians of republican virtue who played a key role in shaping the character of America’s youth — specifically, America’s sons — and thus the future of the country.
In her chapter on the early Republic, Winterer traces the way women appropriated or understood three key motifs or myths:  the women of Sparta, Roman charity/the Grecian daughter, and the contrast between Minerva and Venus.  I had never heard of Roman charity; now I am scarred for life.  However, the myth, and its ready adoption by women (or by men talking about women?) says a lot about what women were expected to do and to be:  completely self-abnegating in the service of patriarchy.
Winterer’s chapter on Grecian luxury discusses the importation of “classical,” and specifically Grecian/”oriental” motifs into fashion and decorating.  Grecian dresses (white, flowing fabric, no corset, empire waist) were meant to make women look columnar; klismos chairs and sofas were meant to accentuate women’s life of leisure and repose.  The whole section on the sofa as a symbol of status and decadence is amazing, simply for historicizing what is surely by now a ubiquitous and completely unremarkable object.
At the same time that classical knowledge was being criticized as being irrelevant and elite, classicism was going mainstream for women (and the democracy in general) with the rise of museums and cultural venues that put access to the classical past within the reach of more people.  In “female academies,” women’s seminaries, and colleges, more and more women began to learn classical languages.  Winterer does not say if this increased access of women to the classics “caused” their decline in prestige or was a consequence of it.*  But she does point out repeatedly throughout the book the irony that women gained full participation in the tradition of classical learning when classical learning was no longer central to American public and political life. In her chapter on the Greek slave, Winterer discusses how classicism informed polemics about the place of women in society, and the nobility (or lack thereof) of female slaves seeking freedom.  In the last chapter, on Antigone, Winterer talks about how the play offered a vehicle to portray female heroism, but a heroism that was linked to gender essentialism in the 19th century.#p#分页标题#e#

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